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VOL. I. 
(JANUARY, 1903, TO DECEMBER, 1904. 






Two bronze Mortars ! facing page 4 

Royal Arms in Blackgate Museum, and carved oak head 

from Chibburn ; 30 

Fragment of the Roman Wall at Wallsend 44 

Wallsend in 1850, and in 1903 46 

Two Roman Altars (to Neptune and Ocean) from the 

Tyne at Newcastle ,, 50 

The ditch of the Roman Wall on Limestone bank, cut 

through basalt, and large block of basalt with late 

Dr. Bruce standing near ,, 54 

Mitford : Remains of Manor House and of Castle ,, ,, 55 

Warkworth Tithe Barn 63 

Roman Vase from Piercebridge, and pre-historic Arrow- 
heads found at Newton Ketton, co. Durham ,, ,,64 

' The Castles,' Hamsterley, co. Durham facing pages 64, 66, 68 

Roman Inscription, naming three Vexillations, from the 

Tyne at Newcastle, and gold and silver coins of 

Hadrian with Neptune reverses facing page 72 

Ulgham Village Cross and ' bounder oak ' ,, ,, 75 

Widdrington Castle, from drawings belonging to the 

Society 82 

Widdrington Church, piscinas, &c ,, ,, 81 

Chibburn from NW. and N.E 86 

Inscribed stone found in Bishopwearmouth Tithe Barn, 

and 17th century Peg Tankard ,, ,, 90 

Inscribed stone from Darlington, and leaden cistern 

head from Newcastle ,, 93 

South Shields : The ' fallen wall ' in ' forum,' and east 

rampart of Roman Camp ,, ,, 94 

Bishopwearmouth Tithe Barn ,, 96 

Mitford Church from the rectory garden ,, 99 

,, interior looking east ,, ., 100 

Mithraic Slab from ' Kastell Krotzenburg,' and Roman 

inscription at Cliff e Hall ,, ,,117 

A bronze Celt from Stanwick, Yorkshire, and a burial 

near Tower bridge, London ,, 118 

Piercebridge : north-west corner of Roman camp ,, 124 

Cross at Cliff e Hall, and doorway of Chantry Chapel, 

Piercebridge ,, , ; 130 

Newcastle : In the Close and the Blackgate ,, ,,135 

Old Union Bank, Mosley Street, and old 

houses, Pilgrim Street , ,,136 

Pilgrim Street, west side, and Forth House ,. ,, 137 

Bailey Gate looking east ,, ,,138 

,. The ' Fox and Lamb ' ,,138 

Brancepeth, Ancient British Cist and Urn found near ... ,, ,,140 
Ancient doorway in Castlegarth, Newcastle, and Roman 

altar discovered at Benwell , ; ,,142 

Newcastle, Carving knife and fork from old Mansion 

house ,, ,, 144 

Stone axe hammer found at Barras bridge, Newcastle, 

and a quern found at Bishopwearmouth ,, ,,146 

Arms of Lord Crewe, bishop of Durham, and of New- 
castle ,148 



Newcastle : Town wall in St. Andrew's Churchyard . . .facing page 157 

Plummer tower and Carpenter tower .... ,, ,, 158 

,, Plummer tower from east, and Pink tower , ; ,, 160 

Herber tower, and Town Wall, Back 

Stowell Street ._ 161 

Grant of the Manor of Tre wick, Northumberland ,, ,, 163 

Holy Island Church, interior looking east ,, ,, 174 

Ancroft Church, and Keep of Etal Castle 186 

Barmoor and Ford Castles ,, 189 

Etal Castle gateway 200 

Askerton Castle, and Lanercost Piory from S.E ,, 216 

Bewcastle Cross ,, 220 

Dacre tomb in Lanercost Priory, and gateway of 

Naworth Castle ., 234 

St. Helens Auckland Manor house and Church ,, ,, 261 

Escomb Church, interior before restoration ,, 266 

Old font, St. Hild's Church, South Shields, and Royal 

Arms from Newgate, Newcastle ,, ,, 278 

Roman Centurial stones from A esica and West Denton . ,, ,, 286 

Pedigree of Moises of Newcastle ,, 290 


Aesica, Roman centurial stones from 

near, 175 
Ancient British burial near Brancepeth, 

plan of site of, 141 ; camp, ' The 

Castles,' 65 

Ancroft church, plan of, 187 
Axe found at Bawtry, 273 

Badge, Dacre, at Naworth castle, 235 

Bamburgh castle, clock tower at, 168 ; 
church, 'lowside ' window in, 166 

Bawtry, axe found at, 273 

Bewcastle, Roman altars from, 220 ; 
church, interior of, before restoration, 
227 ; medieval grave covers at, 228 

Blyth harbour, old plan of, 260 

Brancepeth, plan of site of Ancient 
British burial near, 141 

Brandon chapel, Northumberland, plan 
of, 132 

Brass, a, from Stanwick church, York- 
shire, 88 

Carlisle, small clay ligure of Venus 

found in, 48 

Carrawburgh, see Procolitia 
' Castles, The,' near Hamsterley, plan 

of, 65 
Calherick brass, a, from Stanwick 

church, Yorkshire, 88 

Centurial stones, Roman, v, 175, 287 
Chipchase castle, plan, sections, and 

elevation, 32-34 
Chollerton churchyard, cross on stone 

found in, 156 
Cross, on stone found in Chollerton 

churchyard, 156 ; base of, on moor 

near Elsdon, 124 
Civil war "tract, reproduction of title 

page of a, 121 
Corsenside church, medieval canopied 

grave cover in, 164 

' Crusie,' in Blackgate museum, New- 
castle, 283 

Dacre badge at Naworth castle, 235 

Elsdon, gibbet and base of cross on 
moors near, 134 

Facsimiles of signatures, 28 
Flails from various countries, 285 
Ford castle, old plan of, 193 
Greek inscription on marble, an an- 
cient, 107 

Hamsterley, plan of ' The Castles ' 

near, 65 
Hartlepool, pre-conquest grave slabs 

from, 223 


Inscriptions, an ancient Greek, 107 ; 
Roman, from Bewcastle, 220 ; from 
Piercebridge, 126, 128 

Kilham hill, Northumberland, plan of 
cist on, 91 

Lamp, Roman bronze, from South 

Shields, 347 

Lanercost priory, plan of, 233 
' Lowside ' window, Bamburgh church, 


Medieval grave covers, Bewcastle 
church, 228 ; Corsenside church, 164 
Mercury, Roman bronze figure of, 124 
Mortar, stone, found at the Red Barns, 
Newcastle, 273 

Naworth castle, plan of, 236 ; Dacre 
badge at, 236 

Newcastle, plan, sections, and eleva- 
tions of ancient doorway in Castle- 
garth, 37 ; a ' crusie ' in Blackgate 
museum, 283 ; stone mortar found 
at the Red Barns, 273 ; walls, stone 
figure from, 158 

Newminster abbey, carved capital, etc., 
in chapter house, 74 

North Shields, see Shields, North 

Oak carvings from Waterville, North 
Shields, 39, 40 

Piercebridge, plan of, 127 ; Roman 
inscriptions from, 126, 128 ; Roman 
bronze figure of Mercury from, 124 ; 
small vase found at, 125 

Pre-conquest grave slabs from Hartle- 
pool, 223 

Procolitia, Roman centurial stones from 

Rede, Thomas de, seal of, 31 

Rjoman altar from Bewcastle, 220 ; 
bronze figure of Mercury found at 
Piercebridge, 124 ; small vase found 
at, 129 ; camp, Piercebridge, plan of, 
127 ; centurial stones v ; from near 
Aesica, 175 ; from Procolitia, 287 ; 
graffiti and potters' names from 
Wallsend, 46 ; inscriptions from 
Piercebridge, 126, 128 ; sculpture of 
the Deae Matres from South Shields, 
107 ; figurine of Venus found in 
Carlisle, 348 ; bronze lamp from 
South Shields, 347 

Seals of Thomas de Rede, 31 ; and of 

Thomas de Trewyk, 163 
Seventeenth century tracts, title pages 

of, 121, 271 
Shields, North, oak carvings from 

Waterville, 39, 40 
Shields, South, a sculptured stone of 

the Deae Matres from, 107 ; Roman 

bronze lamp from, 347 
Shovel, old wooden, from a Weardale 

mine, 63 

South Shields, see Shields, South 
Stanwick church, Yorkshire, an old 

brass from, 88 
Stone figure from Newcastle wall, 158 

Trewick, Thomas de, seal of, 163 

Ulgham church, early window head in, 


Venus, small clay figure of, found in 
Carlisle, 348 

Wallsend, plan of a portion of, 33 ; 

Roman potters' names, etc., from, 46 
Weardale, old wooden shovel from a 

mine in, 63 
' Winter's Stob,' etc., on moors near 

Elsdon, 124 




Thanks were returned to the following donors : 

Adamson, H. A., for drawings on pp. 39 and 40 f and for block on p. 39 

Allison, Dr. T. M., for drawings, page 285 

Brewis, Parker, for photographs of Royal Arms, facing page 30, and on 
278 ; of Roman_altars, facing 50; of tankard, facing 90 ; of stone axe, 
facing 146 ; of grant, facing 163 ; and of centurial stones, facing 286 

Bruce, the Right Hon. Sir Gainsford, for blocks of Roman fosse, Lime- 
stone bank, facing 54 

Carlisle, earl of, for drawing of Dacre badge, 235-- 

Charlton, W., for loan^of drawing, facing 174 

Clarke, Henry, for drawings of old spade, 63, of axe, 273, and of ' crusie/ 

Corder, W. S.. for plan of Wallsend, on p. 42, and photographs facing 44, 
46 and 157 ; of Pink tower facing 160, and of Bewcastle cross, facing 

Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian Society, for loan of block, 

Downey, J., & Sons, for photograph of Bishopwearmouth tithe barn, 
facing 96 

Fletcher, W. L., for photographs of Lanercost, facing 216 ; and of 
Naworth gateway, facing 234 

Gibson, John, for rubbing of Catherick brass, 88 

Gibson, J. P., for photograph of Bewcastle cross, facing 220 

Gissing, Algernon, for plan of Brandon chapel, 132 

Gregory, Rev. A. R., for photographs of Ulgham cross, &c., facing 75 

Hodgson, J, C., for photographs of Warkworth tithe barn, facing 63 

Hornby, The Right Rev. Bishop, rector of Chollerton, for loan of block, 

Irving, George, for drawings of ancient doorway, Castle- garth, New- 
castle, 37, and of mortar, 273 

Kilburn, Henry, for photograph of St. Helens Auckland church, facing 

Knowles, W. H., for drawings of Chipchase castle, 32-34 

MacLeod, Rev. R. C., for photographs of Mitford manor house, facing 
55, of Widdrington church, facing 81, of Chibburn, from N.W., 
facing 86, and of Mitford church, facing 99 and 100 

Middleton, Sir A. E., for drawing of Trewick seal, 163 

Mowat, R., for plaster casts of Roman coins, facing 72 

Nelson, Ralph, for plan of Blyth harbour, 260 

Newcastle Chronicle, proprietors of, for loan of block, 168 

Northumberland County History Committee for loan of block, 166 

Oswald, Joseph, for drawing of corbel, &c., Newminster abbey, 74, 
photographs of Ancroft church, &c., facing 186 and 189, and of 
Askerton castle, facing 216 

Peirson, H. T., for photograph facing 140, and plan 141 

Phillips, Maberly, for photograph of grave, facing 118 

Reid, A. & Co., for photograph of leaden cistern head, facing 93 

Reid, Geo. D., for photograph, facing 144 

Robinson, John, for photograph of inscribed stone, facing 90 

Rutland, earl of, for plate of Etal castle, facing 200 

St. Hild's, South Shields, vicar and churchwardens of, for loan of block 
of font, facing 278 

Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, for loan of block of Rede seal. 31 


Steavenson, A. L., for photograph of Dacre tomb, Lanercost prio r y, 

facing 234 
Stephens, D. H., for photograph of Mitford castle, facing 55 ; and of 

Whitburn tithe barn, at bottom of this page 

Stephens, Rev. Thomas, for drawing of grave cover, Corsenside, 164 
Tankerville, the earl of, for plan of cist, Kilham, 91 
Taylor. Thomas, for blocks of Widdrington castle, facing 82 ; and of 

Chibburn, facing 86 
Thompson and Lee, for photographs facing 158 and 161 ; and Plummer 

tower facing 160 

Walton. J., for photograph of quern, facing 146 
Welch, Charles, for photograph of Roman slab, facing 72 
Wooler, Edward, for photographs, of mortars, facing 4, facing 64, 66, 

68, of plan, 65 ; and block facing 68 ; for photographs of Darlington 

inscription, facing 93 ; of Roman inscription, facing 93 ; and of 

Piercebridge camp, etc., facing 124 and 130 ; and of plan, 127 g '. ; 

From a photograph by Dr. D. H. Stephens of North Shields. 


p. i, between lines 14 and 15, insert 'Presents : thanks were voted for the following.' 

p. 31, ' Rede of beryth to his crest a bushe of reedys gold bound with a corde geules.' 

' Thomas Wall's Book of Crests,' see The Ancestor, 12, p. 79. 

p. 54, line 8 from bottom, for ' secured ' read ' second-hand.' 

p. 72. See a very interesting notice (by F. Haverfield, F.S.A.,) of Julius Verus, the Roman 
governor of Britain named on the Tyne slab, in the Proceedings (xxxvm, p. 454) 
of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. 

p. 77, line 10 from bottom, dele ' on the opposite ' ; and insert ' 75 ' after ' page ' on line 9. 

p. 78, line 12, dele 'and.' 

p. 80. See also ' Notes on Ulgham ' by'J. Crawford Hodgson, Berw. Nat. Club Trans, xvi, 67. 
'Capella beati Marie de Wyderyngton.' Arch. Ael. xin, 342. Mr. MacLeod is of 
opinion that ' the churches of this district suffered much in the Scottish raid of 1177, 
hence the similar character of the work at Hartburn, Bothal, Brinkburn, Wid- 
drington, &c.' 

p. 81, plate facing, for " PISCINA' read ' PISCINAS.' 

p. 87. See also ' The English, or Sixth, Langue of the Order of the Hospital of St. John of 
Jerusalem, a brief sketch of its history, compiled by a Committee.' (Charles 
Cull & Son, Houghton Street, Strand. W.C., price I/-.) 

p. 90, Mr. T. Taylor notes that ' only one or two instances of English tankards with pegs arc 
known, and these are attributable to York and Hull.' He also says that ' no doubc 
the 4th mark ' on Mr. Thorp's tankard ' is the single castle.' Line 1 of note 9, for 
' Gra ' read ' Grace.' Mr. William Brown points out that there is a pedigree of the 
Catherick family in the Yorkshire Visitations of 1584 and 1612, ed. Jos. Foster, 
p. 255, 

p. 103, line 31 for 'WILFRID' read 'WILFRED.' 

p. 108. The small tankard exhibited by Mr. T. Taylor, was made by Eli Bilton, the New- 
castle silversmith, and bears the Newcastle year mark for 1705. 

p. 125, lines 47 and 50 : Mr. R. H. Edleston, F.S.A. of Gainford, writes that the Roman 
inscriptipns formerly at Gainford ' were sent to Durham by Mr. Headlam on his 
own initiative, without the knowledge of his churchwardens ' ; he also states that 
' the Roman altar was not part of the chancel arch, but the eastern capital of the 
south-east tower pier.' 

p. 136, line 4 for ' Pheshey ' read ' Pleshey.' 

p. 138, line 6 from bottom, for ', Duddos' read 'Duddo.' 

p, 143, line 32 for ' Pulhose ' read ' Pulhore.' 

p. 160, .Hue 39 for ' Carliol tower ' read ' Plummer or Carliol Croft tower.' 

p. 165, line 15 for ' Rev, C. Williams ' read ' Rev. E. Williams.' 

p. 180, line 22 insert 'Thompson' after 'Richard,' and lines 24 and 27 for ' William' read 

p. 181, line 33 for 'Timothy' read 'Thomas.' 

p. 184, line 38, read ' merchants.' 

p. 187, bottom line, ' That lowest of ecclesiastical foundations in England, the capella, a 
building devoted to the purposes of religion, but without any tithe, and some- 
times without the liberty of having the rights of baptism, burial, and the nuptial 
benediction performed within its walls. These arose in many of the parishes.' 
'Hints on the nature, purpose, and resources of Topography. 'Proc. Archaeo- 
logical Institute, Norwich, 1847, p. 90. 

p. 198, line 8 for ' vacan ' read ' vacant.' 

p. 217, line 40 for ' 2 acres ' read ' 20 acres ' ; line 45 for ' Mote ' read ' Mott ' ; line 49 for 
'Rjcheson' read ' Kichison ' ; and for 'Bernehurst' read <Barnehurst.' 

p. 218, line 5 for ' 21 June' read ' 20 June,' for 'baifT read ' bailiff' ; line 20 for 'made a 
' fray ' ' read ' ran a foray ' ; line ^9 for ' Graimes ' read ' Graime,' and for ' arrears 
read arrear' : line 30 for '18s.' read 18d' ; to note 6 add 134, 138, 141, 142, 253, 
254, 357, 379, 554, 558. 

p. 219, line 18 for ' Ednill ' read ' Ednell ' ; line 24 for ' demesnes ' read ' demeanes ' ; line 
43 for 'churchyard ' read 'church'; to note 7 add 558, 562, 568, 571, 575, 766, 

p. 220, line 15 for ' century' read 'century.' 

p. 226, line 1 of note, in two places for 'feet' read 'inches.' 

p. 231, line 29 for ' poormen ' read ' puermen ' ; line 33 for ' Hollers ' read ' Hollus ' ; line 
41 insert 'Lancelott' after 'Thomas' ; line 43 dele ' us' ; line 44 for 'the' read 
' this ' ; line 45 insert ' corner ' in the blank space ; line 49 for ' sergeantry ' read 
' sergeantcy ' ; to note 7 add 187, 307, 318, 568. 

p. 232, line 21 for ( ' Quinton ' read ' Quintin ' ; line 43 for ' Witton's ' read ' Welton's ' ; line 
46 for ' bowilis ' read ' bowels ' ; line 52 for ' were ' read ' are ' ; line 53 for ' hearing ' 
read ' revenge ' ; line 54 for ' this ' read ' the.' 

p. 233, line 1, for 'no' read 'not'; line 4 for 'services' read 'service,' and dele 'the'; 
line 5 for ' this ' read ' the ' ; to note 9 add 604, 605. 

p. 274, lines 33 for ' illam '-read ' ilium ' ; 36 for ' pictoris ' read ' pistoris ' ; 37 and 40, for 

Job ne read ' Joh'nis ' ; 42 for ' p'quisunt ' read ' p'quisivit ' ; 43 for ' villa ' read 

ville, and for 'Will'mo' read 'Will'mus'; 45 for 'quibus' read 'quibusdam'; 

46 for 'Maii' read 'M'cij'; 47 for 'hospitali' read ' hospitalis ' ; 50 for 'fine 1 

read finem ; 51 for ' sequi' plenie ' read ' sequen plenarie ' ; 52 for ' domini ' read 

'dommis ; 55 for 'uniqui hab'm' read 'unquam habui.' 

p. 275, line 3 for ' clamen ' read ' clametim ' ; 5 f or ' exigue ' read ' exigere ' ; 7 for ' sumis ' 
read ' sumus ' ; 10 for ' omni ' read ' omnes ' ; 12 for ' opposuit ' read ' opposui ' ; 
24 for 'painter' read 'baker.' 





VOL. I. (3 Ser.) 1903. No. 1. 

The ninetieth anniversary meeting of the society was held in the 
library of the castle, on Wednesday, the 28th January, 1903, at two 
o'clock in the afternoon, his grace the duke of Northumberland, K.G., 
F.S.A., the president, being in the chair. 

Several accounts recommended by the council for paynu" 
ordered to be paid. 

Mr. William James Gibson of Bedlington, R.S.O., Northumberland, 
was duly elected an ordinary member of the society. 

The following NEW BOOKS, etc., were placed on the table : 

From prof. Hulsebos, hon. member, the writer : Verslag aangaarde het 
Museum van Oudheden van het Provincial Utrechtsch Genootschap 
van Kunsten en W etenschappen wer 1901-1902. 8vo., pp. 8. 

From don Manuel de Berlanga of Malaga, the writer : ( 1 ) Fragmento 
decia Epistola Romana, pp. 23 ; (2) La Mas Antigua Necropolis 
de Oades, dec. de la Hispania, pp. 40 ; (3) Deacubrimiento Arque- 
ologico viripiada en el Tajo Montere, pp. 36; and (4) Estudios 
numismaticos, pp. 39 ; all large 8vo. 

From Mr. E. Wooler of Darlington, the writer : (1) The 'Scots Dyke' 
traced from Forcett camp > a stupendous pre- Roman work (reprint 
from the Northern Echo); and (2) a photograph of the late W. H. D. 
Longstaffe when a young man (from a painting of 24 Ap. 1850). 

From the Rev. E. J. Taylor, F.S.A., of Durham : an old deed on 
parchment of 13 Aug. 1655, being a bond by 'ffrancis Comyne of 
Whitby, gentleman, Mary Comyne of the Citty of Durham, 
spinster, and John Newton of the Towne & County off New- 
castle vpon Tyne, gentleman', to ' John Martin of the Citty of 
Durham, gentleman', in the sum of 20Z. the condition being that 
if the said F. Comyne, Mary Comyne, and John Newton perform 
the covenants in a deed poll of even date, the same should be void. 
The heraldic seal, in red wax, of John Newton, attached, other 
seals gone ; attested by James Cholmeley, Cholmeley Wright, 
Tho. Tonstall, James Carr, Isaack Gilpin, and George Burne, 


From the British Archaeological Association : Journal, N.s. vm. iii., 
Oct. 1902 [contains 'Notes on Flemish brasses' by Andrew 
Oliver, including that of 1411 (p. 196) of Roger Thornton in 
All Saints church, Newcastle ; also a paper on Lindisfarne priory, 
by the Rev. H. J. Dukinfield Astley 1 ] ; 8vo. 

From the Numismatic Society of London: The Numismatic Chronicle, 
4 ser., No. 8, 1902, pt. iv., 8vo. 

From the Clifton Antiquarian Club : Proceedings, pt. xiv., vol. v., 
pt. ii., large 8vo. 

From the Cambridge Antiquarian Society : Proceedings, 4 July, 
1901 to 4 Aug. 1902; 8vo. 

From the London & Middlesex Archaeological Society : Trans- 
actions, N.S. i. iv., 8vo., 1902. 

From the Bristol & Gloucester Archaeological Society : (1) Trans- 
actions, xxv. i., and (2) A Catalogue of Books, etc., from the 
library of the late Rev. David Royce, presented to the Society, with a 
Memoir, 8vo. 

From the Royal Irish Academy : Proceedings, (3 ser. vi. 4) for July 
and Aug., 1902, vol. xxiv., sec. C., pt. i. 

From the Royal Society of Sweden : Manadsblad for 1897, 8vo. 

From the Yorkshire Archaeological Society : Journal, 66, 1903, vol. 
xvii., ii., 8vo. [contains (p. 153) an ' Inventory of the Goods of 
Thomas Percy, earl of Northumberland.'] 

From the Powys-land Club : Coll. Hist, and ArchL, relating to 

Montgomeryshire and its Borders, pt. 62, Nov. 1902, xxxn. i. 
Purchases: The Reliquary for t Jan. 1903 ; The Northern Genealogist, 
v. iii. (Dec. 1902) ; The 'Antiquary for Dec. 1902 and Jan. 1903 ; 
Notes and Queries, Nos. 257-265 ; Mitthelungen of the Imperial 
German Archaeological Institute, xxvu. i. & ii., Rom, 1902 ; 
Catalogue of Ancient Deeds, iv., large 8vo. cl., 1902 ; and plans of 
Ancient British earthworks, original drawings by the Rev. 
Edw. A. Downam [tenth instalment of 10, consisting of Farley 
Mount, Walbury, Ashe, and Danebury, Hants ; Wimbledon and 
Oystershell hill, Surrey ; Castle Hill, Mangrave Wood, Castle 
Toll and Preston Woods, Kent. The other nine instalments 
previously obtained are : Theryn Dinas, Caer Bran, Lesingey 
Round, and Castel an Dinas, Cornwall ; Kingswear, and Milber 
Down, Devon ; Cadbury, Yeovil, Pen Hill, Pen Castle and 
Milbornewick, Tedbury, Wadbury, Newbury, and Hamden Hill 
(in 4 parts), Somerset ; Powerstock Castle, Eggardon Hill, 
Chilcombe, Abbotsbury, Poundbury, Maumbury Rings, Maiden 
Castle (in 2 parts), Weatherby, Woodbury, Downs, west of 
Dorchester, Spettesbury, Rawlsbury, Hamilton Hill, Wareham 
(in 2 parts), Cranborne Castle, King's Court Palace, Gillingham, 
Badbury, Dudsbury, Buybury, Knowlton, and Hod Hill, Dorset ; 
Quarley, Ashley, Worlbury, Merdon Castle, and Cromwell's 
Battery, Hants.] 


By Mr. George Irving, a printed document, addressed to Charles 
Sharpe, esq., of Hoddom, Ecclefechan, giving particulars, &c., of 
the rules, &c., of Correction Houses. It is endorsed 'Correction 

1 Mr. Astley's two papers on Holy Island, extracted from the Journal of the British 
Archaeological Assoc., have been printed separately, and are to be obtained from the 
author, the Rev. H. J. Dukinfteld Astley, East Rudham Vicarage, King's Lynn, Norfolk, 
price one shilling. 

House, Dumfries, 1794.' The following are the partiaulars of the 
Bridewell at Newcastle : 

" I. The men prisoners are kept in proper rooms separate from 
the women ; their work is beating hemp or flax, teazing oakum, 
or chipping logwood ; and as the Keeper has no salary but the 
benefit of their work, except Is. per head gaol-fees, he is under 
the necessity either of providing something for them to do, or 
receiving no profits. The men begin their work always at six in 
summer, and at day-light in winter ; each having his task to do 
according to the discretion of the Keeper. 

II. The women prisoners beat hemp or flax, if there is plenty 
of that work to do ; but they are mostly kept in spinning linen, 
factory yarn, or in spinning woollen yarn, or in knitting if nothing 
else can be got, for they must be employed in doing something ; 
each woman has her task to do the same as the men ; in linen 
yarn they are to spin 12 cuts per day on the short reel, if any 
other work, as much as the Keeper thinks proper. The women 
begin their work at six o'clock winter and summer ; a light is given 
them, to make on their fires before six in winter, for that purposes 

III. The Corporation allow each prisoner 2d. per day for sub- 
sistence, which 2d. is given to each prisoner every morning at 
eight o'clock, when a woman attends on them, and goes and buy. 
what each prisoner chooses to have to the value of their 2d., or 
if they have any other money of their own, she lays it out for 
them : generally they have some friends or relations who bring 
them victuals, but this is not allowed unless they behave well ; 
and if they do not their work well, Or do not perform their task / 
the town's allowance is stopped off them, according to the old 
proverb ' They that do not work, are not to eat ;' and no strong 
beer, or spirituous liquors, are allowed to be brought to them 
on any account ; if any of them are sick, the Corporation provide 
them a surgeon. 

IV. The prisoners in each room have coals and water given 
them every morning, as much as will serve till next day, the 
water being brought by pipes into a lead cistern in the inner 
yard for that purpose ; they have wood bedsteads, clean straw, 
and three coverlids to each bed, for them to lie on ; the straw is 
changed as often as the Keeper pleases. 

V. The prisoners in each room are to white wash and clean 
their rooms, as often as the Keeper thinks it necessary ; whiting 
and sand are given them for that purpose ; the Keeper is to pay 
a particular attention to this the cleanliness of the prisons and 
the prisoners, for the sake of their healths ; if those who are com- 
mitted for a long space of time want necessaries, and they have 
no friend or relation to give them any, the Corporation generally 
order the Keeper to buy them such cloaths as they are in want of, 
in order that they may be kept as clean as possible ; the Corpor- 
ation likewise allow them bibles and prayer-books, to read in 
their leisure hours. 

VI. The Corporation provide a convenient and decent house 
for the Keeper to live in, joining the prisons, that the prisoners 
may be more immediately under his eye and inspection ; he has 
likewise coals and water found him gratis for the use of his family; 
and there is a convenient yard for those prisoners that are con- 
fined for any length of time, to walk in at the discretion of the 


VII. The Corporation find every implement and tool for 
working, such as blocks, mells, spinning wheels, &c. &c. and every 
other necessary they may want in cooking their victuals, as 
pots, mugs, washing tubs,, &c. &c." 

By Mr. E. Wooler of Darlington, photographs of two bronze mortars. 
The larger is 5 ins. deep by 4 ins. diam. at bottom, 6| at top, 
with the inscription : LOF GOD VAN AL ANNO 1631. The smaller 
is 3 1 ins. deep, by 4 in. in diameter at base, and 4 at top. (The 
illustrations facing this page shew these mortars.) 

[In the collection of the society in the Blackgate museum there are 
two bronze mortars of similar pattern. One 5in. high by 5|in. in dia- 
meter bears the same inscription and date as the larger belonging to Mr. 
Wooler ; the other 3in. high by 5|in. diameter, is earlier and bears 
the word AMEN in Lombardics, repeated four times.] 

By a member (per Mr. R. Blair) : A number of documents relating 

to the county of Durham, etc. 

1. " Copy of a Grant of Langley from Robert Bishop of Durham 
to Henry de Instila (or Lisle) : 

Universis christi fidelibus presens scriptum visuris vel audi- 
turis, Rob'tus Dei gratia Dunelm' Ep's Sal't'm in D'no Sempit- 
ernam. Noverit universitas vestra nos dedisse concessisse & 
hac presenti charta n'ra confirmasse dilecto & fideli n'ro Henrico 
de Insula p. Homagio & Servitio suo totum Manerium de 
Langeley cum p'tinentiis quod fuit eschaetum Ecc'iae n'rae 
Dunelm' H'end' & tenend' eidem Henrico & Heredibus suis vel 
suis assignatis de nobis & successoribus nostris & Eccl'iae Dunelm' 
in perpetuum libere quiete pacifice & integre cum omnibus Liber- 
tatibus & aysiamentis ad p'd'cum manerium pertinentibus et ad 
omnimodum proficium suum inde faciendum Beddendo inde 
annuatim nobis et successoribus nostris ad scacarium Dunelm' 
dimidiam Marcam Argenti ad quatuor terminos in Ep'atu Dunelm' 
constitutes, et faciendo sectam ad omnes Curias Dunelm' & 
forinsecum quantum pertinet ad vicesimam partem feodi unius 
militis pro omnibus aliis servitiis consuetudinibUvS exactionibus 
& demandis. Volumus etiam et concedir.ius pro nobis et succes- 
soribus nostris quod p'd'cus Hen'cus et heredes sui et sui 
assignati communicent cum omnibus animalibus et averiis suis in 
forinsecis pascuis et pasturis nostris et successorum nostrorum, 
et quod totam terram ad dictum manerium pertinentem omni 
tempore anni sep'abilem habeant & illam includere possint p. 
voluntate sua, et quod idem Henricus & Heredes sui et sui 
assignati et omnes Homines sui liberi et quieti sint de panagio 
porcorum suorum per forestas nostras et successorum nostrorum 
et quod quieti sint de sectis Moleiidinorum nostrorum Et quod 
idem Henricus & Heredes sui et sui assignati possint in dicto 
tenemento Molendinum construere et habere p' voluntate sua, Et 
de tallagiis cum contingerint sint quieti Et quod habeant 
Housbote & Haybote per visum forestariorum nostrorum de boscis 
n'ris et Successorum nostrorum In hujus rei Testimoiiium huic 
Cartae Sigillum nostrum apponi fecimus, His Testibus &c. 

It is presumed the Bishop who made this grant was Robert 
de Insula who was made Bishop of Durham in 1274 upon the 
death of Robert Stichell. the former Bishop. 
C bservations on this grant 

That notwithstanding it is called Manerium de Langley, it 

Proc. Soc. Antiq. Newc. I. (3 Ser.) 

To face page 4. 

Diameter at top 4| in., at bottom 4 in., depth 3g in. 

Diameter at top 6| in., at bottom 4 in., depth 5 in. 

[In possession of Mr. E. Wooler of Darlington. ] 

seems as if the word Manerium in that grant intends only a 
Manse or Dwelling by afterwards giving the Grantee a Power 
to build a mill in dicto Tenemento. And that no moor or 
Common is thereby granted, but only a common right by the 
words, ' quod communicent cum omnibus animalibus et averiis 
suis in forinsecis pascuis & pasturis nostris & successorum 
nostrorum',' unless the words therein immediately after following 
' et quod totam Terrain ad dictum Manerium pertinentem 
omni tempore Anni sep'abilem habeant & illam includere possint 
p' voluntate sua,' imply that some of the land thereto belonging 
then lay open & was waste. 

But the several surrenders from the Bishops since to Dorman 
& Metcalfe, of Parcells of that very waste claimed to be 
Langley Moor, and which Mr. Lambton now holds under such 
surrenders are repugnant to this last construction of that grant . 
Yet as the repetition of the word manerium in this grant would 
be giving Mr. Lambton a stronger pretence to insist upon 
Langley s being a Manor, when so called in the Bishop's own 
evidence, should we produce and make use of this grant in 
Evidence on a Tryal, it is proper to consult our councill in London 
whether the Bishop should attempt to produce this grant or 
leave it for Lambton to do as he probably may ; In which last 
case the Bishop will be more at Liberty to put the above con- 
struction upon it in his favour." 

2. An incomplete document relating to the ferry across the Wear 

at Sunderland : 
"Rolls An. 1345, 1406, .1457, 1494, 1502, & 1508. 

Vide sep'ales rotulos Computor. qui monstrant Epos. Dun. 
habere passagia & his Ferryboates apud Sund. et computa 
pro faciendo novos batellos seu cimbos allocat. Dominus rex Edw. 
4. demisit Rob't. Bertram Burgu' de Sund. cum o'ib's proficias 
ad nide spectan. Et passag. ultra aquam de were etc. Habend. 
dvrante vac. Sedis Dun'. & quamdiu temporalitates manerent 
in manib's regis, red. 6 s an ad scac 1 ;.!. Dun. Et dictus rex providere 
cymbam p. d'co passag. Rot. cl. Laur. Epi. mem. No. 56. 

Concessio Burgi pred. A Ferry boat seu passag. ultra aquam 
de weare &c., p. cartam pol. Rad Bowes & Sequilis suis 
secund. cons. cur. halmot. &c., 18th Oct r , 22 Eliz. 1590 Rot. 
cl. p.m. Barnes, 10.11. 

Compotum Auditor. Episc. & cancellar. ejus de redditibus 
Burgi & passagij trans rivum per ferry boat &c. Annis 1 Hen. 
2; 19 Ed. 3; 7 Hen. 4 ; 5 Hen. 5 ; 36 Hen. 6 ; 17,18, 24 Hen. 7 
Registro 2< l . & C. 15, 32 Ed. 3. Rex. Ed. 4, sede vacante 
demisit Rob. Bertram &c. ut supra. 

22 Hen. 7. Ch. Bainbrigg &c. demisit Ro. Bowes &c. 32 Eliz. 
1590. Math. Hutton &c. demisit Ro. Bowes &c. 1729, The 
demise to Wm. Lambton was of the Borough with the Courts 
Markets fairs Tolls anchorage Beaconage &c., and to Walter 
Ettricke of the ferry boat, passage, the metage & Tolls of 
Herbs, Fruit, & roots, &c., for 21 years. 

The express Language of the Leases, was ' Of all those his 
[the Bishop's] Ferryboats of Sunderland &c., and the passage 
' over the water part or River of Sunderland, with free egress, 
' regress, and landing over the said water for all carriages & 
' passengers, over both sides of the s d water,' &c. 

The evidences are all to be found in the Rolls of the Bishops 

The Dean and Chapters Records have of late years been shut 
up w th great jealousy. The only references I am possessed of 
are to two of their Registers or Cartularies, but they lead to little 
discovery, tho' they give an apprehension that the Prior 
anciently claim'd a passage. There will be no means of opening 
their Repository to give you satisfaction ; but by your own 
address to the Chapter. 

The minits are : Vide evidencias prioris Dun. q'd passagia 
batelli Sund. est p. firmarium levat. absque dimissione Epi Dun. 
& injuriore Sup. Prior em usurpat nullo redditu inde d'no E'po 
solat, seu priori Dun., 1, Cart. 313. Evidenc. p. passagio int. 
Monkweremouth and Sunderland. 4. Cart. 299. 

This last reference would perhaps produce some ample dis- 

If the Monastery had any ferry boat right, it must have been 
by special grant from the See, or by ancient custom ; the 
evidence of either have never come under my eye. I have 
several ancient Inquisitions taken by the Admiralty Court of 
the Bishop of Durham, but find no presentment for a Boat as a 
usurpation against the Bishop. 

EXCHEQUER Mich. Term. 4 K. la. 2. Sir Jn Williamson, 
Bart., & Dame Dorothy his wife in Mich. Term. 35 Car. 2, 
exhibited their Bill ag* Nath 1 . Lord Bp of Durham & 
Geo. French stating that being seized in fee of the cell or 
Monastery of Monkweremouth, were seized of the soil of the 
River were to the middle thereof as far as their Lawes extended 
on the north side of the River, and were intitled to the privilege 
north side of the said River. On hearing the cause & reading 
divers records, the Court determined that the Privileges of 
properly belonging to a ROYAL PORT, & that the pfs were 
incapacitated to hold the same." [Here the document, in which 
there are several palpable errors, abruptly ends.] 

3. "A trewe Rentall of the Balywicke of Byshoppmiddlehame 

written June 23rd 1595 
Mydlame, Mr. George ffrevile for the Lease of the De- 

Mannor maines & Dippwell x n xij d 

And for the Copiholde Lande in the occupa- 

con of Mr. ffrevile vj u vj s viij d 

Sedge- John younge 4 maile oxgang viij s 

feilde Robt. Johnson 3 maile ox' vj s 

maile Ric: Bocherbye one maile ox' ij s 

landes Wed. Hickson 2 maile ox' iiij s 

Rich: Chippchaise 2 maile ox' iiij s 

The said Rich for an olde rente xx d 

Wed: Johnson 2 maile ox' iiij s 

Rich: Swineborne 3 maile ox' vj s 

John Watkine one maile ox' ij s 

John Bellerbye 1 maile ox' viij s 

Lance' Maison 4 maile ox' viij s 

Robt: Maison 5 maile ox' x s 

Dyonas Maison one maile ox' is 

Rich: Gibson one maile ox' ij s 

Rich. Browne 2 maile ox' iiij s 

John Hickson 2 maile ox' iiij s 

Robt Todde one Cottage xij d 

John Bigbye one cottage xij d 

Edmunde Smythe one cottage xij d 

Robt Maison 2 cottages ij s 

Least Robt. Walker one cottage xij d 


Sedge- Robt. Johnson 3 bonde oxgange ij s ix d ob. q. 

feild John Hickson 2 bonde ox' xxij d ob. 

bonde Wed: Johnson 4 bonde ox' iij s ix d 

landes John Watkine 3 bonde ox' ij s ix d ob. q. 

wch I Mr. Swifte 3 bonde ox' ij s ix d ob. q. 

clayme, John Close 2 bonde ox' xxij d ob. 

aspcellofLance' Maison 2 bonde ox' Copie xxij d ob. 

my fee, as Wed. ffleathino 2 bonde ox' Copie xxij d ob. 

all other Adam Wheatley one bonde ox' xj d q. 

balifes Anthony Hyndmers 2 bonde ox' xxij d ob. 

haithe Rich: Gibson 2 bonde ox' Copie xxij d ob. 

had here-Robt Walker one bonde ox' xj d q. 

t:>fore John Herrison 2 bonde ox' Copie xxij d ob. 

John Potter 2 bonde ox', L xxij d ob. 

Cuth: Gibson 2 bonde ox', L xxij d ob. 

Robt: Mattinson 2 bonde ox', L xxij d ob. 

Rich. Browne 3 bond ox', L 2 one Copie ij d ix d ob. q. 

Itm Farme & Land of the tennantes of 
Sedgefeild, 3 wheate Sheaves of everie oxgange 

26s. 8d. Cuthbt Athie, for a tennemt wch ever heretofore 

Mains- did belonge to the balife of Middlam xx s 

forthe Wed. ffarrowe for a free rente vj s viij d 

Wed. Morlande a pound of pepp' 

4s.Middlame towne- Mr. George ffrevile xij d 

shipp the wch I Robt. Stellinge xij d 

clayme as p'cell of Hughe Moore viij d 

my fee as other Wed. grenell vj d 

bailifes haithe had Rich. Huchinson vj d 

heretofore. Rich: Carter iiij d 

15s. Cornefourthe John Wrighte ix d 

towneshippe wch Wed ffrissell ix d 

I clayme as p'cell Lance Selbie xviij d 

of my fee as other James Colledge xviij d 

balifes haithe had Wed. Armestronge xiij d ob. 

heretofore. Thomas Littster xviij d 

Wed. Middleton ix d 

Henrie Herreson xviij d 

Lance. Akess xviij d 

Jarrard Herreson xiij d ob. 

Raiphe Weaddowes xxij d ob. 

Nicholas Laibrone xiij d ob. 

Itm I ame to haue of the tennanntes of Corne- 
fourthe x bushells of Oates after the 
olde measure belonginge to the office. 


The some of mr. wardes Rentall due & pay- 
able by him to my Lord xxj n xvj s 

whereof he haithe paied Sums by himself 

& oth rs xvij H xj d 

Robt the collr. of Sedgefeild 

account of the said Money due to my L sett downe 

the pticular names who paide it to him. And if I haue 
receyue it yt shalbe allowed. 

And for the sev'rall somes of xxxv s vij d ob., iiij s , xv s 
appearing in this Rentall claimed by the Bailif to be his ffee and 
the Come likewise, what is Collected hereof by the said Collectr 
it must be reserued to my L vse and not paied to the Balif till 
my L be acquainted therewith." 

4. ''The whitsondaie Rent 1608. 
Bondgate, Auckland. 

Henry Maugham x s iiij d 

Henry Maugham ij d 

Leonard Pinckney viij s x d 

Stephen Brasse ii s 

Mr. Baynes for Robinson 

land viij s vj d 

Baynes for wren land . . . vj s x d 
Baynes for Parlet land. .xv s vij d 
Baynes for Blythma' land xxiij d 

Anth. Smithe xij d 

Jo. wa stell xxij d 

Tne fire Schoole 2 vj d 

Henry Bayles 3 x s x d 

Henry Bayles vij s ij d 

Henry Bayles vj d 

Henry Bayles ij s 

Hen.BaylesforGrymist(?)v d 

Hen Bayles ii d 

Hen Bayles iiij d 

Jo: Conyers for pcell of 

Grym: xij d 

wedow Carr xij d 

S r Charles wrenn iij s viij d 

Willm Bras v d ob 

vxor Somer xx s x^ 

Bryan Downes xiij s 

Henry Maugha' v d 

Brvan Belt . . 

Anthony Alleson xij d 

Anthony Alleson xx s j d 

Anthony Alleson for his 

cottage xij d 

Rich: Lynger ij s 

Tho: ffremde iiij s 

Tho: ftremde ij d 

vxor Skowles iij s l v d 

Tho: hodgeson v s viij ( 

Tho: hodgeson for p. of 

Barberland iij d 

Tho: hodgeson for pcell 

of ffaireland vj d 

Tho: hodgeson for his 

f rehold i d ob 

Dorithie Grice v 5 vij d 

Tho: hall meadowes . . . .vj s 

Ellen Daunport v s vij d 

katheren walker iiij d 

Mr. hedworth x d 

Thorn: Bayles iiij s 

Richmond close iij s 

2 In the herald's visitation made by Richard St. George in 1615 it was declared that 
Henry Bayles of Newton Cap was not entitled to bear arms. The Charter for North 
Auckland Grammar School granted by king James on the petition of Ann Swyfte of the 
city of Durham late wife of Robert Swyfte of the aforesaid city deceased (he was pre- 
bend of the first stall, and Rector of Sedgefield), was given at Westminster on the 
seventh day of September, in the second year of his reign over England, France, and 
Ireland (1604), arid this document recites that there shall be twelve discreet and honest 
men appointed as governors and Henry Bayles is one of the twelve. He attended their 
first meeting and was constant in his attendance up to, and including the important 
meeting of 9 July 1640 (the first under the Commonwealth) when the bishop was removed 
from the list of governors, and Hugh Wright of Windlestone was elected in his place. 
There in an entry of four lines at the side of this minute, thus : Master displaced ; 
Ecclesiastical Dignities now abolished and the Revenues seized by the Parliament. On 
the 8 January, 1643, Toby Wright of Windlestone, gent, was elected in the place of 
Henry Bayles deceased. The Newton Cap Estate was purchased by Mr. Bacon of 
Staward le pele about 1695. John Bacon's name is entered in a Book of Rates for the 
Township of Newton Cap in 1703. R.N. 

Rich: Trotter vj s viij d 

Thorn: Adamson vj s viij d 

Mr. Pollard iij s ix d 

The pynder of west Auck- 
land viij s ij d 

The moore close xxiij 5 4 d 

The preist feild v s 

Willm Stock iiij d 

Peter Copp'thwaite . . . .iiij d 

Anthony Cradock iiij d 

Willm Midleton iij d 

Robart Grice iij d 

Robart Grice i d ob 

Robart Grice ob 

Jo: Robsonn iij d 

S r henry Bellasis iij d ob 

The white house i d 

The Chappell of St. Anne v d 

Mereday wright iij d 

Leonard Pinckney xij d 

Leonard Pinckney ij d 

Barres Green j d 

Jo: Richeson iij d 

Jo: Richeson xij d 

vxor Skowles xij d 

Georg Robinson xij d 

Jo: Tallentire vj d - 

Willm Robson xij d 

Tho: Askew vij d 

Willm Stock . . -. xij d 

Elizabeth Robinson . . . .xvj d 

Michaell vasey xij d 

Wedow Midleton xijl 

J. Robinson xij d 

Alice Shorterigg xij d 

. . White xij d 

Rich: Tomson xij d 

John Swainston [inter- 
lined 'w: hutton']. . .xv d 
Jo. Sympson [interlined 
'Richard Thomson'] . i d 

Cheppelow vj d| 

Willm Trotter j d b 

Thomas Bayles iij d 

Robt Tweddell viij d 

Tho: Adamson vj d 

the old walke mylne .... xx s 
the new walke mylne . . . xx s 

the lyme pitte ij d 

Soncleys closes xvj s 

the whinny close iij s iiij d 

Barberland xj s viij ( 

the wynde mylne xx s 

Summa xvj n xix s x 

5. A document on a sheet of foolscap paper endorsed ' Survey of ye 
Demesnes of Durham, 1619.' At the beginning are the words ' From 
regr 2 d tempore Ricardi Epi 1618. A survey made ye 31 May 1619 
of ye Demesnes of Durham, w th each p'ticular meadow & Pasture' in 
bishop Chandler's handwriting : 


1st. The Heather Meadow called by ye name 

of Bishops Meadows containing 18 1 33 

The farther meadow 15 3 17 

The brode wood in Francklin 200 1 12 

The ox Close in Francklin 68 1 17 

The Meadow Close in Francklin 14 2 35 

The Rye field in Francklin 70 2 

The Gate feild in Francklin 8 2 35 

The Leeses 43 2 

The Calfe Croft 6 2 21 

The House & Fould 10 

Brass side Common 92 3 

Sum 438ac n 2ro. 14per. 

Whereof the Bishops meadows are 34 1 10 

and within Francklin 311 2 4 

and Brass side Common 92 3 

All these being added do make ye whole sum 
afores d to be ... .438ac. 2ro. 14per. 


1st. The Parke 213 4 

Thornes with ye Horse Close 62 2 30 

Heather winter field 38 3 6 


ac. ro. per. 

The feild at Park Head 50 2 16 

The Middle winter feild 64 2 1 

Great Summer feild 105 2 33 

Kellsey Hill 75 3 25 

The Castle 2 1 20 

The Smyths bank . . 30 

The Orcharde 3 26 

Sum 426ac. Iro. Iper. 


William scurrfeild houldeth Low Sund lands 35 3 1 

And also Boes feild containing 141 311 

Tho s Lambert ye further new close 12 2 32 

And the Meadow by Bells Close 50 

And also the west rowe Close 2 3 24 

The Tenants of Stockton houldeth by Custom 

the Heather new Close 27 2 40 

And Court ffeild 170 11 

And also Bells Close & Hall burne 107 11 

For the w ch they pay rent unto the Bayly of - 

Stockton xxiij 11 xiiij sh 

The Grainge feild without coppy of Lease . . 225 2 24 
And payeth rent .... iiij 1 xiij s 
The Tenants of Horburne houldeth Court lees 
without Coppy or Lease & payeth rent 
the sum of 44 s 4 d to ye Bailiff of Stockton. 

Lustrows Meadow 39 3 12 

Kitchens Meadow 130 8 

Norton North Meadow 192 

Sum 816ac. 2ro. 19per. 

The whole sum of all is 1244 30 


1st. The Park within the Walles & pales is .. 6521 8 

The Stewards Close 21 

The File Close 15 2 30 

The Bough Meyers 12 1 20 

The Bank before ye Castle 3317 

Sum 686ac. 3ro. 35per. 

The Moore Close is in Lease and containeth . . 285 3 
The whole sum of all ye Demaines in Auck- 
land is 972ac. 2ro. 35per. 

Copyhold Land in Escombe lately improved 

1st. The East feild 162 2 

The Middle feild 97 1 

The West feild 8 1 30 

Sum 348ac. Oro. 30per. 


The Lord hath 4 acres & 16 perches allowed 
for waste in the East field 

The ould enclosure in the Midle feild 49 8 

The Hurst in divers parcells 165 1 26 

The Carr 65 1 

The Launde 61 3 

Mr. Beltes old enclosure by ye Common .... 44 2 18 

The Bankes & Battes 26 

West Haugh 52 1 

East Haugh 22 22 

Sum 486ac. Iro. 14per. 


The whole sum of all Escombe is 834ac. Iro. 
4per. which being divided into 12 lands 
and a halfe there will be 67ac. 23 per. to 
every Land 


1st. The South feild 252 12 

The East feild 223 3 18 

The North feild 212 1 28 

The ox pasture 170 32 

The Moor 224 3 34 

The Horse pasture 4"! 35 

The Horse Meadow 71 1 21 

Under the Bank 153 3 10 

Long lanke alias long Draught 61 6 

The Holme 62 2 26 

Sum 1473ac. 2ro. 12per. 

Whereof there is to be deducted 30ac. wch 
belongeth unto Darrington so resteth 
1443 acres 2 Roods & 12 pearches to be 
divided equally into 54 oxgangs & a 
halfe so yt each oxgang is to have 20 
acres and the rest to be the Lords waste 
wch amounts to 353ac. 2ro. 12 per. 
And the Town of Blackwell hath allowed unto 
ye Lord but 20 acres so that by the above 
account they have reduced the Lord of 
his waste 333 acres. 
Grange Close belongeth to Cockerton Divided 

into 3 parts contain 1 ' 1 302 


1st. Citten berge & ye House & Fould .... I 2 26 

The little Close 41 28 

The Home hill meadow 4010 

The Horse hawe Meadow 4 2 36 

The haugh wth hanggen Gates 198 1 19 

The Height 343 2 14 

The Side 121 10 

Newgate Meadow 10 22 

Cammakegle Meadow 60 4 

The Oxen Close 4 1 24 

The East Corn Green 9018 

Low Green 6 1 32 

Gerse Greene 8 2 38 

Green heade 9 28 

Sum 73 lac. 3ro. 29per. 


1st. Side urse pasture & park head 53 2 24 

The Great Meadow 68 

Castle feild Close 62 1 39 

The Calfe Close 3 3 23 

New Close 6 2 37 

Tamers eyle & 6 day work 31 2 13 

Sum 226ac. $ro 5per. 


Mathew Whitfeild hath 4 parcells marked 
with A.B.C.D. : 


ac. ro. per. 

A. containeth 7 1 19 

B. containeth 23 3 38 

C. containeth 32 23 

D. containeth 23 1 10 

Sum. ..... 86ac. 3ro. lOp. 

44 Beast Gates in byllen. 


1st. Leese House & fould 2 1 28 

Atkyns Close 12 2 2 

Atkyns Meadow 2 1 37 

Leese Wood containeth 22 2 

Leese Midle Close 10 2 16 

The Meadow 31 8 

The Coylhie Pasture 127 3 10 

Sum 209ac. Iro. 21per. 


Langley Pasture 21 2 31 

The Corn Close 4 1 23 

The pingle meadow ground 9 3 35 

The Hazells 36 2 2 

The Side Dole 27 3 9 

Sum lOOac. Iro. 20per. 


Scabbes dyle 10 1 12 

14 Beast Gates in Billen 


The Dyle 9 1 

14 Beast Gates in Bylen 


The ffirth 210 

The spring House 48 

Customary Land within Stanhope Park .... 1517 12 

Leased Land within the Park 1274 3 20 

Demaines 258 

Sum 4149ac. 3ro. 32per. 


Durham 438 2 14 

Stockton 1244 30 

Escombe 834 1 '4 

Blackwell 1473 2 12 

Cockerton 302 

Bedburne Park 466 24 

Auckland 972 2 35 

Berkley Wood 251 2 38 

Stanhope Park 4149 3 32 

Sum tot' 10133ac. Oro. 29per. 

By Thomas Burdett." 

[At end a note by bishop Chandler, ' Chester Cavils Surveyed in ye 
same rog[, p. 323. Osmotherly Survey in pt. p. 326.'] 

[On back in the same bishop's handwriting 

' p. 393. A large common in ye Moors of Shinkcliff belonging to 

ye Grange of Quarrington containing 108 acr. enclosed 1620. 

p. 395. Wharrington & Shinkly Moors divided by consent 

of Bp. of D & Ch. 
Leave to enclose at Norton.'] 


6. The next paper, also on a sheet of foolscap paper, is endorsed by 

bishop Chandler ' An extract out of ye book of ye Rents & 
revenues belonging to ye BP of Durham w th Mr. Fetherston's 
*" M inf ormacon concerning ye leases in Stanhopp : ' 
"A note of such Offices as are vseless, together with ye Salaries p d to 

ye respective Officers out of the Excheq r at Durham. li s. d. 

To the Keeper of Awkland Parke 4 : 06 : 08 

To the fforester in Werdale 1 6 : 13 : 04 

To the Keeper of Stanhop Parke 5 : 13 : 06 

More 31. Ss. not pd of late. 

To the Forrester of Frankland 2 2 : 17 : 00 

Not pd of late yeeres. 

To the fforrester of Birkly 1 : 10 : 04 

To the Pallaier of Awkland Parke 1 : 10 : 00 

To the Surveyo r of the Cole mines 2 : 00 : 00 

Not allowed of late. 

To the Keeper of manno r of Awkland 2 : 00 : 00 

To the ffeodary of the Bp 6 : 1 3 : 04 

To the Constable of the Castle of Durham 17 : 00 : 00 

Offices void. 
The Prothonotary no fee 

To the Baliffe of Wolsingham 2 : 00 : 00 

To ye Steward of ye Borrough Court at BP 

Awkland 1 : 06 : 08 

The Summe totall of ye BP' of Durhams revenue. I. s. d. 

Darlington Ward ye ancient revenue 746:18:06| 

Chester Ward 462:03:11 

Easington Ward 439 : 06 : 09 

Stocton Ward 344 : 07 : 10 

The mines of cole 301 : 09 : 00 

Forreigne receipts 057 : 04 : 03 

Forrests & Parkes 170 : 02 : 02 

Ecclesiasticall pencions 088 : 13 : 00 

Escheate lands 000 : 15 : 02 

Holden & Holdenshire 461 : 17 : 05 

Allerton & Allertonshire 225 : 03 : 09 

Gateside bridge 003 : 02 : 00 

Summa totalis 3301 : 03 : 10 

The jura Regalia of the Palatine of Durham &\ 

the Perquisits of ye Halmot courts valued V 500 : 00 : 00 

to be worth ^ ann' 3 J 

The demeasne lands . . 347 : 1 : 00 

The revenue of ye Bp is 4148 : 13 : 10| 

Wherof to be deducted in ffees to Patentees & 

Pentioners 274 : ():'. : f 9 

Rests de claro 3874 : 10 : 01 .| 

More ye Kings rent to be deducted & ye de- 
cried rents the tenths . 

i The Deere being all destroyed. 2 The Woods destroyed 

;J Wardships taken away ye Jura Regalia little worth. 


Nov. 27 th 1660 Mr. Fetherstons Informac'on concerning ye leases at 

Mr. Jno. Emerson Maior of Newcastle this yeere holdeth \ 
a lease of Eastgate for Hues wherof 2 or all are dead he lets / 
it to his under Tenant (widow Emerson) at 1021. p. arm. V 1201 
There is a very good house upon this farme wherin any ( 
Gent' may Hue it cost him 5001 ) 

Lance Trotter held a lease of for 21 y. wch / 

are now this last Mich'mas expired ye clere yeerely value j> 50 
(& so let to Emerson ye widow) is 501 ) 

Ralfe Andrson of Ovingham held a lease of one halfe of ) 
Sundrland farme for 21 yeeres wch are expired 7 yeeres I 20 
since worth 201. ^ ann' & so let to Mich : Thompson . . . . j 

Tho. Emerson holdeth ye other halfe but his old lease ( ^n 
from ye Bp. is expired worth as before I 

Toby Pilkington holds a lease of Park house for 3 1 fi ~ 
Hues whereof 2 are dead worth & so let yeerely 601 f 

Mr. Greeve a M r chant of Newcastle who married Geo. j 
Whitfields widow held a lease of Horslyhead for 21 yeeres I __ 
expired 4 y since worth & so let to widow Emrson ( 
501. $ ann. There is a good tenants house on it ' 

7. The following document, written on a sheet of foolscap, is en- 
dorsed, * Papers belonging to ye Bishoprick of Durham. Ye Chapter 
appeal to ye Bp as visitor ' : 

"Die Martis Vicesimo Septimo (vizt.) die Mensis Julij A D'ni 
1686 Inter horas Nonam et Duodecimam ante Meridiem ejusdem 
diei, In Domo Capitulari Eccl'ise & Cath'lis Dunelm' Coram Hon bli 
Viro lohanne Mountagu S. T. P. Rev di in Christo patris et D'ni 
D'ni Nathanaelis providentia divina Dunelm' Ep'i Comisinario 
ad infrascript' 1'time constitut' In p r sentia Mei loh'is Rowell 
Notarij Pub'ci. 

Negotium Visitationis Eccl'ise'j Emanavit Monico con a Decanum et 

Cath'lis Dunelm' ad rogatumj Capitulum Canonicos Majores, Canonicos 

et Supplicationem Duorumf Minores cseterosq' ejusdem EccPise Minis- 

d'cseEccl'iaeCanomcorumSive/tros, ad Comparend' istis die horis et 

p r bendariorum (vizt) loh'isl Loco ad subeund' Visitationem humoi: 

Morton et Gulielmi Graham J Quibus die horis et Loco introducta 

S. T. P. I Monicone Sive Citatione Ep'ali in hac 

parte emanat' cum Certificatorio Authentico debitae Execu- 

tionis ejusdem et Schedula eidem Certificatorio annex' nomina 

Canonicorum Major' et minor' aliorumq' dictae Eccl'iae Ministro- 

rum et Omciarioru' ad Subeund' Visitationem humoi Monitor' 

et Citator' in Se continen' D'nus Com rius eosdem sic Citatos 

p r conizar' jussit, Quibus publice prconizat' D'nus Decanus 

Nonnullisq Canonicorum Majorum et Minorum Ministrorumq' 

p rd personaliter Comparuerunt prout Super eorum Nominibus 

in d'ca Schedula denotatur ; Tune d'cus D'nus Com rius ex 

parte Rev di in Christo patris Visitatoris petijt vera' Copiam 

omnium et Singulorum Actorum Sive Decretorum Capituli pen- 

dente Visitatione Ep'ali d'ci Rev di patris Eccl'ise Suae Cath'lis p rd 

A D'ni 1685 celebrat' factorum et ordinatorum, Quam quidem 

Copiam D'nus Decanus in Manus d'ci Com r 'J dedit et Deliber- 

avit, Deinde D'nus Com rius rogavit a d'tis M ro Morton et D re 

Graham Causus Sive rationes hujus Visitationis a D'no Ep'o 

rogandi et Supplicandi: Unde d'cus M r Morton declaravit Se 

gravatum esse per Georgium Wheler Militem hujus Eccl'ise 


Canonicum Sive p r bendarium in Vendicando Senioritatem Sibi 
p r fato loh'i Morton ut Canonico Sen p r bendario d'cse Eccl'iae 
debit', ac de jure et Statutis ejusdem Eccl'iae Spectan' et 
pertinen', Et humil r petijt Determinationen Visitatoris in ea 
parte, et d'cus Dcor Graham Similr petijt et Declaravit ; Tune 
dcus Georgius Wheler Miles Canonicus Sive p r bendarius antedcus 
Exhibuit dco Dno Com rio Causas Sive Rac'ones in Scriptis de 
Senioritate p. eum petita con* d'cum M rum Morton et quoad 
j)rem Graham Senioritatis rogac'oni renunciavit. Unde d'cus 
Com rius Terminum assignavit ad Consulend' Superinde 
cum D'no Ep'o et Visitationem humoi continuavit et prorogavit 
usq' ad et in Diern Veneris Decimu' Nonum (viz*.) Diem Mensis 
Novembris prox' futur' horis et Loco p rd et Monuit o'es et 
singulos p r sentes adtunc ad Interessend'. 

19 Nov. 1686, Coram loh'e Mountagu, S. T. P. Com" 
p r sente. J. R. 

Negotium Visitatioriis, &c. Continuatur et prorogatur Visitatio 
humoi in hos diem horas et Locum Ad Audiend' Voluntatem 
Dni Com ri J Super Copia Decreti Capituli Sibi Dat' et Sup' Causis 
sive rac'onibus p' D'num Georgium Wheler Militem de Senioritate 
p. Eum petita con a loh'em Morton S.T.B. hujus Eccl'iae Canoni- 
cum Dat' et Exhibit', in hos diem horas et Locum Quibus die 
horis et Loco D'nus Com rius anted' cus dedit et Exhibuit mihi 
Notario publico p rd Sententiam Declarationem Sive Determin- 
ationem Rev di in Christo patris Dni Episcopi Visitatoris antedci 
de et Super p r missis in Scriptis concept' et Sigillo Suo Ep'ali 
Sigillat', eandemq' a me publice perlegi Jussit qua Sic perlecta 
D'nus Com rius eandem inactitari et Reg'rari jussit, et Visita- 
tionem humoi usq' in Diem Decimum Nonum mensis Julij 
prox' sequen' inter horas ejusd' Diei Solitas continuavit et 

Md Cop' hujus act' dat' Decano. Postea Nil act' Sed lapsa est 
hsec Visitatio." 

8 " Dispensations granted by the King to ye dignitaries of Durham." 
(a) " George R. 

GEORGE the Second by the Grace of God King of Great Britain 
ffrance and Ireland Defender of the ffaith and so forth To all to 
whom these Presents shall Come GREETING WHEREAS it hath 
been humbly Represented unto us That our Trusty and Well be- 
loved John Mountague Dr. in Divinity Dean of our Cathedral 
Church of Durham is detained at Peterborough in his Road to 
Durham by an Illness that has there seized him so that he cannot 
possibly keep his statutable Residence there which was fixed for 
the Twenty first day of this instant October, nor considering his 
great age he being upwards of seventy two be in a capacity to at- 
tend the Grand Chapter Audit which is to be held on the twentieth 
day of November next ensuing ; WEE therefore taking the pre- 
mises unto our Royal Consideration Do out of our Princely Grace 
and ffavour dispense with his Residence on the said Twenty first 
day of this instant October, and also with his absence on the said 
Twentieth of November next, Reserving to him the said John 
Mountagu the same power by Letter to Chuse Chapter Officers, to 
nominate to Livings, and all other his Decanal Powers as if 
he was actually Resident upon his Deanery, as also all Profitts 
and Advantages to him belonging, as if he was then and there 
present, whereof all persons concerned are to take due notice, 


And in order thereunto our will and pleasure is, that these pre- 
sents be Registered in the Registry of our said Cathedral Church. 
Given at our Court at Saint James's the Tenth day of October 
1 727 in the first yeare of our Reign 

By his Majesties Command 

[Two endorsements : one of them in bishop Chandler's hand- 
writing 'Dr Mountagues dispensation.'] 
(6) " George R. 

Trusty & wellbeloved we Greet you well, Whereas our 
Trusty & well beloved Robert Offley Master of Arts & Rect r 
of Abinger in our County of Surrey has by his Petition humbly 
represented unto us, yt he has been many years one of ye Pre- 
bendaries of our Cathedral Church of Durham & constantly 
kept Residence there, but being now above seventy years of age, 
& ye distance between his said Rectory & our City of Durham 
being more than two hundred miles, he is not able to bear the 
fatigue of so long a journey, wherefore he has humbly prayed us, 
yt in consideration of his Age & Infirmities we wou'd dispense 
w th his Residence, we are graciously pleased to condescend [to his] 
Request, & do accordingly by these presents dispense w th his 
Residence & attendance on ye usual Chapters there for & 
during the Term of two years, his turns of preaching in our s d 
Cathedral Church only excepted, And our will & pleasure is, yt 
you do from time to time allow unto him the s d Robert Offley, so 
long as he shall continue Prebendary of ye s d Church all Rights, 
Profits, dividends, benefits, advantages & emoluments what- 
soever to ye s d Prebend in any wise belonging or usually al- 
lowed on acct of the same, in as full & ample a manner 
as any Prebendary actually Resident doth enjoy ye same or as 
he the s d Robert Offley might enjoy them, if he were actually 
Resident in the s d Church, any Statute, Custom, or Constitu- 
tion of ye s d Church to ye contrary notwithstanding, with all 
wch we are pleased in this case graciou'sly to dispense & do 
dispense by these presents according to ye power in ye Statutes 
of ye s d Church reserved unto us, & so we bid you Farewell. 
Given at our Court at St. James ye 30th day of April 1739. In 
ye 12 year of our Reign. 

By his Majesties Command 

Holies Newcastle." 
[Superscribed To our Trusty & well beloved the Dean & Chapter 

of our Cathedral Church of Durham.'] 

(c) Another dispensation for two years on the same terms granted on 
the 4th May, 1741. 

9 A petition of 28 July, 1798, of the debtors in Durham prison: 

" To the Rt. Reverend Father in God Shute Barrington Lord 

Bishop of Durham 

The petition of the debtors in Jail Durham 

Humbly Sheweth 

That your petitioners with Just sorrow and regrett in this Our 
present unhappy situation lament that we are under the necessity 
of Addressing your Lordship by petition on the present occasion 
As we doubt not but you will allow that what we wish for is just 
and reasonable and that it will be thought so by your Lordship. 

Our desire is if it meets with your Lordships approbation to 


have the present contracted hours of admittance enlarged so far 
as your Lordship thinks right, at present its a hardship added 
to our present situation that when our wives, Children, friends, or 
Creditors cannot be admitted nor go out but between the Hours 
of Eight O'clock in the Morning and twelve at noon, of each day, 
and they cannot be admitted after twelve on Saturday untill 
eight on monday after tho on the most pressing emergancy, and 
perhaps strangers in the place and has no doubt traveled Twenty 
or Thirty miles, this is hard, and truth and there is not such a 
Rule we presume in any Goal in England, besides there is no 
attendance by the turnkey as he has both this House and the 
House of Correction to attend which takes off his attention from 
us in looking for an enlargement to this our petition we shall 
think Ourselves bound in duty to respect your Lordship, 

& shale ever pray, &c." 

[Signed by Edward Routledge, Robt. Paxton, Chris. Wilkinson, 
Robt. Self, Robt. Grant, John Harrison, John Taylor, Joseph 
Wood, Robert Bainbridge, sen. and jun., John Robson, Thomas 
Simpson, James Currie, and Jane Branch." 

Endorsed : ' Debtors Petition, July 28, 1798.] 

10. All the documents which follow relate to Stanhope and neigh- 
bourhood, the mines, and law-suits relating to them : 

(a.) " The case betweene Wharton & Hall drawn up as thus by 
George Wray & fit for the Lord Bpp of Durham to 
understand & consider. 

1. The Lo. Bpp of Durham above Sixty yeares agoe grants 
to Mr. Whartons Ancestors a patent for tearme of life expressing 
as thus: That he is Mooreman als. Moorem r of all the Moores, 
waste Ground & soile within the parrishes of Stanhop & 
Wolsingham with power to digg Mines for ye wineing of Lead 
ure, soe that it be not iwithin any mans severall or inclosed 

2 dl > Mr. Whartons Ancestors enjoyed this patent for life 
& did renew it about foure or five discents before any lease that 
Hall had or any for him. Now I conclude in law & reason that 
Mr. Wharton neither had or hath (by the expressed words of that 
patent) due to any Interest there, but Moores & waists of wch 
he hath one Great Moore called Bollyhoope, another called Stan- 
hop Hoope both in Stanhop parrish, & other large Moores in 
Woolesingham parrish wch are noe stinted pastures, but every 
man may put on wt he pleases without limitacon. Therefor 
Moores & wasts : And these Mr. Hall challengeth noe Interest 
in, & further Mr. Whartons Ancestors & his, haue, doe & 
probably may worke Lead mines by the vertue of that patent in 
these two particulars abouenamed. 

3 dl y ffor the fforrest wch is all stinted pastures, mans 
severall and inclosed Grounds I hold it plaine that they are 
excepted in Mr. Whartons patent, & though he haue enjoyed 
them without any molestacon, till this question, he either did or 
was to Accompt to the Bpp for them & soe not in him. 

4thi> jy[y reason is this Mr. Halls father who tooke the 
former Lease (before this wch is now in being) in Alphonsus 
Bulmers name, wch was the first lease wch ever was taken of the 
Bps of these Mines, ffor he looked into Mr. Whartons patent & 
ground & found that all severall & inclosed grounds were 


free for any man to take, & soe accordinly went to ye Bp 
& acquainted him with the same, & so the Bp granted 
him a Lease & reed a Considerable fine of him in moneys, & 
reserveing the Lot or such a rent for him & his successors. 
And his lease was granted in these very words, all Copy- 
holders, all Customary Tenants & all Leaseholders in Wooles- 
ingham & Stanhop parish in Wearedale. 

Sthiy it is to be considered that it had beene an high wrong 
in ye Bp 3 waies as thus ffirst to grant away from Mr. Wharton 
w* he had granted before to him, & now Mr. Wharton con- 
ceives & stands upon the same as his right ; & it was as great 
a wrong in the Bpp to receive Mr. Halls money, & grant him 
that w ch he cannot injoy, & Srdly the greatest wrong as it 
plainely appeares to himselfe if he had not plainely vnderstood 
w* he did but both by the expresse words in the patent & ye 
lease it is plaine he did. 

gthiy N OW sixthly & lastly Mr Halls father understood 
all this in his former lease wch was taken about eight & 
Twenty or Thirty yeares agoe, & urged & alleadged all this 
to S r Arthur Haselrige when he first begannne his commands here, 
but Mr. Hall being a papist & a delinquent could have no 
Justice nor right from him, but carried all before him, And there- 
for this is a Just & true reason why Mr. Hall could not question 
Mr. Whartons patent before this time. And for ye whole point 
wch Mr. Wharton stands soe upon, wch is his continuance by 
severall patents. All Mr. Halls councell doe possitively affirme, 
It is a cleare point to all ye Inclosers wch were but a Moneth 
before the last patent & soe to the whole fforrest, that is all 
severalls & stinted pastures haue beene & dayly are Inclosers 
taken of the fforrest, & may be all, or likely to be in time, 
with the consent of the Customary Tenants without any 
p r iudice at all to the Bp." 

[Endorsed : ' Mr. Wm. Hall Lead Mines. Co : Geo Wreys opinion ' 
followed in bishop Chandler's handwriting : ' upon a dispute 
between ye moor master & Mr. Hall Lessee of ye mines in ye 
enclosed grounds.'] 

(6) A paper endorsed 'Bill & answer. The case between ye Rector 
& Bp' is, with the notes which are in the margin of the 
original document, entirely in the handwriting of bishop 
Chandler. It is here given: 

" The|Bishops of Durham have been possessed very antiently of 
ye Lordship & Manner of Stanhop & ye Moors or Wasts 
in Weredale, w ch are 30 miles or more in extent belonging to 
the said Mannor. 

The Bishops of Durham have likewise for some hundreds of 
years backwards used to let Leases for a short number of years or 
for one life of the land on the Wasts or Moors to such persons as 
were desirous to search for Lead, with which the Wasts abounded. 

The Rent reserved in these Leases, as far back as we can trace 
them, was only the Ninth Horse Load l of Oar (called the 9th Lot 
or part) as soon as it shall begotten & demanded by the Bishop's 
Officer appointed to receive it. 

i A Horseload is a certain number of Bing wch is always ye same. 


These are ye words in Bp. Walter Skirlaws Lease of the 
Mines dated Dec. 1, 3 Hen. 4th, 1401. 2 

And ye same thing is given upon Oath by ye Jury empaneled 
to enquire into ye rights of ye Bp of Durham in Stanhop &c. 

To the Interrog 9. what Mines belong to ye See & what rent 
do they pay. Answ. : S r Wm. Bowes Moormaster pays ye 
Bishop the Lot oar wch is ye 9th Horse Load. 

In Hen. 7th's reign ye then Bp [Thomas RuthalJ lets 2 

groves in ye wast ye Reddendum yeilding & paying 

to ye said Bp. every 9th part or of ure & covt. to do 

to ye Lord etc. 3 

After ye Decease of Hen. VII. 

The Bishop appointed a moor man or Moormaster & granted 
him y 1 office by patent for his life with all ye Mines on ye wast 
or moor & with authority to agree with persons to search for 
& sink pits for a certain time, reserving to ye Bp All 
singular such Lead Ure as of right or custom is due to ye 
s d Bp. within ye Forrest of Weardale. 4 

These patents were renewed from time to time down to 1667 
with ye like Reddendum with small variations ' Yeilding & 
paying to ye Bp the Lot ure according to ye Custom.' ' The 
Lot oar due & to be due according as now is & hath been 
heretofore there used & accustomed.' 5 

The Bp obliges ' ye Moormaster by Covt. for ye first time to 
pay tenth to ye Parson viz., Bp. Pilkington in S r Geo : Bowes 
Patent for Moormasters authorizes him to let Tacks or bargains 
to any Person within ye parish to search for lead, under ye Cov ts 
to continue working ye mines so discovered, & to pay lot for 
ye said Bp. to ye Moor master, & tenth to ye Parson. 

Henceforw d The Moor Masters or their Deputy, let leases 
accordingly on the like conditions of working ; & of delivering 
out, the Lot & tith in due manner ' ' to pay ye lot to ye Ld 
& the Tith to the Parson as they do orderly fall ' 'At all times 
to pay & deliver to the Moor Master All ye lot ure, and ye 
tith to ye Parson, in such kind & form as ye same shall be due 
wi th out collusion or deceit.' 7 

1. From hence appears yt ye 9th horse load as soon as it 
was gotten by ye Lessee & Demanded by the Bp. was ye 9th 
part or Lot or antient rent of the Mines 

2. That ye Bp. could demand & cary off his Lot in ye 
first place & before ye tenth was got, if he so pleased 

3. That ye Lessee at first, & afterwds ye Moor Master who 
stood in the place of ye Lessee, was to answer the Lot to ye Bp. 
and ye tith to ye Parson, & yt ye Parson had no demand or 
concern immediately with ye Bp. 

4. That there was a Custom for ye reckoning for delivery 
of ve Lot oar or a due manner of Computing ye 9th part. wch 
is called ' paying as ye Lot and tith orderly fall, & in such kind 
& form as ye same shall be due.' 

The Bishops Auditors Office in 1645 was plundered : & ye 

2 19 Sepr. 37 Eliz. Agen 6 Hen. 5, Sep. 21, Thomas (Lankly) Bp of Durham grant 
to Robt. Brass all ye lead ure in ye feild & mine in ye Blasedees for a year except ye 
part wch belongs to God & Holy Church. 

3 This is all yt is on ye Abstract of ye Grant. * 1 Eliz. 1558. 

5 4 Eliz. 15<V2. Pilkington. 1641. Morton. 9 Eliz. 7 20, 27 & 30 Eliz. 


antient book called the Moormasters book, refer'd to in some of 
ye Leases, is also lost 

There is no tradition of any dispute between the Bp. or his 
Moormaster, & ye Rector, about ye manner of numbring the 
horse loads for Lot & tith oar, down to ye Restoration 

In 1660 Bp. Cosin granted the Moormaster' s Office & Mines 
for Humph. Wharton, for his life, as ye Patents formerly ran, 
paying the 9th lot to ye Bp. as his predecessors did. 

In 1667 The said Hum. Wharton upon his petition to Parlia-^. 
m 1 gets an act 'to enable ye s d Bp. & his successors, to 
grant a Lease for three Lives of ye said Moor Master's Office & of 
all ye mines on ye Moor, with an addition of cleaning & well 
washing ye said oar' without deduction or demand for ye same, 
or any other charges whatsoever ' & also an addition of 150H in 
money rent. The Reddendum ' yeilding & paying for ye same, 
the lot ure or 9th part of ye said lead ure, gotten in the said 
Mines, from time to time, as the same shall accrue & be gotten, 
clean & well washed' etc. 

Then after Covenants to secure ye rents, at ye conclusion of 
the Act, a proviso follows in these words ' PROVIDED alwaj's, 
yt ye said Humf. Wharton, & his successors ye Moormasters, 
pay or cause to be paid to Dr. Basire & his successors Rectors 
of Stanhop, the Full tith or tenth part of All lead Oar dig'd won 
or gotten out of all or any of ye said mines in clean well wash'd 
& drest oar as soon as it is ready for ye smelting mill, w th out 
abatemt for charges of getting of ye sd oar, or any other cause 
w l soever. 8 Then a saving clause : to ye King & every other 
person & Persons Bodies Politick & Corporate other than ye 
said Bp. & his successors & every other person claiming by 
or under him all their right and title, &c. y 

The same year the Bp. granted Mr. Wharton a Lease for 3 
lives w th ye Covenants for paying ye Lot Oar & ye tith accord 
ing to ye Proviso, in ye very words of ye Act of Parliamt. 

The Act being Passed, the Bp. agreed wth the Moormaster for 
a money sum in lieu of his 9th Lot as ye Rector of Stanhop did 
wth him for his tith. 

And there is no footstep of Any dispute of the Rectors since yt 
time with ye Bp. or the Moor Master about his tith oar. 

Mr. Wharton sold his interest to S r W. Blacket, 1696 whose 
Heirs still enjoy it. 

W" the prsent Bp came to y e See 1730 he found the Lot 
oar let by his prdecessor to ye Moormaster for 3501i, & ye 
tith by ye Rector at 3151i. The difference between these sums 
is 35li wch difference is in ye Proportion of a tenth to a 9th, 
3r>li being ye 10th part of 3501i. So yt at ye time of making 
this bargain it was believed on both sides, yt ye Bp's 9th part 
was more by a tenth than ye Rectors. 

A few years after ye present Bp's accession Mr. Blackett 
applyed to him & had a lease for 7 yrs of ye 9th Lot at ye aforesd 
Rent of 350, & ye Rector granted him also a Lease of his tith 
at 315 li. That Lease being expired & a new Rector admitted, 
the Rector resolves to take ye tith oar in kind. The Moormaster 
p r tending yt he could not pay ye same rent in time of war as in 

f Some variation from ye manner of payint of ye Bp's Lot. 

o The Rector of Stanhop being not expressly excluded in ye saving clause, can he 
set up any fresh claim. 


As ye Bp. hath ye same common interest with ye Rector, they 
join & appoint Agents to receive ye oar, & to dispose of ye 
same. Mr. Blacket, he desires ye refusal of ye oar at an agreed 
price & in paying for it, he paid ye Bp. more than ye Rector, 
in proportion of 10 to 9, & so it was pd for 2 years with ye 
knowledge & consent of ye Rector. 

But now the Rector sets up a claim upon ye Bp for tithing 
ye Bps 9th Lot & saith, it is ye report of the Country yt Dr. 
rJasire who became rector at the Restoration & continued so 
16 or 18 years after ye passing ye act of Parliam 1 , claimed 
& obtained it. 10 

If this be true, it is strange ye succeeding Rectors who were but 
two to ye p r sent, did not keep to yt claim. 

Agen if it be due, it seems not to be due from ye Bp., but 
ye Moormaster who binds himself to pay ye full tith to ye 
Rector, & ye Bps 9th pt (as his Predecessors did, wch are the 
words of his Patent before ye Act) as ye same shall accrue. 

But it seems not possible to be due to ye Rector, for then ye 
Rector will receive a 9th part instead of a tenth for his tith ; 
& ye Bp. a tenth instead of a 9th for his Lot, w ch certainly 
was not intended. Some larger proportion & advantage was 
intended ye Bp. beside ye priority of taking & carrying off ye 
9:h horse, before ye Rector could tith. For suppose a Mine 
afforded but 9 horse loads, ye Bp. was intituled to ye 9th & ye 
Rector had no tenth. 
The Rector replyes to this 

In this way of reckoning ye 9th Lot to ye Bp. & then 
carrying on his next 9th immediately from the former 9th the 
Bp will have 2 Lots in 18 and the Rector but one Tenth. An- 
swer : True & so would ye Bp receive but one 9th in 18 accord- 
ing to the Rectors way of reckoning, viz., who would begin ye 
Bp's second ninth with the eleventh Horse Load or Lot. To make 
it evident in an Arithmetical way : 90 horse Joads do & should 
pay 10 Loads to ye Bp. & 9 Loads to ye Rector & thus ye Bp's 
right is in ye proportion of 10 to 9. Consequently if there be 
but 10 Load ye Rector hath one load; if there be but 18, ye 
Bp. hath 2 loads, ye Rector but one, & in 90 Load tho' ye Bp. 
hath 10 loads the Rector hath his full tenth in his receiving 9 
loads. Now deducting 10 & 9 loads i.e. 19 loads out of 90 
there remains 71 Loads for ye Lessee or Moor master. But if ye 
Bp. did not begin to reckon his 9th load till after ye Rector had 
taken his 10th load, then there would remain 72 Loads for ye 
Lessee out of every 90 loads. So yt ye Rector endeavour n 
ye event, will be, to take one load from ye Bp. to give it to his 
Lessee, & ye Rector will be quite out of ye question. For his 
whole right of tith is satisfied by his re^eiviag 9 load out of 
every 90. So yt the Rector, by this way of reckoning, wd only 
injure ye Bp's Right without bettering his own Right for ye 
19th Load wd then go to ye Lessee. 

And lest stress should be laid on ye words in ye Proviso of ye 
Act. For a full tith of all lead oar gotten out of all or any of ye 
mines within ye Parishes of Stanhop & Wolsingham. 

It must be remembred, that there is another old Lease of ye 
lead ore in ye copyhold & enclosed lands in Stanhop of wch 
we have copies from ye restoration before ye Act relating to ye 

10 It is now 76 years since the act. 


Mines on ye wast, w ch Lease is by mesne conveyance now in 
Mr. Blacket. 

In that Lease ye same words of a full 9th have been & are 
inserted for paym* of ye 9th Lot for oar gotten in those Mines 
viz., ; Yeilding & paying to ye said Bp & Sucessors one full 9th 
part of all such lead oar as shall be gotten within the p r mises.' 

The Rector claims a full tenth from these Mines here as well as 
as from ye Mines on ye Waste and ye Bp. by ye words of ye 
same Lease is also entituled to a full 9th. How shall these 2 rents 
a full ninth to the Ld. with a full 10th to ye Rector be reconcild, 
but by the Bps. having a right to carry off his horse load as soon 
as gotten out of the mines & leaving ye Rector to take his 10th 
of waat remains wn it is fitt to go to ye smelting Mill ? as ye 
words in ye Proviso of ye Statute specific. 

The truth is these are different paym ts on different Accounts. 
Ye Bp. as Lord of ye Soil might let his Oar in ye reddendum of 
any part of ye Oar, as well as ye 9th part. He might have fixt 
a 5th or 7th for his Lot Oar And if he had done so, w n ye fifth 
or 7th was taken off, he would have begun his next fifth or 7th 
horse Load from ye immediate 6th or 8th, without staying for 
ye coming of ye 10th, or skipping over ye 10th. The Ld's 
rent is a paymt of a different kind, & is .-to be answered by ye 
Moor master to ye Ld. The Rector must come on ye land, or 
ye tenant. Q.I. Cannot ye Bp. at any time legally take his 9th 
without any regard to ye Rector's claim of a 10th. (2 d ) Or if 
you think ye Rector's demand extends to the whole produce, is 
not y l demand to be made upon ye Lessee who covenants to pay 
a full 9th Lot by ye act & his Lease to ye Bp." 

Durham, ii th Octob r 1743. 

(c.) " I have made a very diligent search in the Chancery Office, 

thro' all the files & books, from the Restoration down to the year 
1690, but cannot find during that time, that there has been any 
suit in that Court any way relating to the Leadmines in Weredale, 
Except that between Lord Crewe & Mr. Wharton, wherein your 
Lord? has a copy of the ffinal order. And in the year 1664 a 
bill was ffiled by Doctor Basire then Rector of Stanhope agt 
severall persons for his dues of the Lead oar, & inclosed is a 
Copy of the sd bill & of the answer thereto, but there are no 
further proceedings in the Cause, save a Replication (in wch is 
recited a very old Deed) a copy whereof I'll send to your Lordship 
by the next post. I have been very carefull in this search, & am 
confident that there have been no other Causes in that time, in 
the name of the Attorney generall agt Wharton or Hall, or by 
Hall or Wharton agt ye Attorney gnrall, or agt each other 
I am my Lord 

Your Lordships most obedient humble servt 

In Mann" 

[Endorsed in bishop Chandler's handwriting : 4 Mr. Man's Certi- 
ficate y 1 no other proceeding to be found in their books, or 
Papers in Chancery, relating to Dr. Basires cause, or any dispute 
between y e Bp & Rector & Rector & Patentee or Bp & Patentee 
or Hall & Wharton.'] 

(d.) " This Indre made the 2nd day of Jany 15 Geo: 3d 1775 Between 
The R' Revd. Father in God John by the Grace of God Lord 
Bishop of Durham of the one part & Thomas Dixon of Chapel 
in Weardale in the County of Durham yeoman of the other part 


Witnessth that the s d Revd. Fa r for divers good causes & 
considerations him thereunto moving Hath demised granted and 
to Farm letten and by these presents by himself & his succors 
Doth demise grant and to farm lett unto the said Thos. Dixon 
his exors admors & ass All those his Quarries of stone and Slate 
whatsoever as well opened as not opened within the Parish of 
Stanhope in the said County of Durham and not being already 
in grant to any other person and full and free ingress egress and 
regress to and from the same with Carts Carriages or otherwise 
And Liberty to dig win work burn and carry away the same 
Together with all and singular ways waters easements and 
appurtenances thereunto belonging or in any wise appertaining 
And also all that piece or parcel of ground whereon the Castle of 
Westgate in Weardale aforesaid formerly stood together with the 
several pieces or parcels of ground thereto belonging or antiently 
appertaining and now lying or which lately were lying waste And 
all and all manner of ways waters easements paths passages 
profits commodities and appurtenances to the same scite 
parcels of Ground and premises belonging or appertaining Except 
nevertheless so much of the said stone and slate as it shall please 
him the said Rev. Fa r or his succesrs to dig win work or burn 
for his and their own use & uses To HAVE AND TO HOLD all and 
singular the said demised premises with their and every 
of their appurtenances whatsoever (except before excepted) 
unto the said Thomas Dixon his exors admors & assigns from 
the making hereof for and during and unto the full end and 
Term of Twenty one years from thenceforth next and immediate- 
ly following fully to be compleat and ended Yeilding & Paying 
therefore yearly during the said term unto the said Rev. Father 
and his succors or to his or their Rec r Gen 1 or assignee for the time 
being at or in the Exchequer at Durham the Rent or sum of 10s. 
of lawful Money of Great Britain at the feasts of the purification 
of the Blessed Virgin Mary Pentecost Lammas and Saint Martin 
the Bishop in Winter by ever and equal portions without 
Deduction or abatement for any manner of Taxes or Assesses 
either by Act of Parliament or otherwise howsoever The first 
payment thereof to begin and be made upon the feast day of the 
Purification of the Blessed Virgin Mary now next ensuing And if 
it shall happen that the said yearly Rent or any part thereof be 
behind or unpaid by the space of twenty days next after any of 
the said Feasts or Days at which the same ought to be paid as 
aforesaid That then and from henceforth it shall and may be 
lawful to and for the said Rev d Fat r . and his successors into 
the said demised premises and every part and parcel thereof 
wholly to re-enter and the same to have again retain repossess 
and enjoy as in his and their first and former estate anything 
herein contained to the contrary thereof may arise notwithstand- 
ing. And the said Tho s Dixon for himself ; his Heirs Exors. 
Admors, & Ass s doth hereby covenant promise and agree to 
and wirh the said Rever d Fa r and his succors That the said 
Thomas Dixon his Exors. Admors. and Ass s or some of them 
shall and will at all times during the said term well and truly pay 
or cause to be paid unto the said Rev d Fat r & his succors, 
the said yearly Rent above reserved at such days and times and 
in such manner and form as is above limitted and appointed for 
payment thereof. And also shall and will during the said term 


duly and truly do and perform unto the said Rev d Fat r & 
his succors, all such Customs Duties & |Services as for the said 
demised premises of right ought to be done and performed. In 
witness, &c " 

[Endorsed: ' 2 Jany., 1775. Dra* Le. of Qua rs in Stanhope 
& the Waste of the Scite of Westgate Castle to Thos. Dixon. 
Term 21 years, Rent 10s. Od.'] 


Mr. R. O. Heslop (one of the secretaries) read the annual report of the 
council which may be seen in Archaeologia Aeliana, xxv., where also the 
treasurer's balance sheet, and the curators' report are printed. 

The balance sheet, read by Mr. Nisbet, the treasurer, shewed a balance 
in favour of the society at the beginning of 1902 of 77 3s. Id., the total 
income of the year being 604 9s. 10d., and the expenditure, 533 3s. Id., 
leaving a balance at the end of 1902 of income over expenditure of 
71 6s. 9d. The capital invested with dividends was 85 2s. lid. The 
receipts were from subscriptions, 345 9s. Od., from Castle and Blackgate 
museum 155 16s. 6d., and from books sold 26 Is. 3d. The printing 
cost, Archaeologia 161 12s. Od., and Proceedings 59 8s. Od., and the 
illustrations 46 13s. 3d. New books have cost 48 10s. Od., and 
expenditure at Castle and Blackgate was 106 11s. 8d. 

Mr. T. Taylor, F.S.A., moved the adoption of the report, which, after 
being seconded by Mr. Willyams, was carried new. con. 


The chairman then declared the following persons duly elected to the 
respective offices in terms of Statute V. which sets forth ' that if the 
number of persons nominated for any office be the same as the number 
to be elected, the person or persons nominated shall be deemed elected, 
and shall be so declared by the chairman,' viz : 

President : His Grace the Duke of Northumberland, K.G., F.S.A. 

12 Vice-Presidents : Horatio Alfred Adamson, Robert Richardson 
Dees, the Rev. William Greenwell, D.C.L., F.S.A., &c., John Vessey 
Gregory, Thomas Hodgkin, D.C.L., F.S.A., &c., Charles James Spence, 
Richard Welford, M.A., Thomas Taylor, F.S.A., Lawrence W. Adamson, 
LL.D., Frederick Walter Dendy, Robert Coltman Clephan, F.S.A., and 
John Crawford Hodgson, F.S.A. 

2 Secretaries : Robert Blair, F.S.A., and Richard Oliver Heslop, M.A., 

Treasurer : Robert Sinclair Nisbet. 

Editor : Robert Blair. 

Librarian : Joseph Oswald. 

2 Curators : Charles James Spence and Richard Oliver Heslop. 

2 Auditors : John Martin Winter and Herbert Maxwell Wood, B. A. 

12 Council : Rev. Cuthbert Edward Adamson, M.A., Rev. Johnson 
Baily, M.A., Rev. Douglas Samuel Boutflower, M.A., Parker Brewis, 
Sidney Story Carr, John Pattison Gibson, George Irving, William Henry 
Knowles, F.S.A., Rev. Henry Edwin Savage, M.A., William Weaver 
Tomlinson, David Dippie Dixon, and the Rev. John Walker, M.A. 

Letters were read from Mr. H. A. Adamson and Mr. L. W. Adamson 
thanking the members for their election as vice-presidents, and regret- 
ting their inability to be present. : 

The business concluded with a vote of thanks to the chairman, on the 
motion of Mr. Clephan, 





VOL. I. (3 Ser.) 1903. No. 2. 

The ordinary monthly meeting of the society was held in the library 
of the Castle, Newcastle, on Wednesday, 25th February, 1903, at seven 
o'clock in the evening, Mr. C. J. Spence, one of the vice-presidents, 
being in the chair. 

Several accounts, recommended by the council for payment, were 
ordered to be paid. 

The following ordinary members were proposed and declared duly 
elected : 

i. William Goode Davies of Enfield Lodge, Elswick Road, 

ii. Tynemouth Public Library, North Shields. 

The following NEW BOOKS, etc., were placed on the table : 
Presents, for which thanks were voted : 

From the Nova Scotian Institute of Science, Halifax, Nova Scotia : 

Proc. and Trans, x. iii. (2 Ser. in.) 8vo. 
From the Royal Ethnographical Society of Upsala, Sweden : 

Skrifter, vn. 8vo. 

Exchanges : 

From the Archaeol. Society of Namur : Bibliographic Namuroise, by 
1'abbe F. D. Doyen, in, 1831-1860; 8vo. Namur, 1902. 

From the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, U.S.A. : 8vo. 
overprints from its reports, viz. : (1) ' The Mind of Primi- 
tive Man,' by Franz Boas ; (2) * Traps of the American 
Indians,' by Otis T. Mason ; (3) ' The Abbott Collection from 
the Andaman Islands,' by Lieut. W. E. Safford ; (4) 'The 
Fire Walk Ceremony in Tahiti,' by S. P. Langley ; (5) 
4 Boomerangs,' by Gilbert T. Walker; (6) 'The possible Im- 
provement of the Human Breed,' &c., by Francis Galton, 
D.C.L., &c. ; (7) 'Order of Development of the Primal 
Shaping Arts,' by W. H. Holmes ; and (8) The Develop- 
ment of Illumination,' by Walter Hough. 

From the Powys-land Club : Coll. Hist, and Archaeol. relating to 
Montgomery <sh. and its Borders, xxxii. iii., 8vo. Oswestry, 1902. 


From the Shropshire Archaeol. and Nat. Hist. Socy. : Transactions, 
3 Ser. in. i., 8vo. 

From the Surrey Archaeol. Soc. : Surrey Arch. Coll., xvn., 8vo. cl. 

From the Canadian Institute of Toronto : (1) Trans., No. 14, vn. ii., 
Oct. 1902; and (2) Proc., N.S. n. v. July, 1902. 8vo. 

From the Cambridge Antiquarian Soc. : Cambridge Gild Records, 
edited by Mary Bateson, 8vo. 

From the Cambrian Archaelogical Assoc. : Archaeologia Cambrensis, 
6 Ser. in. i., 8vo. 

From the Somersetsh. Archaeological & \Nat. Hist. Soc. : Pro- 
ceedings for 1902, 3 Ser. vin., 8vo. 

From the Suffolk Institute of Archaeology : Proceedings xi. ii., 8vo. 

From the Royal Academy of History and Antiquities of Sweden : 
Antiquarisk Tidskrift, xvn. i. & ii., 8vo. 

Purchases Notes and Queries, Nos. 267 and 268 ; and The Antiquary 
for Feb. 1903. 


Thanks were voted for the following : 

From the North-Eastern Railway Co. (per Mr. Geo. Irving), the 
carved jamb of an old fireplace from a destroyed house in the 
Castlegarth, Newcastle. 

From Sir H. W. Seton-Kerr, K.C.M.G., M.P. : Twelve palaeolithic 

; stone implements lately discovered by him in pits in the 

lateritic deposits at Poondi, 29 miles west of Madras ; they 

were discovered under the same conditions as those found by 

Mr. Bruce Foote 20 to 30 years ago. 

From Mrs. N. G. Clayton, of Chesters : 56 iron arrow heads from 
t the hoard found at Housesteads (Borcovicus) by the Excava- 

tion Committee, three or four years ago. 


By Mr. J. D. Milburn (per Mr. F. W. Rich) : Four Roman coins dis- 
covered at the foot of the Side, Newcastle, while digging for 
the foundations of the new buildings to be erected there by 
Mr. Milburn. They are of (i.) Severus Alexander (a base 
denarius: obv. IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG; rev. MARS VLTOR); 
(ii.) Gordian III. (3 M : rev. PROVID AVG) ; (iii.) Tetricus 
(3 JE) ; and (iv.) Constantino II. (3 JE ; rev. Two Victories). 


Mr. F. W. Dendy, F.S.A., read an unfinished paper by the late 
W. H. D. Longstaffe, on this subject. 

Thanks were voted to Mr. Dendy by acclamation, and it was 
unanimously resolved to print the paper in Archaeologia Aeliana. 

Mr. F. W. Dendy next read'his paper on 


with abstracts of documents. 

Mr. Dendy thought that it would add to the value of the documents 
if they were collated with the originals, and revised, before being pub- 
lished, and it was resolved, on the motion of Mr. Hodgson, seconded 
by Mr. Clephan, that, as suggested by Mr. Dendy, the extracts be 
compared with the originals at the cost of the society. 

Thanks were voted by acclamation to Mr. Dendy. 



Mr. Hugh W. Young, F.S.A. (Scot.), sent an extract from the MSS. of 
Sir John Clerk of Penicuik, in the Advocates' Library, Edinburgh, relating 
to a visit to the Roman Wall in Northumberland : " 'About the end of 
April, 1724, I took a journey to the North of England to see the famous 
Roman Wall of England, which was first carried on by way of a vallum 
and earthen bank * * * and afterwards fortified by a stone wall * * * 
At Housesteads I found forty pieces of sculpture lying about, but as I 
have written a particular journal of this little trip to England I shall say 
no more here.' Among the MSS. papers at Penicuik House are 14 
folio pages with sketches of inscriptions, etc. They are entitled ' Ane 
account of some Roman Antiquities observed at Bulness on the Solway 
Firth.' I do not think this paper has ever been printed." 

Mr. Young was thanked for his communication. 


Mr. Blair (one of the secretaries) read the following letter of 4 Mar. 
1903, from prof. G. A. Hulsebos, Ph.D., of Utrecht, an honorary member 
of the society : " Being occupied in the study of the archives of our 
church I found a letter in Latin addressed to the Clasaia (an ecclesias- 
tical term, indicating a group of local churches) of Utrecht by some 
London preachers. In the idea that it might be of some interest for the 
Society, of which I have the honour to be a member, I made a copy of it, 
which I have hereby the pleasure to send you. I suppose it has been 
written by some calligraphist, who did not well understand the Latin, 
and made faults in transcribing the minute. At the foot of the pages 
I have made some corrections and moreover put expansions of abbre- 

The document referred to is as follows : 

" Reverendissimi in Christo J. fratres Amoris vri 1 et charitatis 
laborem in collectionis negotio intra Classicam vestram praecinctam 
factae in opem afflictissimorum in Hibernia Protestantium agnoscere 
nobis necesse est, quo liberalitatem vestram abundasse et omnium 
precedentium exemplum multis parasangis superasse ingenue 
agnoscamus ; regnum hoc eiusque compendium (celsissimam 
scilicet honoratissimamque Parliamenti Curiam) ad gras 3 agendas 
devinxistis, quas venerabili Theologorum Synodo una cum hisce 
non solum vobis ofnciossime reddi precepit, verum etiam ad hoc 
recolendum beneficium nos p r sertim 3 instanter provocavit, qui 
mutuis amoris officiis amicitiam per totum hoc negotii peragendi 
tempus vobiscum coluimus ab iis quorum fidei a Parliament et 
nobis Commissionariis legati 4 ad vos commissa est certissime 
accepimus vos intirno animi affectu commotos ' Sun deo' authores 
impulsoresque felicissimos exstitisse ad populi benignitatem exitan- 
dam et ad tantum fastigium quo nunc conspicitur perducendam. 
Digitum Dei hie apparuisse manifesto liquet ut omnibus scilicet 
nnotesceret et hoc opus ipsius proprium esse et eum sibi suo 
quidem modo et mediis gloriam suam acquirere velle. Ideoque 
vos certiores facimus charitatem vestram rebus protestantum miser- 
rimorum quibus in Hibernia languescentibus tradita est tantum 
solatii reddidisse, ut plurimos ab interitu servaverit. ffieri 5 aliter 
non potest quin triticum suum seminanti Christo sua etiam zizania 
iniiciat invidus. Hinc quam plurimi falsissimi accusatores exorti 
et calumniae inter vos disseminatae a quibusdam si nostratibus 
male feritatis tamen homuncionibus, quibus 6 suspiciones callide 
1 vestri 2 gratias 3 praesertim 4 legatio 5fieri 6 qui 

insinuare. hominum animos distrahere, amicitiam inter nationes 
dirimere et hoc precipue negotium vix adhuc inceptum impedire 
studiose conati sunt, Eo autem magis vos demeruistis quod falsis- 
simis hisce malitiossimisque rumoribus aurem non praebentes 
auxisse potius liberalitatem quam de beneficentia detraxisse videa- 
mini ; Bummae prudentiae vestrae haud vulgare argumentum est, 
quod nee male hisce artibus decipi, nee speciosis (sed falsissimis) 
illecebris a proposito charitatis in calamitosos officio abduci potuis- 
tis nee retardari, quod in honorem facti non solum omni posteritatis 
memoriae tanquam monumentum nullo exemplo aequandum 
recolendum praeponemus sed et arctori 7 unionis vinculo colligati 
causam Dei populique eius propugnabimus adversus hominem 
peccati eiusque parti addictos. A vobis autem contendimus ut 
animum firmiter inducatis tempus idoneum aliquando affuturum, 
cum ab iis ad quos comeatus 8 vester perveniebat vobis plenissima 
ratio reddatur accepti beneficii, cuius gratia etiam nunc quam pluri- 
mi famelici vobis benedicunt. Valde molestum esset falsis rumori- 
bus ad impediendum negotium hoc apud vos sparsis sigillatem 9 
respondere, quod eo magis omittere visum est, quod ordinibus vestris 
celsisimis magnificisque generalibus et provincialibus iamdudum 
a Parliamento satisfactum esse novimus a quibus vos ea de causa 
certiores iam pridem factos nulli dubitamus ; si quid vero in dubium 
vocabitis aut ampliorem istiusmodi obiectiunculis responsionem 
desiderabitis, comissionarios et alios vobis in hac re per Parliamen- 
tum iam missos et comorantes ad aliam satisfactionem daturos 
praeparemus. Ideoque ab ulteriore molestia vobis creanda hoc 
tempore abstinentes vobis persuasum iri cupimus 
London 25 April 1645 

Nos fratres esse vestros omni animi 
affectu devinctissimos 

(: -^^>c^^^^^^ 

Reyerendis Clarissimis doctissimis et pientissimis spectabilibus 
viris dominis pastoribus et senioribus Classis Ultrajectinse fratribus 
nostris in Christo dilectissimis colendis 
Thanks were voted to Dr. Hulsebos for his communication. 

7 arctiori 8 coinmeatus 9 singillatim 






VOL. I. (3 Ser.) 1903. No. 3. 

The ordinary monthly meeting of the society was held in the library 
of the Castle, Newcastle, on Wednesday, 25th March, 1903, at seven 
o'clock in the evening, Mr. Richard Welford, M.A., one of the vice- 
presidents, being in the chair. 

Several accounts, recommended by the council for payment, were 
ordered to be paid. 

The following ordinary members were proposed and declared duly 
elected : 

i. M. C. Hill, Southend, Newcastle. 

ii. Rev. Stephen Liberty, M.A., 12 Larkspur Terrace, Jesmond, 

The following NEW BOOKS were placed on the table : 
Present, for which thanks were voted : 

From Sir Lambton Loraine, bart. : Pedigree of Loraine of Kirkharle, 
demy 4to., full calf, plates. 

Exchanges : 

From the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, U.S.A. : Annual 

Report for 1900, 8vo. cl. 
From the Nassau Antiquarian Soc. : (i.) Mittheilungen, No. 1-4, 

1902-1903. 8vo. ; and (ii.) Annalen, vol. xxxni., pt i., 1902. 

Large 8vo. Wiesbaden, 1903. 
From the Society of Antiquaries of London : Proceedings, 2 ser. 

xix. i. Nov. 28, 1901, to June 19, 1902. 

Purchases : 2 copies of The Chester Catalogue of Antiquities ; Notes and 
Queries, Nos. 270-3 ; Mittheilungen of the' Imp. German 
Arch. Inst. xvn., 3, large 8vo. Rom, 1903 ; and the Rev. 
E. A. Downam's plans of 11 British Camps (original drawings). 
[They are of Longville Ditches, Holdgate Castle, Bodbury 
Ring, Norton, Clun Castle, Fron, Caer-din Ring, Bury Ditches, 
Radnor Wood, Caynham, and Burrow, all in Dorsetshire.] 


The following was announced : 

By Mr. C. H. Blair : ' The royal arms of Great Britain and Ireland, 
with supporters, helmet, mantling and crest, finely carved in 
wood, as they were blazoned from 1714 to 1801. The shield in 
the centre is surrounded by the garter and motto, has the motto 


' Dieu et Mon Droit' on scroll below, and shews the following 
quarterings : (1.) England (gules three leopards gold) impaling 
Scotland (gold a lion rampant gules within a double treasure ;) 
(2.) France modern (azure three fleurs-de-lis gold) ; (3.) Ireland 
azure a harp gold); (4.) Hanover, viz., Brunswick (gules two 
leopards gold) impaling Liineburg, (gold, powdered with hearts a 
lion rampant azure) and in the base point Westphalia (gules a 
white horse), over all, on an escutcheon gules, the crown of 
Charles the Great, gold.' (See illustration on plate facing this 
page. ) 
Thanks were voted to Mr. Blair for his gift. 


By Mr. J. Nesbit, Elmbank, Jesmond (per Mr. Geo. Irving), the head 
of an ecclesiastic in carved oak ' sawn from a corbel or truss,' 
found at Low Chibburn. Northumberland. Its extreme length 
is 16| inches. See illustration of it on plate facing this page. 
[Mr. Irving read the following note : ' The photographs I here- 
with send you are of a piece of oak carving which has evidently been 
sawn from a corbel or truss, and represents an ecclesiastic of some 
kind wearing a mitre. It belongs to Mr. John Nesbit, of Elmbank, 
Jesmond. One of his ancestors lived at Low Chibburn, a precep- 
tory of the Knights Hospitallers, of which there are considerable 
remains. See paper by Mr. J. Crawford Hodgson, in Arch. Ael. 
xvn. 263. and also xvm. 267, for note by the late Dr. Embleton.'] 

By Mr. David D. Dixon of Rothbury : seven swords, two fencing foils, 
and two bayonets. 

[Mr. Dixon said: " The rusty old swords lying on the table to-night 
for the inspection of the members, excepting for their local interest, 
are of little value to the sword collector. They have all been 
given to me by people living in Coquetdale. It was at the suggestion 
of Mr. Parker Brewis that they were brought for exhibition, and 
after I have told their local history, he will, perhaps, tell us their real 
history, where they were made, the names of the makers, as well 
as the periods to which they belong, information that can only be 
given by an expert like him. Personally I am indebted to Mr. 
Brewis for this information, as I was ignorant of the age and use of 
several of the weapons. Nos. 1 and 2, are simply modern fencing 
foils, made at Solingen. No. 3, a bayonet picked up on the field 
of battle during the Franco-Prussian war of 1870. No. 4, an old 
English bayonet, said to have been the weapon with which the man 
was killed at Lilburn Allers, near Wooler, in 1811. Nos. 5 and 6, 
sergeants' or bandsmen's swords of the 19th century. No. 7, a 
Spanish silver-mounted sword, formerly in the possession of Mr. 
Ralph Strothers of Newton-on-the-Moor. No. 8, a hunting sword. 
No. 9, a Pathan tulwar, picked up on the 28 Oct. 1888, after a 
skirmish with Hassanzais, near Trund, in the Black Mountains, 
Hazara, in the north west of India; this weapon was given to 
me by Sergt. -Major Fraser, 5th Northumberland Fusiliers, by 
whom it was found. No. 10, a cavalry sword, late 17th century, 
for many years in the possession of an old Coquetdale family named 
Bolam ; and No. 11, a cavalry sword, late 18th century, sent to me 
from Saffron Walden." 

By the permission of Mr. W. A. Watson-Armstrong, Mr. Dixon 
also exhibited three cannon balls, " found by workmen in February, 
1903, when digging a drain, near to the Armstrong Memorial 




















i 3 






















2 ft. 1 in. 


Cottages, opposite to the 'Scottish Ford' on the Coquet. The balls 
were found in a line of about 30 yards ; varying from 3 feet to 6 
feet beneath the surface. From evidence given by the workmen 
there appears to have been an older road beneath and near the 
present one, as the bed in which the balls were found was hard and 
resembled a proper made road. In the days of Scottish warfare 
there was a constant marching to and fro of the English army, and 
one of their routes was up the valley of the Coquet. These balls 
may have been dropped on the way, or there may have been a halt 
made there for the night. At all events it does not seem probable 
they have been discharged from a cannon from the position in 
which they were found. They are made of iron, and measure and 
weigh respectively (1) 7 Jin. circumference, 27 J ozs. (2) 6|in. cir- 
cumference, 21ozs. (3) 6 Jin. circumference, 16ozs." 

By Mr. J. D. Milburn (per Mr. C. J. Spence) : The following additional 
objects found during the excavations in the Side, Newcastle (see 
page 26) : the bowl of a small copper spoon, and four coins. 
The coins are a Roman third brass of Constans (obv. CONSTANS 
NOB. CAES. : rev. GLORIA EXERCITVS. In ex. P.L.C. two soldiers 
standing with labarum) ; a Roman third brass, illegible ; 
a three-penny piece of Elizabeth (obv. ELIZABETH. D.G. ANG. 


1567) ; and a halfpenny of Charles n. 

By Mr. R. Blair (secretary) : A sealing wax impres- 
sion, kindly supplied to him by Dr. Joseph 
Anderson of the Edinburgh Antiquarian 
museum, of the seal of Thomas de Rede, 
in that museum. The matrix which is 
of silver was found about thirty years ago 
'in a field on the farm of Newton, in the 
parish of Chillingham, not far from a stone 
called the L d Earl stane.' The arms on it 
are a chevron between three objects which 
may be palms, wheat stalks or reeds, 
though they are most like fish bones. 
The arms of Rede are a chevron between 
three garbs. Dr. Anderson suggests that 
the arms shown are of the punning order 
and represent a chevron between three 
reeds, instead of three garbs. The inscrip- 
tion around is s' THOME DE REDE. In the 
Proceedings of the Scottish Society (xxxn. 
70). there is a note of the seal, together 
with an illustration of both it and the 
device. The block here given has been 
kindly lent by the Scottish Society. 

The council's recommendation to purchase the coloured reproduction 
of a plan of Newcastle of 1650, in the British Museum, published by Jon. 
Neild, at 21s. ; A Catalogue of the Bateman Collection of Antiquities 
in the Sheffield Museum ; Borough Seals of the Gothic period, by Gale 
Pedrick ; and Ancient Chests and Coffers, was agreed to. 

The recommendation of the council for the appointment of Messrs. 
T. Hodgkin, D.C.L., and J. Crawford Hodgson, F.S.A., as repre- 
sentatives of the society to the Historical Congress to be held in Rome 
in April, they intending to be in that city at the time, was agreed to. 



Mr. B. O. Heslop, M.A., F.S.A. (one of the secretaries), read Notes 
on a recent examination of some structural features of the keep of the 
Castle of Newcastle, and their relation to the original construction of 
the great hall.' 

Thanks were voted by acclamation to Mr. Heslop, and it was unani- 
mously resolved to print the paper, with suitable illustrations, in 
Archaeologia Aeliana. 


Mr. W. H. Knowles, F.S.A., read the following notes on the well 
recently discovered in the tower at Chipchase : 

" Chipchase occupies one of the finest positions in the valley of the 
North Tyno. It stands on an elevated site on the left bank of the 
river, surrounded by park lands, and enclosed on the north by a back 
ground of lofty trees. The castle is of several dates. It comprises a 

fourteenth century tower, the manor 
house erected by Cuthbert Heron 1621 
the finest example of Jacobean work in 
the county and the additions made by 
the Reeds in 1784. The tower is not 
now habitable; the remainder constitutes 
the residence of the owner, Mr. Thomas 
Taylor, F.S.A. The well recently dis- 
covered is in the medieval tower, which 
it may be permissible to describe briefly. 
It measures externally 51 feet 6 ins. by 
34 feet, and is 50 feet in height to the 
parapet walk, and 10 feet more to the top 
of the angle bartizans. It is unusually 
well built and is crowned by a very bold 
corbelled and machiolated battlemented 
parapet. It is an imposing and typical 
example of the larger towers as distin- 
guished from the castles properly so 
called. In the interior the tower is 
divided into four stages, the basement 
only is vaulted, the other floors were of 
timber. 1 The tower has been carefully 
preserved 2 and contains on the inside 
several interesting features, such as a 
portion of a wooden grille in the port- 
cullis grooves, a small oratory in the 
thickness of the wall at the second 
floor level, and a kitchen replete with 
fireplace, kitchen and water drain on the 
third floor. It is not therefore a matter 
of surprise that the water supply one of the first essentials of a castle 
should be discovered within the walls of the tower or keep. In 
every abode a full water supply was a necessity, and had to be con- 
veyed in pipes from an available source or obtained by sinking a 

1 An exhaustive description of the tower is given in the new county History of 
Northumberland, n. 334. See also 'Border Holds' (Arch. Ael. xiv.) 410. 

2 It has undergone during the past two years a careful and conservative restoration. 






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well or wells. In the large keeps 
shafts were built, sometimes in 
the thickness of the walls as at 
Newcastle, and sometimes as at 
Rochester in the mid wall with 
openings at each floor level to 
enable the water buckets to be 
stopped where required, but these 
facilities were not common to the 
smaller towers, although clearly at 
Belsay there is a well at the ground 
level, and at Edlingham a tower 
with an unusual amount of good 
architectural detail the well 
shaft was brought to the upper 
floor and arched recesses arranged 
and fitted with shelves for the 
water vessels. The well at Chip- 
chase which Mr. Taylor has exca- 
vated is at the north end of the 
vaulted basement and it is five to 
six feet in diameter. Excepting 
on the north side where it is faced 
with ashlar, the well is rudely 
formed in the limestone rock to 
a distance of twelve feet below 
the ground level and is continued 
through slate and clay, to a fur- 
ther depth of 8 feet see section. 
The water collected from the 
rising ground on the north side of 
the tower, percolates through the 
clay and slate and is received into 
the lower part of the well, where it 
remains at a depth of 4 feet, oc- 
casionally rising to 5 feet. Before 
the modern system of surface 
draining was introduced no doubt 
the well filled more rapidly and 
rose to a greater height than it 
now does. In the crown of the 
vault immediately over the well 
is an aperture through which the 
water buckets could be raised to 
the first floor, possibly the wooden 
floors above were provided with a 
trap door or other opening for the 
same purpose. At the north end 
of the west wall, three feet from 
the level of the first floor is a 
small double arched recess, it may 
have been considering its prox- 
imity to the aperture of the well 
used as a receptacle for water 

to Mr. 

Thanks were voted 
Knowles for his notes. 

a See Arch. Ael. xiv. 411, wherein 
it is suggested that this recess was used 
as an oven. 








VOL. I. (3 Ser.) 1903. No. 4. 

The ordinary monthly meeting of the society was held in the library 
of the Castle, Newcastle, on Wednesday, the 29th day of April, 1903, 
at seven o'clock in the evening, Mr. R. C. Clephan, one of the vice- 
presidents, being in the chair. 

Several accounts recommended by the council for payment were 
ordered to be paid. 

The following ordinary members were proposed and declared duly 
elected : 

i. Henry Clarke, 27, Dockwray Square, North Shields, 
ii. The Rev. Canon Southwell, Bishop's Hostel, Grainger 
Park Road, Newcastle. 

The following NEW BOOKS, etc., were placed on the table : 
Presents, for which thanks were voted : 

From Mr F. Haverfield, F.S.A. : Report of the Cumberland Excavation 

Committee for 1902 (reprint from the Transactions of the 

Cumb. and Westm. Antiq. Soc.) 8vo. 
From the Rev. H. J. Dukinfield Astley, M.A., the author : ' Tree- 

and Pillar- Worship ' (reprint from the Trans. R.S.L. xxiv.) ; 

8vo., pp. 60. 
From the writer : Reminiscences of the City of Newcastle-on-Tyne, 

particularly of Pilgrim Street and the neighbourhood, a paper 

read by Mr. William Henry Holmes, at the Friends' Meeting 

House on 4th March, 1903"; 28 pp., sm. 8vo. 
Exchanges : 

From ' La Societe Archeologique de Namur ' : Annales, xxm. iv., 

'Toponymie namuroise,' 8vo., Namur, 1903. 
From 'La Societe d'Archeologie de Bruxelles ' : Annales, xvi., iii., 

and iv. ; 8vo. [contains an interesting account of the 

' Chateau des Comtes dit le Gravensteen, a Gand', with a 

large plan,] 8vo. Brussels. 
From the Cambrian Archaeological Association : Archaeologia Cam- 

brensis; Q ser., in., ii., 8vo. 


From the Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethno- 
logy, Harvard University, U.S.A. : (i.) Memoirs n., ii. 'Re- 
searches in the central portion of the Usumatsintla Valley,' by 
Theodore Maler, large 4to ; Cambridge, U.S.A., 1903. 

From the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, U.S.A. : (i.) 19th 
Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, parts 1 
and 2; 2 vols., large 8vo., cl. ; and (ii.) Bulletin, ' Tsimshiam 
Texts' by Boan ; 8vo., cl. 

From the Cumb. & Westmoreland Antiquarian Society : Transactions, 

N.S., in., 8vo., cl. 

Purchases : Ancient Coffers and Cupboards, by Roe, large 4to. cl., col. 
and other plates ; Mittheilungen of the Imp. German Arch. 
Inst. ; Reliquary and Antiquary for April, 1903 ; Catalogue of 
the Bateman Collection in Sheffield Museum ; The Registers of 
Ingram and of Edlingham (North, and Durh. Par. Reg. Soc.) 


The following was announced and thanks voted to the donors : 
From Andrew Reid & Co., Ld. : A miner's lamp of iron, recent, 

from Greece. The screw by which the burner is fixed ends in 

the figure of a cock. 

By Mr. Maberly Phillips : Three documents relating to Seaton Sluice: 
(i) a bill of lading, of 5th May, 1787, for 3255 dozen bottles, 1507 
doz. and 6 of them 'Moulds,' 1532 doz. and 2 ' Commons,' 107 doz. 
and 9 ' Corbyn Quarts mark't, IE West Tilby,' and 107 doz. and 1 
' Winchester Quarts Wide Mouths,' in the 'John,' of which John 
Forside was master ; (ii) a glassworker's indenture of 7th Feb. 
1800, shewing the wages paid, etc., and (hi) a letter of Elizabeth 
Gainsby, dated Plymouth, April the 23, 1759, to 'Mrs. Ann Mack 
Dowel att Hartley, near Seaton Delewal ' relating to some money 
and to her attempt to find her husband, ' who is alleged to have 
belonged to His Majesty's Shipe the Shearnest.' She asked her to 
send ' A clean frank.' 

By Mr. George Irving : A photograph with plan and elevations of 
the ancient doorway on the west side of the Castlegarth, Newcastle, 
discovered on the demolition of an old house by the No. Eastern 
Railway Co. (See opposite page.) 

By Mr. R. J. Leeson : (i) An engraved brass 17, or early 18 cent, 
pen-case, apparently of Dutch make, about 5ins. long ; and (ii) a 
wooden pipe, 11 ins. long, covered with open brass ornamentation, 
including the sun and crescent moon, and having the year 1741 
engraved upon it ; this also is apparently of Dutch make. 


Mr. Blair (sec.) drew the attention of the members to the sheet of 
coloured drawings, by Mr. C. H. Blair, framed in oak, being copies of 
the silk banners in the great hall, presented at different times to the 
society. Mr. Blair was heartily thanked for his very acceptable gift, 
as, on dull days especially, it is not easy to make out the charges on 
the banners themselves. 


The recommendation of the council to hold a two days' meeting jn 
the Roman Wall, day meetings at Ingram and Greaves Ash, and 



H O 


Widdrington and Chibburn, and an afternoon meeting at Mitford and 
Newminster was agreed to. 


Mr. R. Blair (one of the secretaries) read the following notes by Mr. H. 
A. Adamson, V.P., on ' Waterville, North Shields : the Home of an Anti- 
quary ' : 

" On the 7th March, 1864, Mr. George Rippon, a justice of the peace 
for the county of Northumberland, died at his residence, Waterville, 
North Shields, aged 75 years. He was buried at Lanchester, in the 
county of Durham, where his family had lived for several generations. 
Near the south door of Lanchester church, is, or was, a stone recording 
that ' Here lyeth the body of William Rippon, who departed this life, 
Septr. ye 4 day, 1717.' The deaths of other members of his family 
are recorded. Mr. Rippon was a keen antiquary, and during his long 
life gathered together in his house at Waterville, many articles of 
interest, and also, like other antiquaries, things of little value. It seems 
to be the fate of all men who have hobbies. 

He was a son of George Rippon, of Waterville, who died in 1817. His 
father and his uncle John Rippon, Edward Hall of Whitley, William 
Watson, William Taylor, and Richard Armstrong, of North Shields, all 
of whom were brewers, established the North Shields Water Company 
in 1786, which was recently taken over by the Tynemouth corporation. 
It is not so much with Mr. Rippon as an antiquary, as the home in 
which he lived, and over which he spent many years of his life in 
gathering together objects of interest, that I wish to deal. 

Waterville was a pleasantly situated house on the east side of the 
turnpike road leading from the Bull Ring, North Shields, to the New- 
castle and Tynemouth turnpike road. It is known as Coach lane, and 
was the old coach-road from North Shields to Newcastle. The house 
stood in its own grounds of about 1 1 acres, and the west side of the 
property was separated from the road by an ornamental iron paling. At 
the north west corner stood the gardener's lodge where a worthy couple, 
Robert Tate and Ann, his wife, resided for many years. From the 
entrance gates near the lodge there was a winding path which led to 
the front door of the house. The house consisted of basement and first 
floor, and had projecting eaves and timber ends. To the eastward of 
the main house were buildings which consisted of laundry, with work- 
shop above, and what was known as the brewhouse, which contained 
some large vats, and beyond these were the vineries and conservatories. 
In the ornamental ground in front of the house, but to the south-east 
of it, was a large circular pond or reservoir, the sides of which were 
perpendicular and the lining consisted of dressed freestone. From it a 
portion of the town supply of water was obtained. In the pond were 
both tench and dace. In the grounds were several statuettes. Among 
these were Hercules, Cupid, Diana, and Samuel, as a child, praying. 
The land to the northward, southward, and west of the house was all 
open. On the west side of the garden was a thick belt of trees and also 
one to the south, which gave the house the privacy which is so much 
sought. The garden was one of these old-world gardens which we like 
to think of, but which are rapidly disappearing. On entering the house 
the first room on the left of the spacious hall was the dining room, from 
which a door led into the library. In this room the spirit of the anti- 
quary was fully displayed, and it was this room which gave a charm to 
the house. On the west side of the room were two latticed windows 
with stained glass in their upper portions. Between these windows 


there were shelves to the ceiling for books. Against the north wall 
were also book shelves filled with books, and beneath the book shelves 
were cupboards, the doors of which were composed of wood from York 
cathedral church, black oak from Derwenthaugh, buffet doors from 
Holland, carvings from Dilston old hall and from Neville house, 
Durham. The east side of the room was composed of inlaid woods 
brought from Neville house, the chapter house, Carlisle, from brides' 
coffers, from Killingworth, Elemore and Tynemouth house, and other 
places, and the panelling from Seghill old tower. A door led from this 
side of the room into the hall. On the south side of the room was 
the fireplace, with recesses on each side of it. The overmantel, as it 


would now be called, was composed of panels from the chapter house, 
Carlisle, from St. David's Mount chapel, North Shields, from the front 
of the gallery of All Saints' old church, Newcastle, from Holland, from 
Frome abbey, Dorset, from bridge-end chapel, Newcastle, and Neville 
house, Durham. The ceiling of the room was groined, and was composed 
of woods from the bottoms of brides' coffers, from Seghill tower, the organ 
of York cathedral church, chapter house, Carlisle, boss from St. Nicholas's 
church, Newcastle, entrance hall, Anderson Place, and Neville house, 
Durham. It was a pleasant room, and the subdued light which came 
through the stained-glass windows gave it quite an old-world appearance. 
In it were two carved oak chairs stated to have belonged to the unfortu- 
nate earl ot Derwentwater, two other carved oak chairs and a beautiful 
circular library table with elm root top, supported on a tripod stand 
by three lions rampant in oak. In the year 1847, Mr. Rippon married 
Margaret Fryer, the youngest daughter of Mr. John Fryer of Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne, a well known man in his day. Her brother, Mr. Joseph 
Harrison Fryer, lived in Whitley hall.* After the death of Mr. Rippon 
in 1864, Mrs. Rippon continued to live at Waterville, but in July of 
that year, some of the numerous articles he had collected and stored at 
Waterville were sold. Among these was a massive oak handrail with 
double spiral balusters of most exquisite workmanship, from the resi- 
dence of the late Major Anderson, Newcastle. It was sold to Mr. 
Tweedy, the well-known wood carver. Lot 76 is described in the 
catalogue as ' The veritable pulpit (taken out of Jarrow Church during 
the repairs between 70 and 80 years since) greatly prized as a relic, in 
which the venerable and sainted Bede delivered his impressive and 
instructive homilies in the old church at Jarrow and preached to 
entranced devotees the glad tidings of Peace ; ' a drawing of it 
appears in the Antiquarian Gleanings in the North of England, by 
William B. Scott. It is probable, as is suggested in this book, that the 
pulpit belonged to the Perpendicular or a later period. It was pur- 
chased at the sale by the late Mr. W. H. D. Longstaffe for 3 10s. Od. 
What has become of it, I do not know. Mrs. Rippon died in July, 1873, 
and in October of that year the collection of antique oak furniture and 
other articles stored at Waterville was sold. In the catalogue of the 
sale are many objects of interest which, after the sale, were all dispersed. 
Among these was the Crucifixion, which is described in the catalogue 
as a splendid specimen of ancient carved oak in excellent preservation. 
It originally belonged to the castle of Warkworth, and was the altar 
piece in the chapel within the keep in 1672. A drawing of it is in the 
book already referred to. It was fully described in the Newcastle 
Journal of the 23rd of May, 1857. It was removed from Warkworth 
castle by Mr. John Clarke, one of the auditors of the Percy family, who 
obtained permission from the widow of Joscelin, last earl of Northum- 
berland, and he placed it in his house at Chirton, near North Shields. 
The house afterwards became the property of the first duke of Argyle, 
who died in it. In 1703 the building was sold to the Lawson family. 
In 1812, when the late Mr. A. M. de Cardonnel Lawson pulled down 
the house, the altar piece was taken to Waterville and was deposited 
with Mr. Quintin Blackburn, who occupied the house. Eight years 
later it was removed to Mr. Lawson' s seat at Cramlington, and he sold 
it to Mr. John Adamson, one of the first secretaries of our society. It 
was afterwards presented to Mr. Rippon. In the hall stood a large 
richly carved settle, which is also shown in Mr. Scott's book, 

* He was a justice of the peace for Northumberland, and was a well-known geologist 
and naturalist. 


In the library was a pendant for a lamp, carved in oak. This piece 
of carving formerly hung from the roof of the hall in Anderson Place, 
in which king Charles the 1st resided during his stay in Newcastle. It 
was used to suspend a chandelier. A drawing of it is in the Antiquarian 
Gleanings. Among the books sold at the sale were several black 
letter volumes, one dating as far back as 1475. The book of this 
date had brass bosses and was in perfect condition. There were 
many local books. The sale of the books lasted two days. 

After the sale of the furniture the Waterville estate was sold for 
building sites. The house was not taken down, but it was divided 
into two houses, and it now forms part of Stanley street west, 
North Shields, and is numbered 41 and 42 in the street. The wing 
of the house was taken down. The oak and other fittings in the 
library were stripped off by the purchasers of the estate and sold 
to a firm in London. The latticed windows were removed, and 
a window was placed in the north wall of the room. Mr. William 
Fryer, a brother of Mrs. Rippon, was a man of artistic tastes. 
Between 1850 and 1857 he made most careful drawings of the library. 
In these drawings he has detailed where the wood came from which 
adorned the walls. The drawings made by him are submitted for 
the inspection of the members of the society. It was intended by 
Mr. Rippon to panel the walls of the drawing room, and materials 
had [been collected for the purpose, but he died before he could carry 
out his wishes. 

In Mr. Rippon's lifetime a portion of the land to the southward of 
the house was sold to Hugh, duke of Northumberland, for the site of 
Holy Trinity church, which he gave to the commissioners for building 
new churches ; and another portion of the ground to the northward 
was sold to the Railway Company for the purpose of forming the 
railway from Newcastle to North Shields." 

Thanks were voted to Mr. Adamson by acclamation. 

Mr. Adamson exhibited a number of drawings showing the arrange- 
ments of the different rooms of the house, two of these are reproduced 
on pages 39 and 40. 


Mr. W. S. Corder read the following notes on a newly discovered 
portion of the Roman Wall, at its easternmost terminus, between W T alls- 
end and the ancient foreshore of the Tyne. 

" About four weeks ago my attention was called to extensive ex- 
cavations which were going on at W T allsend, in the new part of the 
shipbuilding yard of Messrs. Swan & Hunter, Ltd., which lies between 
the riverside railway and the Tyne, and immediately to the south of 
the southern rampart of the camp of SEGEDUNUM. The work consisted 
in cutting away the bottom of the grass covered slope at the point A 
indicated on plans A and B, (portion of 25" Ordnance Survey, 1858,) 
and (portion of 10' 0" scale Ordnance Survey corrected to date), and 
also on John Storey's well known drawing of Wallsend as it appeared 
in 1850, shewn by a white cross on the accompanying illustration.* Near 
the eastern end of the excavation I found that the bottom courses of 
the Roman Wall showed clearly on the face of the bank, and it appears 
that during the 10 days previous to my visit the navvies had been 
engaged in cutting away and removing portions of the Wall, which were 

* Facing p. 46. 


The dotted lines show the Roman camp, the double-dotted lines the line of the Wall. 
The ne\yly-discovered fragment of the Wall is at A, between the camp and the river. 


in this part of its course in a ruinous state and showed signs of having 
been disturbed, apparently to afford drainage for the water which 
collects at this point in considerable quantities. As the next ten feet 
or so promised to show a very interesting portion of the Wall Mr. 
Mather, the civil engineer in charge of the work, at once gave instruc- 
tions to continue the removal of the earth and clay upon each side, 
but to leave the structure itself untouched until it had been photo- 
graphed, and carefully examined. 

I may say, that as large new sheds are to be built on the piece of 
ground which has been levelled, it is unfortunately impossible to preserve 
the whole of the length of Wall which has been laid bare, but Messrs. 
Swan & Hunter, realising the great interest of the discovery, will en- 
deavour to arrange that a section on the face of the bank shall be kept 
exposed and intact a precious relic of the Roman Empire for succeding 

The accompanying illustration (B facing p. 44) has been made from 
a photograph which I took directly the face of the Wall had been bared. 
Unfortunately, since then, several of the facing stones have been ab- 
stracted, and the whole mass, which had from the outset shown a 
tendency to fall sideways after the earth which supported it was 
removed, has slipped still farther from the perpendicular, displacing the 
facing on both sides considerably. I may say that the piece of the 
Wall in question is about 200 feet from the south-east angle of the 
camp, and the footings are about 20' 0" above high water mark (River 
Tyne Commissioners' datum), and about 50 feet below the present ground 
level at the S.E. corner of the camp. When first exposed, it exhibited 
both faces of ashlar work, that on the east being four, and that on the 
west six courses high, exclusive of the footing slabs. The core of mortar 
and rubble was also in excellent preservation, and although somewhat 
soft and damp when first uncovered, presented a solid block about five 
feet in height. The measurements on the section are 7' 0* from the 
outside of the footing slabs, which are offset 3" on each side, so that the 
Wall at this point is exactly six feet six inches in thickness. The 
footings which are four inches thick, two feet from front to back, and 
twelve inches long on the face, appear to be laid direct on the un- 
puddled virgin clay (though I am not absolutely clear on this point). 
The footings follow (so far as they have been laid bare) the slope of the 
hill without benching, and the ashlar work is laid parallel to the horizon, 
each course being run out with tapered stones on to the footings at 
regular intervals. The facing stones vary a little in size but average 
about 10 inches in height by 12 inches in width, with a depth of 16 to 
18 inches. The rubble is very variable in size, some of the pieces being 
as large as the facing stones. The mortar contains a noticeable amount 
of charcoal derived from the wood with which the lime was burnt, and 
as pieces nearly as large as a hazel nut are not infrequent it would seem 
that the quicklime cannot have been very finely ground before slaking. 
A careful examination of the ground suggests that a trench about 14 or 
15 feet in width has been dug through the soil (which to-day has a 
depth at this point of about 5 feet), and into the strong yellow clay 
beneath to a depth of about 2' 6". After the Wall had been built the 
clay was puddled firmly in against the footings and the two or three 
bottom courses, and above this the trench was filled in with soil. No 
trace of the fosse was visible either above or below the ground level. 

* Though this has been found impracticable, the exact spot has been carefully 
marked out with stones taken from the Wall. W. S. C., July, 1903. 

FRONT VIEW. The S.E. corner of the Cauip is immediately in front of the house. 


AT W A T T <i P. N n 


It may be interesting to consider for a moment the brief references 
in Bruce and Maclauchlan to this extremely interesting portion of the 
Roman Wall the literal Wall's end which gives its name to the young 
riverside borough. Bruce states that ' Some traces of this wall might 
be noticed before the width of the river was contracted and its new made 
banks covered with buildings. Mr. Buddie, the famous coal engineer, 
told the writer that when bathing in the river, as a boy, he had often 
noticed the foundations of this wall extending far into the stream. Mr. 
Leslie had seen it go as far into the water as- the lowest tides enabled 
him to observe.' 

Maclauchlan in his Memoir of a Survey of the Roman Wall, says ' . . . . 
the termination of the wall towards the river proceeds from the S.E. 
corner and is about 100 yards in length, forming an angle with the 
south front of about 105, the obtuse angle lying to the westward. The 
end of the great wall at high-water mark exhibits some stones very 
satisfactorily.' On referring to the plan you will see that the angle 
which this newly found portion of the wall continued to the S.E. corner 
of Segedunum makes with the line of the southern rampart is about 105 
as stated by Maclauchlan. On the other hand his statements that ' the 
termination of the wall towards the river is about 100 yards in length' 
and that ' the end of the great wall at high water mark exhibits some 
stones very satisfactorily,' must surely refer to the traces he found in 
exist snce at the time of writing (circa 1854), and must not be taken to 
mean, as they appear to do at first glance, that the Wall ended at high 
water mark. 

The evidence of Buddie and Leslie, as recorded by Dr. Bruce, would 
certainly go to prove that the Wall extended down to, and even beyond, 
low water mark, and strategic considerations would seem to render this 
absolutely necessary. Of course to determine the point at which in 
Roman times it actually entered the water, it is necessary to know 
where low water mark was in those days, and I have not so far been 
able to find any evidence, direct or indirect, on this point. 

On Maclauchlan's survey plan the distance from the camp corner to 
the river measures about 350' 0", and one assumes that his river line 
indicates high water mark at ordinary spring tides. On the 1858 
Ordnance Survey, a tracing of a portion of which Mr. George Irving has 
very kindly made for me, it is 390' 0" from the camp corner to high 
water, and 1067' 0" to low water mark, a difference of 677' 0'. 

If you will look again at Storey's drawing you will see that as the 
riverside railway and the still existing grassy slope^beneath it occupy 
most of the river bank, his sketch must have been made at high tide, 
and further that by far the larger portion of Swan & Hunter's west 
yard has been made out of the reclaimed foreshore of the river, and 
that the workshops and railways and the world famous pontoons of 
the firm whilst building, occupy part of oho quiet waterway of half a 
century ago. (See plate facing page 46.) 

From the Wall westward for about 300 feet large quantities of bones 
and Roman pottery were found in the lower two or three feet of earth 
which rested on the clay, and from the position in which they occurred 
they seem to be the midden refuse which, during the three centuries 
of Roman occupation, had been thrown over the southern rampart of 
Segedunum, and had rolled to the foot of the bank. As expected, no 
perfect vessels or implements of any kind were met with and nothing 
of the nature of altars or inscribed stones. Enormous numbers of 
fragments of Samian ware, both plain and ornamented, were turned 
up, two or three of the former having potters' marks, e.g. DOVIICCVS, 


SOIIILLI M* An amphora handle has a potter's mark EC c A as below. 

An interest- 
ing piece of 
a mortarium 
in coarse red 
pottery, has 
the maker's 
stamp on the 
lip, and rough- 
ly scratched, 
the name pro- , 
bably of its ( 
owner i I 



An interesting specimen is a small fragment of hypocaust tile with 
a pattern on it which seems to be modelled rather than moulded. 
One small flat bottom of a broken jar has been carefully chipped all 
round for use as a plaything. Altogether there are 14 or 15 distinct 
kinds of pottery, red, grey, black, and brown. I have only come 
across two fragments, of Roman glass, one a small circular boss of a 
fine opalescent blue colour, and the other, part of the bottom of a 
small glass vessel. Two or three pieces of whetstones have been met 
with, and one of the simple but graceful clay statuettes of Venus, 
such as have occasionally been found in other Roman camps. It was 
probably one of the household gods the Lares and Penates of some 
stout private soldier of the cohort of the Lingones. I have only heard 
of three coins, though one recognises that the pocketable nature of 
money and the fanciful reputed value of Roman coins always conduce 
to their disappearance and dispersal. I have here a large bronze in 
fair preservation of Crispina, the wife of Commodus, who died in 183 
A.D., having on the reverse the figure of Health seated holding out a 
wreath to a serpent, with legend SALVS almost illegible. 

I should perhaps put it on record that much of the earth from the 
bank foot has been used to level up that part of the yard between the 
bank and the old high water mark, so that any excavations there, for 
generations to come, will infallibly yield Roman pottery, not in situ. 

In conclusion I wish most cordially to thank Mr. T. B. Mather, C.E., 
who has planned, and Mr. Purdy, the contractor who is carrying out 
the excavations at Wallsend, for their constant kindness and forbear- 
ance to an inquisitive and persistent antiquary, whilst the work was 
in progress. I know that if it had been practicable they would very 
gladly have preserved all that they laid bare of that Wall which was, 
in the words of Camden, ' the most renowned work of the Romans, the 
bound in times past of the Roman province ; raised of purpose to 
seclude and keep out the barbarous nations, that in this tract, were 
evermore barking and baying (as an ancient writer saith) about the 
Roman Empire.' " 

On the motion of Mr. Gibson, seconded by Mr. Heslop, thanks were 
voted to Mr. Corder by ^acclamation for his notes, and also to Messrs. 
Swan and Hunter, for? their kindness while the members were at 

DOVIICCVS has been found in London and in York. Hubner, C.I.L. vn. 261 ; 
SORILLI M as above at York. ibid. 290. 

Proc. Soe. Antiq. Newc. I. (3 Ser.) 

To face page 46. 

(Reproduced from John Storey's lithograph of that year). 


From a photograph by Mr. W. S. Corder, taken from about the same point as John Storey's view). 
NOTE. The x in each Picture indicates the position ot the newly discovered position of Roman Wall. 

. . 



Mr. Blair read the following notes, by the Rev. E. J. Taylor, F.S.A., 
of Durham, of a discovery in the cloister garth of Durham cathedral 
church, for which he was thanked. 

"An interesting discovery has lately been made in the cloister garth 
of Durham cathedral church. During some excavations the site of the 
monks' lavatory was definitely located. It was always supposed that 
the lavatory was situated at the north side of the cloister garth, but 
it is now found to have been the south side. The rare little book The 
Ancient Rites and Monuments af the Monastical and Cathedral Church 
of Durham, by J. Davies, published in 1672, has the following passage : 
' Within the cloister garth, over against the Frater house door, was a 
fair laver (basin) or conduit, for the monks to wash their hands and 
faces at, being made in form round, covered with lead, and all of marble, 
saving the outermost walls, within which walls you may walk round, 
the laver of marble having many little conduits or spouts of brass.' 

Over against the frater house (refectory) was thought to imply the 
north side of the garth. The Rev. J. T. Fowler, vice-principal of 
Hatfield Hall, Durham, came across two holes for wall plates in the bay 
of the south wall of the cloister ; in the face of the outer wall imme- 
diately beneath the wall plates there is a break of the plinth which runs 
round the remainder of the cloister wall, this suggested that the old lost 
lavatory was somewhere close at hand. Excavating beneath the hole 
plates the foundations of the old lavatory so long lost sight of, were 
brought to view. The laver named by Davies is the basin in the centre 
of the cloister garth, a position occupied for many years. This basin 
has one of the ' conduits or taps of brass ' still remaining. 

The old lavatory was erected in A.D. 1432-1433, and internally 
measured about 19ft., and the laver or basin, when in its original posi- 
tion, would probably occupy a position in the centre. It was an 
octagonal structure, with angle buttresses, similar to those of the chapter 
house apse, and according to Davies, 'had 7 fair windows of stonework,' 
and the south side, which adjoined the south cloister, over against 
the Frater house door, ' had a doorway in it.' The roof was a lead 
covered one, surmounted by a dove cot, covered finely over above with 
lead, the workmanship being both fine and costly. At a lower level, 
in the centre of the former, foundations of what appears to be an earlier 
Norman lavatory were found, a square building in form, 15ft. by 15ft., 
internally. The drains of the 15th century lavatory are in part con- 
structed of moulded stones, whilst these of the Norman lavatory are 
all plain. A portion of the ancient lead pipe, 2 Jin. in diameter, still 
remains in the centre of the bed of the earlier basin. 

Further digging has brought to light the cloister garth well, a few 
feet to the south of the lavatory basin now in the centre of the garth. 
The well has a diameter of 4 feet, and is of dressed masonry. The 
filling in, composed mainly of ashes and masons' rubbish, has been 
cleared to a depth of about 35ft., when gravel and water was found. 

The 13th century Frosterley marble grave-cover of Henry Horn- 
castle, has been found amongst the rubbish. He was sacrist at Durham 
and afterwards prior of Coldingham, and from this discovery is sup- 
posed to have returned to Durham to die." 

The chairman expressed the pleasure of the members at the presence 
of Mr. T. H. Hodgson of Newby Grange, Carlisle, and of M. Haakon 
Schetelig, assistant curator of the Bergen museum, Norway, and wel- 
comed them in the name of the society. 


Previous to the meeting, members proceeded from Newcastle to 
the shipbuilding yard of Messrs. Swan, Hunter & Co., at Wallsend, to 
see the piece of the Roman Wall discovered on the side of the hill 
during the excavations made by them. They were most kindly received 
and welcomed by Mr. Hunter and Mr. Hudson, and after seeing the 
fragment of the Wall, of which a full description is given in Mr. Corder's 
paper (p. 42), they proceeded to the offices, when they were shewn many 
models of important vessels built by the firm. 

' -fAmo.igst those present were the rev. canon Southwell, the rev. 
Stephen Liberty of Newcastle, Mr. W. Richardson of Willington, Mr. 
George Irving of West Fell, Corbridge, Mr. J. M. Moore of Harton, 
Mr. R. Blair and Mr. R. O, Heslop (secretaries). 


Mr. F. W. Dendy has kindly sent the following for publication : 


William Coulson, who purchased an extensive estate in Jesmond 
from Sir Francis Anderson, was living in Newcastle at the time of the 
plague, which afflicted Newcastle in 1636. He kept in his family bible 
an account of the persons who died from its effect in each of the thirty 
six weeks during which it continuously raged. Other particulars of the 
visitation are to be found in Brand's Newcastle, vol. n., p. 455, and 
Welford's Newcastle, vol. in., p. 337, but this weekly return of mortality 
does not seem to have been hitherto printed. The society is indebted 
for it to Colonel W. L. B. Coulson, who is a direct descendant of William 
Coulson, and the present possessor of the bible. As William Coulson 
did not purchase Jesmond until 1658, and as he signs as of that place, 
he either did not make or did not sign the entry until that year. The 
exact addition of the weekly figures given is 4,982. Brand (ubi supra) 
citing Dr. Jennison's Newcastle Call, puts the figures from May to Decem- 
ber of the same year at 5,037, besides 515 deaths in Gateshead. F. w. D. 

'A true List of the weakly Buerials of such as Deyd of the Plaguo 
begune ye 1 4th May, 1636, onley within the Corperation of Newcastle 
upon Tyne. 















































































































































-L lit? 









Wm. Coulson of Jesmond,' 





VOL. I. (3 Ser.) 1903. No. 5. 

The ordinary monthly meeting of the society was held in the/library 
of the castle, on Wednesday, the 28th day of May, 1903, at seven 
o'clock in the evening, Mr. Richard Welford, one of the vice-presidents, 
being in the chair. 

Several accounts recommended by the council for payment were 
ordered to be paid. 

L* Colonel Gerald J. Cuthbert, Scots Guards, of 39 Eaton Terrace, 
London, S.W., was proposed, and declared duly elected, an ordinary 
member of the society. 

The following NEW BOOKS, etc., were placed on the table : 

Exchanges : 

From ' La Societe d'Archeologie de Bruxelles' : Annuaire for 1903, 

Bruxelles, 1903. Vol. xiv. 8vo. 
From the British Archaeological Association : The Journal, N.S. 

ix. i., April, 1903 [contains a paper by Mr. Geo. Patrick, one of 

the secretaries, on ' Hulne Priory, Alnwick, Northumberland']. 
From the ' Verein fur Thiiringische Geschichte und Alterumskunde,' 

Zeitschrift, N.S. xn. i. & ii. 8vo. Jena, 1902. 

Purchases Der obergermanisch-raetische Limes des Roemerreiches, lief. 
xvm. (' Kastell Ober-Florstadt ' and ' Kastell Obernburg '), 
large 8vo. ; The Scottish Antiquary, No. 68, Ap. 1903 ; The 
Antiquary for May, 1903 ; The Registers of Canon Frome and 
of Munsley, co. Hereford, (Par. Reg. Soc.), 8vo. ; The Jahr- 
buch of the Imp. Germ. Arch. Inst. xvm. i. ; 8vo. 

The recommendation of the council to purchase for 12s. 6d. the four 
volumes of The Ancestor, Larking' s Armour and Arms at Malta, 10s. 6d., 
and Sir Payne Gallwey's The Cross-bow, was agreed to. 


By Mr. John Johnson of South Shields (per R. Blair) : Two coins 
found recently in St. Stephen's churchyard, South Shields : (i.) A 
Roman first brass of Lucius Verus (obv. IMP L AVREL VEBVS AVG : 
bearded head to right ; rev. CONCORD AVGVST .... Two figures 
togated standing holding hands); and (ii.) a Scotch bawbee of 
1692, of William and Mary (obv. profiles to 1. ; rev. thistle and 
' nemo,' &c.). 


By Mr. Walter S. Corder : A Scotch bawbee of 1678, of Charles n. 
same type as last ; found at St. Anthony's. 

Mr. Blair (one of the secretaries) read the following letter, dated 26 
May, addressed to him by the Rev. M. Piddocke, vicar of Kirknewton, 
relating to discoveries on Kilham Hill : 

" Lord Tankerville desired me to write you a line to say that we (i.e., 
L d Tankerville & myself) have dug open the barrow on the top of 
Kilham Hill, and in a small cyst resting on the solid rock we found a 
quantity of bone fragments and red earth ; but, so far, no weapons of 
any kind. The cyst is about 2 ft. long and 1 ft. deep & broad, and was 
covered by a large regular shaped whinstone. * * * * I am going to 
work at it again to-day, so write in haste." 

Mr. Piddocke was thanked for his communication. 


Mr. R. O. Heslop (one of the secretaries) read the following notes : 

" Divers have been employed by the River Tyne Commissioners for 
some time past in clearing obstructions from the north channel at the 
Swing bridge. When thus engaged last Wednesday, they found a 
Roman Altar and a detached base stone embedded in the river bottom. 
Mr. James Walker, C.E., the river engineer, at once appreciated the nature 
of these relics, and by his order they were immediately removed to a 
place of safety. Obligations are due to him for allowing free and full 
examination of the stones, and for the care exercised by him in their 

The altar is 4 feet 3 inches high, measuring 19 inches across its base 
and an equal width across its capital. From front to back the base 
measures llf inches deep, and the capital 11| inches. The connecting 
shaft is 2 feet 3| inches high and 16 inches across its face, by 8 inches 
from back to front. Base and shaft and capital unite in a form of 
symmetrical, or, it may be said, even of graceful proportions; whilst the 
junction of each member is graduated by a band of simple ogee moulding. 

The face of the shaft is decorated with a moulded panel occupying 
almost its entire surface, measuring 1 foot 9 inches high, by 9| inches 
wide, between the inner beads. The panel encloses the representation 
of a ship's anchor boldly sculptured, the surface being deeply sloped to 
bring the carving into relief. The shank of the anchor is surmounted 
by a ring, swivelled on a head. The two arms of the anchor appear to 
have been flattened towards their points, and though the thinner edges 
are broken, enough is left to suggest that they had originally terminated 
in flukes. A projection below the crown is pierced by a hole, possibly 
an arrangement used in tricing up the anchor when it had reached 
the ship's hawse hole. The representation of an object so familiar, 
complete in all its details, appears significant not only of the early de- 
velopment of the typical form here shown but of its long survival, for 
it can hardly be said to have been even yet superseded. It will be 
seen, too, that we have here an example of forged iron work which 
could be produced only by handicraftsmen of great skill in their trade. 

Each side of the altar shaft is relieved by a blank moulded panel, the 
depth of eight inches allowing no room for further sculpture. But the 
absence of elaboration is in keeping with the general design, adding 
greatly to its effect. The altar is plain at the back. A tenon at its 
foot shows that it had fitted into the socket of a separate base stone. 

The volutes on the capital have been broken away by damage at an 

I I 


arly period ; but the focus on the top has been left almost intact. It 
is rectangular in form and is surrounded by a prominent lip. 

Across the face of the capital, a narrow ansated panel is lettered 
with the first portion of the dedicatory inscription. The words are 


The lettering is well cut and perfectly legible. Between the two words 
there is a minute leaf stop, point upwards. In the panel below, reading 
alternately on either side of the anchor are the letters 


P F 

Expanded the inscription reads : OCIANO LEGIO SEXTA VICTRIX PIA 
FIDELIS. ' To Oceanus, the Sixth Legion, the Victorious, the Pious' 
the Faithful [dedicate this altar]." 1 

The second stone brought up from the river bed . is evidently the 
loose base of an altar. Its upper edge is surrounded by an ogee 
moulding and its top recessed to receive a superstructure. The altar 
to Oceanus being placed on this base was found to be too broad for 
it, and the two stones were set apart again, the supposition being that 
they were not adapted for each other. 

A casual examination of the Oceanus altar immediately suggested 
its correspondence with the Neptunus altar in the Black-gate museum. 
This altar was dredged up when the works of the swing bridge were in 
progress. It is illustrated in Archaeologia Aeliana, vol. xn., p. 7, and 
a, comparison with the illustration now before you will show an identity 
of design and execution in the two altars. A careful measurement 
confirms this, for each answers to the other in every particular dimen- 
sion. Both altars were found at the site of the Aelian bridge and have 
been in all probability connected in some way with that structure. 
They are twin productions, if not from the same chisel, certainly from 
one and the same design. The conclusion is a natural one ; that they 
originally furnished the right and left side of a sanctuary dedicated to 
the deities typified on the faces of the stones. Neptune, ' the earth 
shaker,' rode upon if indeed he did not rule the waves. Oceanus was 
not only omnipresent at sea, venerated as father of all the gods, but 
was reverenced as presiding over the tributary rivers. He it was that 
the seafarer might propitiate before setting forth. The incoming sailor 
remembered Neptune, as the Batavian troops at PROCOLITIA remem- 
bered how he had brought them safely over the North Sea when they 
left us his form sculptured in repose. 2 Thus it was that these deities 
had their shrine in one house, where he that came remembered the 
tutelary Neptune or he that fared forth bespoke the grace of Oceanus, 

Looking on the faces of these twin altars we are reminded of this 
coming and going at the Quayside. They recall to us the fears and hopes 
that animated the embarking and the incoming travellers of that far 
off time. Their votaries would include the civilian on business and the 
soldier on service. To them, too, would in all likelihood resort veterans 
of the Cohort of Aelian Marines, who won their diploma of citizenship 
in manning the fleet that may have sailed from under the walls of Pons 
Aelii. And these altars are still typical of the port of Tyne and of its 

i The Legio Stcunda Augusta was sent to Britain in the time of the Emperor 
ludius [?]. The Legio Saxta Vietrix left Spain in A.D. 70 for the Lower Rhine in 
Germany, whence in 120 it was sent to Britain : in 89 it acquired the epithet of pi 
ftdelis. The Legio xiii. Gemina came to Britain in 43 from Germany, and returned 
thither in 70. The Legio xx. Valeria Vittrix was sent to Illyricum in A.D. 10, thence 
it went to Cologne where it remained till 43, when it was sent to Britain. 

2 See Arch. Aeliana, xn. p. 76 


metropolis at Newcastle. For, as in the past, so in the present, we are 
found linking our fortune with Neptune and great Ocean." 1 

The secretary (Mr. Blair) reported that two Roman coins, taken out 
of the river near to the place where the altar was found, had been shown 
to him. They were : 

1 JEt Hadrian. 

obv. HADRIANVS AVG ; laureated head of the emperor to left ; 
rev. FELICITATI AVG ; a galley with rowers. 

2 M Trajan. 


bust to right. 
rev. FELICITAS AVGVST : figure standing to left, holding cornucopia 

and thunderbolt. 

The former, an untarnished coin, Mr. Blair passed round the room for 

Thanks were voted to Mr. Heslop by acclamation for his paper. 


Mr. Blair also read a letter, dated 27 May, addressed to the 
secretaries by Mr. John Robinson, the secretary to the Bede ' National ' 
Memorial Committee at Sunderland, in terms of a resolution of that 
committee, asking them to bring the object before the society, and 
requesting the sympathy and support of members. It is intended to 
erect in the public park at Roker, on the sea coast, an Anglian Cross 
about 18 feet high, from a design by Mr. C. C. Hodges of Hexham. 
Enclosed with the letter were a list of subscribers and an extract from 
the Newcastle Daily Journal of 26 May, being a note on the Venerable 
Bede by the Rev. D. S. Boutflower, vicar of Monkwearmouth. 

The chairman said that Mr. Dillon, the secretary of Palmer's Ship- 
building Company at Jarrow, had stated that ' Jarrow was the home of 
the screw collier, and the home of Bede. That was probably the reason 
they were going to erect a memorial to the Venerable Bede at Roker, 
a place that the great scholar never heard of. It was like erecting a 
memorial to Lord Armstrong at Ramsgate, or a statue to Sir Charles 
M. Palmer at Penzance.' 



At a meeting of the Numismatic Society of London on 23 April, 
1903, ' Mr. L. A. Lawrence exhibited a penny of Edward I. (?) struck at 
Newcastle, and bearing a similar portrait of the king as that on the 
London half -penny shewn by him at the previous meeting of the Society.' 
Athenaeum for 2 May, 1903, p. 566. 

A charter, granted * apud Dissington in Norhumbria ' on the 1 1 
Sept r in his 22 d year, by Alexander, king of the Scots, ' ad capellanum 
solitarium sustentandum,' was witnessed by ' Patricio Comite de 
Dunbarr,' and others. Registrum Moraviense, 31. 

l The Ociano altar and the base stone have since been presented to the society by 
the River Tyne Commissioners. The base appears to be that intended originally for yet 
another altar. An extemporised base of wood has accordingly been used for the Ociano 
altar, and the newly found stone base has been temporarily set under the Neptuno 
altar in the Black-gate museum. Both altars now stand ms-a-vii on the step at the 
entrance of the east window recess. 





VOL. I. (3 Ser.) 1903. No. 6. 

The first out-door meeting of the season was held on Friday, the 3rd 
day of July, 1903, at 

CHESTERS (Cilurnum). 

About thirty members and friends assembled at Chollerford station 
on the arrival there at 12 noon of the train leaving Newcastle at 10-40. 
On the invitation of the secretaries, Mr. J. P. Gibson of Hexham, 
kindly undertook to act as guide to the party. 

The eastern abutment of the Roman bridge, which formerly spanned 
the North Tyne about half a mile below Chollerford, was first visited, 
when its principal features were pointed out by Mr. Gibson. For 
description of the structure by the late Mr. Sheriton Holmes, see 
Arch. Ael. xvi., 328, where the writer very ingeniously attempts to 
reconstruct the bridge from the fragments scattered about. Members 
thence proceeded to ' the George,' where light refreshments were 
partaken of. They next made their way to Chesters museum, 
which, by the kindness of Mrs. Clayton, was inspected by the 
visitors, though the collections were in process of rearrangement. 
Here are collected inscriptions and other antiquities from the five 
Roman camps belonging to Mrs. Clayton, and from other places ; 
all are fully described in the recently published Guide to the 

Some time was occupied in a perambulation of the camp, to which 
members next made their way, the different gateways, the ' forum,' 
and buildings near the river, being duly visited. Very little has been 
done lately towards uncovering the remains. The chief work accom- 
plished has been the removal of the mound in the centre of the 
northern portion of the ' forum,' thus exposing the remains of the 
flagstones with which it had been paved. During the operations 
a well about three feet in diameter was discovered, also a large 
phallic ornament in high relief within a circle on one of the flagstones 
on the west side of the enclosure. 

On leaving the grounds at the lodge, brakes which were in waiting 
were taken to Limestone-bank, to enable the party to examine the 
ditch of Wall and vallum there, cut through the great whin -sill. 


On the way, the Cheviots on the north-east, on the northern verge of 
Northumberland, and Cross Fell on the south-west, were distinctly 
visible ; the valley of the North Tyne, with Chipchase castle gleaming 
on its banks, was also in full view. 

On returning to Chollerford, members sat down at six o'clock to a 
well-served dinner at ' the George,' presided over by Mr. R. C. Clephan, 
a vice-president, supported by Mr. J. R MacLuckie of Falkirk, the 
guest of the society. At the end of the repast, the chairman, in a few 
well- chosen words, proposed a cordial vote of thanks to Mr. Gibson for 
his services during the afternoon ; he also welcomed, in the name of 
the society, Mr. MacLuckie, whom the society had specially invited 
to its meeting that day, as a slight acknowledgment of the kindness 
and trouble he had taken during the visit of the society to Falkirk 
last season. 

The resolution was carried by acclamation. 

Mr. MacLuckie replied, thanking the members for their kindness. 

Mr. T. Williamson of North Shields, exhibited a fine aureus of 
Trajan of c. 116, recently acquired by him, It had been found near 
Brampton, and may thus be described: 


laureated and bust draped to right. 

rev. P M TR P cos vi PP s p Q R ; a trophy between two captive 
Parthiaiis, male and female, seated on ground ; in exergue 


Most of the members left Chollerford by the 8'24 p.m. train, for their 
respective destinations, after an enjoyable afternoon. 

Amongst those who were present were : Mr. R. C. Clephan, Tyne- 
mouth ; Mr. W. J. Armstrong, Hexham ; Mr. and Mrs. Williamson and 
Miss Williamson, North Shields ; Mr. Edward Wooler, Danesmoor, 
Darlington; Mr, John D. Robinson, Gateshead ; Mr. Oliver, Morpcth ; 
Dr. Wilson, Wallsend ; Mr. and Mrs. C. W. Wood, South Shields ; Mr. 
J, R. MacLuckie. Falkirk ; Mr, Wm. Smith and Miss Smith, Gunnerton ; 
Mr. Robt. Blair, South Shields, and Mr. R. Oliver Heslop, Newcastle 
(secretaries); Mr. J, P. Gibson, Miss Gibson, and Mrs. J. Gibson, Hex- 
ham; Dr, Wilkinson and Mr. Wilkinson, Tynemouth ; Mr. G. Irving 
and Mr. John Irving, West Fell, Corbridge ; Mr, C. Hopper, Croft ; 
Mr. S. S. Carr, Tynemouth ; Mr. J. M. Moore, and Miss Armstrong, 
Harton ; Mr. W. Glendenning, Mr. Conrad White, and Mr. W. C. Foster, 


. In a recent secured book catalogue of A. J. Ridler & Co. the 
following local items appear : 

1682. Newcastle. Indenture of Apprenticeship of John Ilutchinson, of Hunder- 
thwait, Yorks, to Win. Bayles, of Newcastle, Merchant Adventurer. Registeied 
1083. Signatures. 13s. 6d. 

1683. Newcastle. Indenture of Apprenticeship, John Smithson, of Moulton, 
Yorks, to Thomas Harrison, Merchant Adventurer, of Newcastle. Registered 
1684. Signatures. 13s. 6d. 

Proc. 8oc. Antiq. Newc. i. (3 ser.) 

To face page 54. 



(This plate given by the Hon. Mr. Justice Bruce). 

Proc. Soc. Antiq. Newc. I. ( 3 Ser.) 

To face pa<re 5 

From a photograph by the Rev. R. C. MacLeod, Vicar of Mitford. 

From a photograph by Dr. D. H. Stephens of North Shields. 





VOL. I. (3 Ser.) 1903. No. 7. 

An afternoon meeting of the society was held on Saturday, the 4th 
day of July, 1903, at 


On arrival at Morpeth railway station, the Newcastle contingent was 
met by the hon. and rev. W. Ellis of Bothal, and other Morpeth 
members, and they all proceeded, some in the carriages of the Morpeth 
members by road, the others on foot by the fields, direct to 


where they were kindly met by the Rev. R. C. MacLeod, vicar of 
Mitf ord, who guided the party to the castle, which he briefly described. 
For a full description of the remains by the late Mr. F. R. Wilson, on 
a previous visit of members, see these Proceedings, in. 115. See also 
vol. v. p. 255. 

From the castle Mr. McLeod led the way to the remains of the 
Jacobean manor house. In a portion of it, now used as a cottage, there 
is an interesting dog spit (see Proceedings in. 122), one of a few in the 
kingdom, another being in the ancient castle of St. Briavels, within 
the old forest of Dean. 

The church was next visited. Owing to decrease of population, the 
nave was shortened by a bay many years ago, but when the building 
was restored by the late Colonel Mitford, a new bay was added at the 
west end, so that now it is of the original length. On the previous 
visits the church also was fully described. For this, see the same 
volumes of the Proceedings already referred to. 

The bells and communion plate, including a cup of 1699, have been 
described in the Proceedings in. 115, to which members are referred. 

A few notes relating to Mitford, collected from various sources, are 
here given : 

In the old taxation of one mark in 40, Mitford is thus entered 
' Ixij marcae, xxd Rectoria de Midford,' the tax being xxjs. ob. 

On the 2 [6th] non. Oct. 1311, Nicholas de Massam, vicar of 
Mitford, was on a commission relative to the presentation to the 
church of Morpeth. 1 In 1315, certain money in the hands of the vicar 

i Reg. Pal. Dun. in. 94; I. 131. 


belonging to the late vicar of Hartburn, was ordered by the bishop to 
be used in the repair of the defects at Hartburn. 2 

Peter the priest, son of John parson of Mitford, granted Aldworth 
to Newminster, with common of pasture, to feed once a year 100 
poor people, for the souls of all the lords of Mitford, reserving annually 
to the lords of Mitford and their heirs 13d. for an oblation at the 
feast of St. Thomas the apostle, and as a greater security he gave to 
the monks a charter of his feoffment. In the list of benefactors this 
is again mentioned as Roger Bertram the third confirmed to Newminster 
the grange of Aldworth, which Peter the priest, son of John formerly 
parson of Mitford, sold to the monastery. 3 

In 40 Henry III. [1256] William de Cumbre Colston took refuge in 
the church, and acknowledging that he had stolen a certain horse, he 
abjured the kingdom before Adam Baret the coroner ; his goods were 
worth 6s. 3d. In 53 Henry III. [1269] Adam de Brokenfend of 
Hedon appointed Nicholas the clerk of Mitford, or another, in his 
place, in an action against Ralph Gaugy, at the assizes of that year 
held in Newcastle. At the assizes at Newcastle, 7 Edward I. [1279] 
Ralph de Cotun was summoned to reply to Stephan, parson of 
Mitford, on a plea of debt : on de Cotun admitting and promising to 
pay 25 marks Stephan forgave the rest and costs. At the same assizes 
the jurors found that the church of Mitford was in the gift of the king, 
by the feoffment of John de Luthergrenes, and was worth 40Z. a year, 
besides the chapel of Middleton worth 161. It had been alienated by 
a certain Robert bishop of Durham. 4 

Stephan de Euer, rector of Mitford, exchanged the tithes of Merden- 
wood with the abbot and convent of Newminster for a meadow at 
Harestanes, the abbey to pay two marks a year. This was confirmed 
by bishops Pudsey and Farnham, and by the prior and convent of 
Lanercost. 5 

Roger Venys [Venis, Venice], who was vicar of Mitford from 1561 to 
1570, was ordained sub-deacon at Auckland 17 Dec. 1558, upon a 
title from Robert Ogle of Belsay, and priest 25 May 1559, to the same 
title. In 1570 a suit was pending against him in the Durham 
Ecclesiastical Court, when he had been vicar for 7 or 8 years, for 
having been away from his living from St. Andrew's day then last 
past, there having been since that day no service on holy days ; that 
people in consequence were unburied by the priest, and that some 
children had remained unchristened for ' lacke of a prest,' as one 
witness deposed. Other witnesses said that he had been absent since 
the preceding Candlemas twelve months, and that since then the parish 
had been served by a Scottish priest only, and that he was absent 
* emong the rebells, and haithe bene since before christinmasse,' the 
church being served ' by one Sir Thomas Goodhusband.' 6 He appears 
to have been deprived of his living in 1570. About the same time 
Gawen Lawson and George Walby of Mitford, were before the same 
court for scoffing, laughing and jesting in the church, and saying openly 
to the curate during service ' come down and leave thy pratlinge.' 
The curate was compelled to leave owing to the disorder ' to the 
dishonoring of God and the defasinge of the Quenes laws.' Gawen 
Lawson, who was one of the churchwardens, openly refused to eject 
John Doffenby, an excommunicated person. The same John Doffenbie 

2 Reg. Pal. Dun. II. 736. * Newm. Cart. (66 Surt. Soc. publ.) 108, 300. 
* Northd. Astizc Rolls (88 Surt. Soc. publ.) 78, 2^0, 249. 336. 

5 Jiewm. Cart. 41, 12, 43. 
e Depos. and Eccl. Proc. (21 Surt. Soc. publ.) 200 & n. 


of Pigden, Roger Fennicke of Mitford, and Mark Ogle of the parish 
of Ponteland, were before the court for brawling in the church and 
churchyard. They had spoken blasphemous and slanderous words 
there. Christopher Bullock and Gawen Lawson the churchwardens 
had much ado to quiet them, John Doffenby daring any one ' to com 
who durst and cary him out of the church, for they should first bynd 
his hands and feet.' The curate was driven to leave off the service. 7 
At the Restoration Mr. Benlows, who was afterwards a counsellor 
of law, and a justice of the peace, was ejected from Mitford. 8 
Amongst the 14 century ordinations are the following: 
On 17 Dec. 1334, by the bishop of Carlisle, Robert de Mitford, a 
monk of Newcastle, was ordained an acolyte. On 22 Dec. 1337, 
brother Walter de Mitford, a canon of Alnwick, was ordained acolytus 
religiosus ' by the bishop in the chapel of Auckland manor ; on the 
4 id. June 1340, sub-deacon by John, bishop of Carlisle; in 1341, 
deacon by Boniface, bishop of Corbania, in Durham cathedral church ; 
and on 11 kal. Oct. [21 Sep.] 1342, priest, by Richard bishop of 
Bisaccia, in the same place. On 17 Nov. 1335, a William de Mitford 
received the first tonsure in Gateshead chapel. On 13 kal. Jan. 
[20 Dec.] 1343, John de Mitford was ordained acolyte by the bishop 
of Bisaccia, in Durham cathedral church. At Epiphany 1340, Richard 
Mitteford received the first tonsure from the bishop of Durham, in 
the chapel of Durham castle. 9 

In 1256, a fine was levied at Newcastle for a house in Berwick by 
Roger son of Ralph de Berewyk, to Stephen de Novo Castro, who had 
to answer in the sum of 2d. to the former for ward of the castle of 
Mitford, for all service, &c. At the assizes of that year [40 Henry 
III.], Evota daughter of William de Tyniton, and Femota daughter of 
Nicholas of the same, coming from the fair 10 [faeria] of Mitford, were 
robbed in the wood of Stobbeswude by unknown malefactors ; hue 
and cry was raised. At the same assizes, the jury found that Roger 
le Lung of Witton, and Walter de Scheles of the same place, were 
drowned by accident, with two horses, in the water of Wanespik, near 
Mitford. The horses were worth 12s. No one was blamed, though 
Richard son of Walter, was present, but as he did not attend, he was 
attached. 11 

The Testa de Nevill ' informs us that Roger Bertram held the barony 
of Mitford by five knights' fees, and that all his ancestors had held it 
by the same service since the Conquest. At the assizes of 7 Edward I. 
[1279], the jury found that Roger Bertram held the barony of Mitford 
by service of five knights' fees, of which 3 and a quarter had been 
alienated to Hugh de Eufre, and Walter de Cambow owed service for 
a fee and a half : the last-named produced a charter of Roger, with a 
charter of king Henry III. testifying that that king had accepted the 
feoffment. At the same assizes, concerning military fees, &c., the jury 
found that the manors of Magna Eyland, Parva Eyland, Merdefen, 
and Claverden, with the advowson of the church of Mitford, were 
alienated from the fee of Mitford by Roger Bertram and William de 
Valence, as were other places, including the park of Mitford, by the 
said Roger Bertram and Hugh de Eufre. That they were all alienated 

'1 Depot, and Ecel. Proe. 90-95. 8 Calamy, Soneonf. M*m. in, 75. 

R!1. Pal. Dun. ill. 156, 157, 109, 121, 189, 199, 167, 131, 207. 

10 Philip de Ulcotes obtained the barony of Mitford on its forfeiture by Roger 
Bertram. He obtained permission, on payment of ten marks, to hold his annual fair 
at Mitford for eight days instead of four. Scott, Border Antiquities, I. 73, 
n Northd. Attite Rollt, 79, 98, 410. 


by Roger Bertram in the time of Henry III. At this time, William 
de Otteley was bailiff of the vill of Mitford. At the same assizes 
[1279], the jury found that by accident Jul' le Portere fell from 
Mitford bridge and was drowned. Cristiana de Lonesdale was taken 
in the vill on suspicion of theft and imprisoned, but escaped : for 
which escape the vill was fined 8Z. 12 

At the muster of Castle and Morpeth wards at Clifton field on 24 
Nov. 38 Eliz. [1595], under ' defective men,' ' Mitfurthe ' is entered 
' Robte. Mitfurthe and 2 others.' 18 

In 7 Edward I. [1279], Peter is the forester of Mitford. 15 Henry 
Red of Mitford occurs in 1342. 14 

At the assizes of 40 Henry III. [1256], the prioress of Newcastle 
appointed as her attorney William the chaplain or another, in a suit 
against Robert de v Mitford. At the same assizes, Walter the man of 
the parson of Mitford, having been pointed out by an approver as the 
committer of a burglary, was outlawed. Robert de Mitford was one 
of the jurors. Thomas son of Robert de Mitford, was one of those 
who had to answer at the assizes of 53 Henry III. [1269], for setting 
on fire the prior of Tynemouth's mill at Shields, maltreating the monks, 
seizing the prior's ships, &c. . At those of 7 Edward I. [1279], John 
de Lisle sought to recover some rent from Robert de Mitford, who was 
a burgess of Newcastle, for appurtenances in Newcastle. A Robert 
de Mitford was one of the pledges for Beatrix de Witefield. He was 
also bailiff of Newcastle and one of the jurors. 15 On 11 Oct. 1316, 
the keepership of the bishop's manor of Howden was on a vacancy 
entrusted to William de Mitford of the Cistercian order. 16 On 29 Sep. 
1595, Mittford was one of the principal men of the middle marches. 
On 24 Sep. 1597, Rob. Mytforthe was a juror at Newburn. 17 

The hospital of St. Leonard was not far from Mitford. A modern 
residence, known as ' the Spital,' is built on the site. The following 
are one or two notes relating to it : 18 

An agreement was made on 25 May 1489, between Newminster, 
Brinkburn, and the master of St. Leonard's hospital near Mitford with 
respect to boundaries, ' le Falland Cross ' is mentioned. On the'26 
Jan. 1491, Henry Gray, lord Gray, for the souls of himself and that 
of his late wife Margaret, and of his then wife Katherine, &c., granted 
to Robert the abbot, and the monks of Newminster, two waste chapels, 
one called ' the chapel of St. Cuthbert de Calce, commonly called 
Calcekyrke, near Bokynfelde,' the other the chapel of St. Leonard by 
Mitford, in return for which a mass should be celebrated ' curn de luce 
migraverimus.' He appointed George Percy, knight, and Thomas 
Harbottel, the chaplain, his attorneys. On the 26 July of the same 
year, another indenture, in English, referring to the same, was made 
between the abbot of Newminster and the prior of Brinkburn, whereby 
the abbot was to have the chapel of St. Leonard's, and the prior that 
of St. Cuthbert near Bockenfield. On the 4 May, 7 Henry VII. 
[1492], Thomas Burrow [Burgh], lord of Gainsborough, for the souls 
of himself and of his late wife Margaret, granted and confirmed to New- 
minster the same chapel of St. Leonard, on the same terms as in the 
before-mentioned grant of Henry Gray. On 5 Sep. 1498, William 

12 North. Astize Rolls, 3!i7, 350, 357, 386, ?98 : ' Testa de Nevill,' Arch. Ad. xxv. 
is Calendar of Border Papers, II. 79. u Reg. Pal. Dun. in. 12*. 

16 North. Atsize Rolls, 57, 58, 97, 129, 162, 294, 296, 350, 361, 399. 
i Reg. Pal. Dun. 1Y. 143, 145, 156. 17 Cal. of Border Papers, n. 56, 405. 

18 Newm. Cart. 248, 249, 251, 252, 254, 255. In the Rev. John Hodgson's time, the 
ruins of St. Cuthbert's chapel, at Causey park, referred to in the text, were standing. 


prior of Brinkburn, quit claimed rights to the same chapel. On the 
same date, Newminster granted to Brinkburn a rent of 2s. a year from 
the chapel, in lieu of a former rent of 4s. 

After thanking Mr. MacLeod for his kind services, the party pro- 
ceeded to Springhill, the residence of Mr. George Renwick, one of the 
members of parliament for Newcastle, who, with Mrs. Renwick, heartily 
welcomed the members. 

Tea, dispensed by Mrs. Renwick and other members of her family, 
and other refreshments having been partaken of, Mr. Oswald, in 
felicitous terms, proposed a hearty vote of thanks to Mr. and Mrs. 
Renwick. It having been accorded, Mr. Renwick, in reply, said he and 
his family were extremely pleased to welcome them to Springhill. Sir 
Benjamin Stone, M.P., had just left, and he was sorry that he could 
not stay to meet them. Sir Benjamin had pre-arranged with one of 
their members (the Rev. John Walker) to go to Whalton to witness 
the ancient ceremony of bale-fire, and he desired him to convey his 
regret to them. Proceeding, Mr. Renwick said he hoped they would 
go down to Newminster abbey, but he regretted that it was not kept 
in such an excellent state as he would desire. Last year the agent of 
the estate was persuaded to chop down some of the trees, but still it 
was not kept as he thought it ought to be, and he hoped they would 
use their influence to get the agent to pay it still greater attention. 
It was a most interesting ruin. Concluding, Mr. Renwick hoped they 
would have pleasant memories of their visit to Springhill. 

The plan of the abbey, seen from the hill on which Springhill stands, 
was distinctly to be made out, the grassy mounds marking the lines 
of the walls. The party then descended to the remains. The best pre 
served object is the doorway at the w r est end of the nave. This was all 
that appeared above ground before the excavations were made on the 
site a few years ago. The late Mr. Woodman described the discoveries on 
a former occasion (for his description and also rough plan of the abbey, 
see these Proceedings, m. 110-115). Some well-carved corbels are lying 
on the fenced in site of the chapter house (see p. 74, where an illustra- 
tion, reproduced from a drawing by Mr, Jos. Oswald, shews them). 

The following are a few notes from various sources relating to 
Newminster : 

At the assizes of 53 Henry III. [1269] the abbot of Newminster 
appointed as his attorney brother John de Aketon, or John le Surrays, 
in an action against William, son of Thomas de Brumpton, concerning 
land. At the same time he appointed John de Kyrkeby, or Roger 
de Wooderugh, in an action against the son of Alan de Calveley, 1 ,j 

In 1311, Richard [Kellawe], bishop of Durham, issued a mandate to 
the abbot of Newminster, reciting a letter from Berengarius, bishop of 
Frascati, the pope's penitentiary, to bishop Bek, respecting the harsh 
treatment of Walter de Wytton, who had quitted the abbey without 
licence, and appeared in lay clothes for several weeks, and then 
returning to the monastery and seeking mercy was beaten by the 
cellarer and his servants, and was chained in a dire prison ; breaking 
his chains he escaped, returned to the world for eight years, and 
married. He again applied for admission, but the abbot refused 
to receive him back into the convent. The effect of the mandate was, 
that the abbot must obey the injunction of the pope's penitentiary 
ordering his re-admission. 2 

i North. Assize Rolls, 220 * Reg. Pal. Dun. \. 13. 


The abbot is witness to a composition between the bishop of 
Durham and the abbot of St. Alban's, relative to Tynemouth priory. 
On 27 May, and 20 July 1313, the abbot is down for 22 marks in the 
king's writs touching the fifteenths granted to him by the clergy. 
On the return to a writ, the abbot is said to have no goods ecclesias- 
tical. 8 On 23 Feb. 1313/4, the bishop of Durham addressed a letter to 
the archbishop of York, concerning the seizure of a mortuary on the 
death of Adam de Thornton, ' naturae debitum nuper solvens,' by the 
abbot, which the rector of Meldon claimed, as the death had taken 
place infra ipsius limites.' On 26 May 1314, the king was at New- 
minster, as a writ is dated from that place. 4 

Bishop Pudsey of Durham, granted the manor of Chopwell to 
Robert, abbot of Newminster, in exchange for the manor of Wolsing- 
ham, subject to certain reservations. In 1315, John, abbot of 
Newminster, petitioned the bishop relative to the manor in which the 
bishop and his tenants had common of pasture. In the same year, 
the free tenants of Ryton, who had common of pasture, &c., com- 
plained that the abbot had made a new ditch, which impeded both 
the bishop and his free tenants in their free ingress, &c., to 350 acres 
of wood and pasture to which they had formerly had access. The 
jury, before whom the matter came, decided that without this the 
free tenants had sufficient land nearer Ryton ; that the abbot was 
never prevented from taking deer or birds ; and that the wood was 
neither a warren nor a free chase. On the vigil of St. Matthew the 
apostle, 1315, the bishop granted to John abbot of Newminster, rights 
in his manor of Chopwell, and that if any of the bishop's cattle, or 
those of his tenants, should get in owing to defect of gates, &c., they 
should be impounded [ezcacientur]. On 16 kal. June [17 May] 1316, 
the abbot was one of those summoned to Newcastle, touching the 
aid to the king to frustrate the Scottish invasion. 5 

The burgesses of Mitford quit claimed to Newminster land at 
Mitford. Christiana de Mithford granted six pennies a year out of her 
house to light blessed Robert of Newminster. 6 

On 17 Dec. 1334, William de Tynemuth, a monk of Newminster, was 
ordained sub-deacon by John, bishop of Carlisle. On 22 Dec. 1337, 
brother John de Tynemouth, a monk of Newminster, was ordained 
' acolytus religiosus ' in the chapel of Auckland manor, by the bishop 
of Durham; and in 1341, priest by Boniface, bishop of Corbaiiia, in 
Durham cathedral. At the same time, Thomas de Rayngton, Nicholas 
de Carlo, and Thomas de Houghall, also monks of Newminster, were or- 
dained acolytes by the same bishop of Corbania, at the same place. 7 

After spending a very pleasant afternoon, most of the party left 
Morpeth at 6' 11 p.m., for their respective destinations. 

Amongst those present were : Mr. R. C. Hedley of Corbridge ; Mr. 
C. W. Henzell and Miss McCrae of Tynemouth ; Mr. and Mrs. Dowson, 
Mr. and Mrs. Oliver, and Mr. Matheson of Morpeth ; Mr. J. M. Moore 
and Mr. R. Blair (secretary) of Harton ; Miss Armstrong of Westoe ; 
Mr. W. W. Tomlinson of Monkseaton ; Mr. W. Smith and Miss Smith, 
and a friend, of Gunner ton ; Mr. Jos. Oswald, Mr. and Mrs. R. S. 
Nisbet, and Mr. Oliver of Newcastle : Mr. and Mrs. C. Hopper of Croft ; 
the Hon. and Rev. W. Ellis of Bothal ; Mr. J. W. and Miss Gibson of 
Bedlington ; and others. 

3 Reg. Pal. Dun. i. 82 ; 11. 939, 961, 963. 

* Ibid. II. 689, 1004 ; IV. 379, 388. Ibid. III. 731, 802, 805, 1283, 1285, 286. 

6 Xewm. Cartulary, 29, 2^6. ~ Reg. Pal. Dun. ill. 106, 110, 156, 189. 






VOL. I. (3 Ser.) 1903 No. 8 

The usual monthly meeting of the society, was held in the library 
of the Castle, Newcastle, on Wednesday, the 29th day of July, 1903, 
at seven o'clock in the evening, Mr. Thomas Hodgkin, D.C.L., F.S.A., 
&c., being in the chair. 

Several accounts recommended by the council for payment were 
ordered to be paid. 

The following ordinary member was proposed, and declared duly 
elected : 

Lambert W. Middleton, Oakwood, Hexham. 

Mr. F. W. Dendy said the council, with the approval of the society, 
had commenced a new series of the Archaeologia Aeliana, and a new 
series of the Proceedings of the society. The first series of the Archaeo- 
logia now fetched a large sum. The second series, about to be replaced 
by a third, consisted of twenty-five volumes, and brought from 20 to 
30 . The ten volumes of the Proceedings, now come to an end, were also 
very valuable, fetching from 8 to 10 ; so that practically those who 
had been members of the society throughout the years covered by the 
second series, had got an asset which they could now sell at a sum nearly 
sufficient to pay their subscriptions for the whole period of their mem- 
bership. It was evident that the present was an excellent time for 
joining the society. New members would have the advantage of 
starting at the beginning of the third series of the Archaeologia and 
the third series of the Proceedings. 

The chairman said they were very much indebted to Mr. Dendy for 
bringing to their notice the fact that they, who thought they had been 
simply spending their time and money in a pleasant literary occupa- 
tion, had made a very good investment. 

The following NEW BOOKS were placed on the table : 

Presents, for which thanks were voted : 

From the Reichslimeskommission : Limesblatt, No. 35, 27 May, 
1903, with title page 1892-1900, and index. 


From the Nova Scotian Institute of Science : Proceedings and 
Transactions, x. (2 ser. in.) i. Sess. 1901-2. 8vo. 

From Mr. T. May, F.E.I.S., the author : Roman Weights found at 
Melandra (reprint from the Derbyshire Archaeological Society's 
Journal for 1903). 

Exchanges : 

From the Yorkshire Archaeological Association : The Yorkshire 

Archaeological Journal, pt. 67 (xvn. iii.) 8vo. Leeds, 1903. 
From the Historisch-Philosophischen Vereins of Heidelberg : Neue 

Heidelberger Jahrbucher, xn. i. 8vo. Heidelberg, 1903. 
From the Royal Society of Northern Antiquaries of Copenhagen : 

(i.) Mdmoires, new series, 1902; (ii.) Aarboeger, xvn. ii. 8vo. 
From the Royal Society of Norway : Nordiske Fortidsminder, parts 

5 & 6, large 4to. 

From the Historic Society of Lancashire and Cheshire : Transactions 
for 1901, LIII. (n.s. xvn.) 8vo. 1902. 

From the Royal Archaeological Institute : The Archaeological Jour- 
nal, LX., 2 ser. x. i. 8vo. 

From the Numismatic Society of London : The Numismatic Chronicle, 
4 ser. vol. in. No. 9. 8vo. 

From the Cambrian Archaeological Society : Archaeologia Cambrensis, 

6 ser. in. iii. 8vo. 

From the Shropshire Archaeological and Natural History Society : 
Transactions, 3 ser. in. ii. (special Battlefield number). 8vo. 

From the Huguenot Society of London : Publications, xvn. ' Register 
of the French Church of Thorney, Cambridgeshire.' 4to. Aber- 
deen, 1903. 

From the Derbyshire Archaeological and Natural History Society : 
Journal, xxv. 8vo., 1903. 

From La Societe d'Archeologie de Bruxelles: Annales, xvn., i. and 
ii. 8vo. 

Purchases : Laking's The Armoury of the Knights of St. John of Jerusa- 
lem, Malta ; Payne-Gallwey The Cross-bow ; The Ancestor, nos. 
1 and 3 ; J. Romilly Allen, The Early Christian Monuments of 
Scotland ; Hodgson's History of South Shields ; Ephemeris Epi- 
graphica, vol. x. pt. i. ; Mittheilungen of the Imp. German Arch- 
aeological Institute, vol. xvn. iv., Rom, 1902; The Antiquary 
for June, July and August, 1903 ; Notes and Queries, Nos. 284, 
286-8, 290 and 291 ; The Reliquary, ix. iii. (July, 1903) ; The 
Northern Genealogist, vi. i. ; and 12 plans of earthworks by the 
Rev. E. A. Downam [these are of The Wrekin, Shropshire ; 
Ashstead Common, Packesham, Walton Heath, Barnstead 
Heath, Lagham Park and Dry Hill, Surrey ; Keston, Kent ; 
Edburton Castle, Devil's Dyke (in 2 parts), Wolstonbury, and 
Ditchling Beacon, Sussex]. 

Mr. R. Oliver Heslop, referring to the list of new books on the table 
just read out by Mr. Blair, called the attention of members to the 
publication by Mr. Gr. B. Hodgson of his History of South Shields. It 
would be the wish of those present, he felt sure, to express congratula- 
tion with their fellow member, Mr. Hodgson, on the completion of his 
arduous task. The work embodies an amount of labour and research 
extending over many years. How well it had been carried out was 
apparent to those whose privilege it had been to see the work in its 
progress through the press. It was a scholarly and conscientious book, 
and its publication added a most important contribution to local 

Proc. Soc. Antiq. Newc. I. (3 Ser.) 

To face page 63. 


( See opposite page. ) 

history. They as a society could not fail to recognize with pleasure* 
the appearance of this volume by one of their own members ; and Mr. 
Hodgson's brother journalists present ought to be equally proud in 
recognizing the historical services rendered by one of their confreres. 

The remarks were received with acclamation. 

Later in the evening, the chairman called attention to the presence 
of Mr. Hodgson, who had entered the meeting after the eulogy on his 
book had been spoken. The chairman informed Mr. Hodgson of the 
remarks made in his absence, and very cordially congratulated him. 

Mr. Hodgson thanked his colleagues for their unexpected reference to 
his book, and expressed obligations to members of the society who had 
assisted him in its progress. 


By Mr. J. R. Crone (per Mr. 
A. L. Steavenson of Holy- 
well hall, Durham): parts 
of a wooden shovel tip- 
ped with iron, and an 
iron pick, probably about 
200 years old, found in 
an old Weardale mine in 
Thanks were voted to Mr. 

Crone for his gift. 


By Mr. J. C. Hodgson, F.S.A.: 
photographs of the old 
tithe barn at Warkworth, 
now being demolished. 
Mr. Hodgson read the fol- 
lowing notes on the build- 
ing : " Adjoining the east 
side of the churchyard of 
Warkworth, there is a plot of 
ground comprising about 975 
square yards, upon a portion 
of which there stood, until the 
present month, a stone build- 
ing of one storey, covered 
with red pantiles. This plot 
of ground was the stackgarth, 
* )Ca ie itr and the building was the tithe 

1 ' * ' ' ' ' ' ' barn, formerly belonging to 

the appropriate rectory of Warkworth. The site is one of more 
than ordinary interest, for either here or in the adjoining garden there 
stood, it is believed, the Benedictine cell to which Farnham, bishop of 
Durham, appropriated the church of Branxton. The tithe barn was 
a building 60 feet long by 18 feet wide. On the south side were two 
doors, one of which was immediately opposite a similar opening on the 
north side ; the object of the arrangement being to obtain a through 
draught for winnowing, when the corn was threshed with a flail by 
a barnman. When in the occupation of the farmers of the tithes, the 
barn was sometimes sub-let to theatrical companies or strolling players ; 
the play Jane Shore was performed on April 21, 1849. When the 


provisions of the Tithes Commutation Act, came into operation on the 
expiration of the subsisting leases, the premises were no longer required 
for the purposes for which, up to that time, they had been used. About 
1860 the Ecclesiastical Commissioners (in whom the bishop of Carlisle's 
estates had become vested), on the petition of the vicar of Warkworth, 
granted the garth, with the buildings upon it, to the benefice, to form 
a vegetable garden for the vicarage house. After being continuously 
used for that purpose, the garden, or garth, was sold in May, 1899, by 
the Rev. R. W. Dixon to Mr. Thomas Clutterbuck, whose residence 
and garden adjoined the premises on the east. Although the vicar 
acted within his legal rights, in the exercise of his discretion, and the 
sale was for a valuable consideration, the act, in the writer's opinion, 
was reprehensible, and to be lamented. Mr. Clutterbuck died shortly 
afterwards, and the premises were sold by his executors and trustees 
by private contract to Mr. John Short, who in May, 1903, sold and 
conveyed them to Messrs. John and George Green, their present owners, 
who are about to convert the barn into cottages. Fragments or 
vestiges of a few other tithe barns still exist in the county, viz., at 
Haltwhistle, Allendale, West Thirston, and perhaps at Great Swinburne. 
Of the latter structure Mr. Cuthbert Riddell states that it belongs to 
him, and not to the owners of the rectory of Chollerton, but he was 
always told by his late father that it iiad been used as a tithe barn." 

Thanks were voted to Mr. Hodgson. 

The photographs have been reproduced in the plate facing this page. 

By Mr. Blair (one of the secretaries) : a second brass coin of Hadrian, 
found in the river at Newcastle, near the Swing bridge : 

obv. IMP CAESAR TRAiANVS HADRiANVS . . . . ; laureated head of 

emperor to right. 

rev. PONT MAX TR POT cos in. In exergue BRITANNIA. In 
field s. c. A seated figure resting her head on her right 
hand, spear in her left, her right foot on a helmet, on ground 
a shield. 

By Mr. E. Wooler of Darlington : A photograph of some Ancient 
British flint implements, found at Newton Ketton, near Darl- 
ington, some years ago, and presented to him by the executors 
of the late Dr. Manson of Darlington (See Manson's Zig Zay 
Ramblings of a Naturalist) The illustrations on the opposite plate 
show them. 


A member reported that the bishop of Durham had appointed a 
park keeper, and had notified last week that the park would be closed 
to the free access of the public, not as in the time of bishops Baring, 
Lightfoot, and Westcott, when it was open to all, and that admission 
in the future would be by ticket only. 


Mr. R. Blair (one of the secretaries) read the following paper by Mr. 
E. Wooler of Darlington, on ' The Ancient British camp known us 
' The Castles ' near Hamsterley, Durham.' 

" About a year ago a Darlington gentleman, knowing the interest I 
take in such matters, brought under my notice some bronze celts, 
which he had purchased amongst a lot of scrap metal (see Proc. !Soc. 
Antiq. Newc. x. 360). On enquiry these celts were found to have 

Proe. Soc. Antiq. Neios. L (3 Ser.) 

To face page 64. 


( All in possession of Mr. E. U'ooler of Darlington.) 

Proc. Soc. Antiq. Newc. I. (3 Ser.) 

To face page 64. 





come from the vicinity of the Ancient British camp of the Brigantes 
at Stanwick, Yorks. Naturally this discovery at once revived my 
interest in this camp, 1 which was a few days subsequently visited by 
a party of about 30, including myself. Arising out of a newspaper 
article which was published, describing the finding of the celts and 
our visit to the camp, I received several letters from northern ar- 
chaeologists pointing out, amongst other matters, that this camp 
was probably on or immediately contiguous to the Black or Scots 
dyke, the line of which has been distinctly traced through Northum- 
berland to the north-western boundary of the county of Durham, 
which it enters near Shorngate cross. 8 From this point, however, 
its course through the county of Durham was largely a matter of 
surmise, and accordingly I and my friend Mr. Turnbull instituted 
investigations with the hope of finding such traces of the dyke 
as would enable us to indicate its route after entering Durham 
until arriving at a point on the Yorkshire side of the Tees opposite 
Gainford church. So far as the object of our investigations is 
concerned, we have not hitherto met with much encouragement, 
but on one of our expeditions we visited the neighbourhood of Wol- 
singham, and there found old remains of absorbing interest at 
the place known as ' The Castles.' These are the ruins of what 
appears to be an old fortification, probably of the Brigantes. Its 
situation is within about 300 yards of Harehope burn, and to the 
north- west]of Hoppyland 3 park, Hamsterley (see plan, p. 65). Situated 
at the foot of a high ridge of hills, and standing at an altitude of 
612 feet, is an enclosure of oblong form, the interior space being a 
plane inclining to the south. The internal dimensions are to the 
south 278 feet, to the north 249 feet, and the general width is 215 
feet ; and on every side the structure was defended by lofty ram- 
parts of stones with an outward ditch, the soil from the fosse having 
been thrown inward, and the ramparts built upon it. Both the out- 
side and inside walls were undoubtedly originally faced with quarried 
stones (see plate facing p. 64) laid in courses, the intervening 
space between the walls being filled in with loose stones. On the 
eastern side, about the middle, there is evidence of there having been 
at one time an entrance, but no reliable idea of the original size of 

i See Clarkson's Richmond, 344 : VVhitaker's Richmondshire, ->06 ; Phillips's York- 
shire, 222 ; and The Archaeological Journal, Nos. 23 and 24 (1849). 
2 See Kitchin's Map of Northumberland. 

3 The hoppings at Hamsterley and Byers Green were the most noted in the county 
of Durham. In Yorkshire such a gathering is called a Wake, and in Lancashire a 
Rush Bearing. These festivals were originally called Feasts of the Dedication, being 
always held upon the days of the Saints to whom the respective parish churches are 
dedicated. The word hopping is derived from the practice of hopping and dancing on 
these occasions. Wake refers to the custom of waking or watching in the church all 
the night previous, and reciting certain prayers set apart for the occasion ; and rush 
bearing signifies the usage of bringing bull-rushes to strew in the church, as the 
meetings were originally held in the churchyards, where it was a custom to build 
bowers and tents, and to perform those rude dramas known by the names of Mysteries 
and Moralities. According to Boldon Book, the villains of West Auckland had the 
privilege of building 18 booths at the Fair of St. Cuthbert at Durham. The religious 
tenor of these assemblages, however, seems to have been long forgotten, and climbing 
greasy poles, grinning through horse-collars, leaping in sacks, and some other unmen- 
tionable feats, have formed the amusement. In the present day foot-racing, coursing, 
athletic games, fiddling, dancing and drinking, with an occasional boxing match by 
way of variety, are the general pastimes. In Lancashire, the parties still deck out a 
cart with bushes, &c., and fasten into a rope 20 or 30 yards long, to which they yoke 
themselves in pairs and gallop up and down the town, a man running before and 
cracking a whip, to compel everybody they meet, under the penalty ,of a sound whip- 
ping, to catch hold of the rope and run a certain distance with them. 


this opening can be formed, owing to the circumstances that the 
whole of the wall is down, but in the centre of it is a large upright 
flag, which conjecturally may have answered the purpose of a 
door. The base of the stone ramparts exceeded 26 feet, and the 
medium height of the walls outside was upwards of 15 feet. Near 
the place of entrance on the east side, a stream runs down a deep 
gill, showing that advantage had been taken of the natural forma- 
tion of the ground to strengthen the defences of the fortress, and 
probably a bridge or platform of trees or hurdles, which could be 
easily either removed or destroyed, was used at this particular point. 
Apparently the gill had been dammed up at the north-east corner, 
in order to fill the ditches with water, and in all probability there 
was also a dam at the south-east corner, for the purpose of more 
effectually securing deep water. Judging from the manner in which 
the wall has been thrown down, the fortification would appear to 
have been attacked from the north, which is undoubtedly the weak- 
est side. At the present time the site of the camp is partially 
covered and surrounded by growths of mountain ash and birch trees, 
and whin bushes, and the ditches are filled with growing brushwood. 
Looking from the beck the wall is stupendous, as on this side the 
greatest quantity of materials has manifestly been needed, in order 
to bring the ridge to the level of the rest of the work. It is difficult 
to conjecture whence the stones were obtained to build the fort, as 
there is no appearance of any such materials on the adjacent lands. 
Although the enclosed space is now covered with trees and under- 
growth, there are evidences that the whole space has been ploughed 
at no very distant time. ' The Castles ' is on land which now 
forms part of the estate of Mr. Blenkinsopp of Hoppyland Park, 
with whom I have been in communication, and from whom I hope 
to obtain permission to excavate a trench some three feet deep across 
the internal space, in the hope of making discoveries to throw light 
on the age of the remains. Mr. Blenkinsopp tells me the property has 
been in his family for about 150 years. Some remains discovered 
he describes as looking like ' fossilized tusks,' and he also says some 
slag was found in one or two places near by, as though ironstone 
had been smelted there. The property was formerly copyhold, held 
of the bishop of Durham, and was anciently part of the possessions 
of the Eures, who held it for many generations. The following is an 
abstract of the title, from 1614 to 1805: 

4 May, 12 James 1. (1614) Demise I/-. Jno. Calverley to Robt. 
Hutton junr. son and heir of Ro: Hutton D.D. one parcel of land 
late waste of the lord lying nigh foot of Ewden called the Nether 
Close containing by estm. 3 ac. of land with the appurts. formerly 
in the tenure of Richd. Hawdon. 

5 Ap.,'8 Charles 1. (1632) fo. 982. 1/4. Thos. Garthorn to his 
brother Anthony The same premises with one parcel of land late 
waste of the lord now inclosed with one house thereupon built 
lying at Ewdon nigh the pissing Carr containing by estm. 1 ac. of 
land and also the above. 

24 Sep. 24 Ch. 2. (1672) fo. 1591. d. Admittance of Thos. Garthorn, 
son and heir of Anthony to the same premises. 

25 Sep. 3 W. & M. (1691), fo. 1321 1/4 Thos. Garthorn to Wm: 
Blackett the same premises. 

24 Ap. 1734, fo. 205. d. 1/4. Admittance of Jno. Blackett, ne- 
phew and heir of William to the same premises. 

5 Jan. 1768, fo. 200 d. 1/4 and 2/2. Jno. Blackett to Nics. Walton 


In Trust for William Leaton The same premises with 2 Allotments 
of 2 ac, and 4 ac. 2 r. p. 

28 Feb. 1805, fo. 78 d. 1/4 and 2/2. Admittance of Nic. Walton 
son and heir of Nic. to the same premises. 

4 Mar. 1805, fo. 79 d. 1/4 and 2/2. N. Walton to G. T. Leaton 
to Robert Walters the same premises. 

In regard to the trench I hope to be allowed to dig, as it must not 
be forgotten that there is something to be gained, some knowledge to 
be acquired, by careful and observant digging, properly carried out. 
The feeling that I was trying, and not altogether unsuccessfully, to 
decipher a partly obliterated page of history has been something 
so strong, that it required little imagination to form a mental 
picture of the old occupants of the camp. There is no doubt that 
* The Castles ' was constructed in very remote antiquity, and not 
either in modern times or since the country was cleared of wood, its 
situation being such that all the surrounding lands command it, 
and it would have been untenable against even the most primitive 
artillery. Roman writers tell us that Caesar found the inhabitants 
of Britain dwelling in huts in the midst of thick woods and forests, 
and in strongholds concealed among the mountains. The whole of 
the country around ' The Castles ' was originally forest land. In 
every particular the place answers to the descriptions of the Ancient 
British strongholds, surrounded by a mound of stones without any 
cementing material, in a concealed and secure retreat, hidden by 
hills and enclosed in a thick wood (Hutchinson, Durham, in. 374). 
Under such circumstances the place was well nigh impregnable. It 
may bs surmised that the more distant approach was through a 
wood by a pathway, only negotiable by one person at a time, as in 
the backwoods of America ; the nearer passes probably blocked by 
barricades. The permanent habitations of the Brigantes were 
crowded together in forests, without any attempt at order or regu- 
larity, and the village or rude aggregation of huts denned by a 
mound of loose earth or stones piled up in a ridge, which was fur- 
ther strengthened by a ditch outside, and logs of timber heaped up 
inextricably by way of barricades, formed the outwork. The huts 
consisted of a few poles placed in a circular form, wattled with 
hurdles and covered with turf. The manners and customs of the 
Brigantes are chiefly to be gathered by interpreting what remains 
of their dwellings and tombs, their towns and camps, their stones 
of memorial and circles of assembly, their weapons and tools, or- 
dinary earthenware and principal ornaments. Caesar, speaking of 
the southern parts of Britain, says that the buildings were numer- 
ous and much like those of Gaul. The houses were tapering huts, 
construsted of wood on a circular basis. Of these humble structures 
we have only the foundations, of which there appear to be three 
varieties. In the first example, which occurs frequently in the 
north, south, and south-eastern districts of Yorkshire, the ground is 
excavated in a circular shape, so as to make a pit from 6 to 8, or 
even 16 to 18 feet in diameter, with a raised border, and of the 
depth of 3. 4, or 5 feet. Over this cavity we can imagine branches 
of trees, so arranged as to form a conical roof, perhaps rendered 
weather proof by wattling a covering of rushes or sods. The open- 
ing would probably be on the side removed from the prevalent wind. 
Traces of fire have been found in the centre of many of the cavities 
examined. The Rev. W. Greenwell (British Barrows,) tells us: 


' That the Brigantes lived in an organized condition of society 
may be considered as quite certain and as a necessity of such a 
state, they must have been under the government of a head, most 
probably the chief of a clan. They had unquestionably long passed 
beyond a stage when the family is the only community, and they 
were ruled by order and constraint, embracing wider bounds than 
those comprised within the authority of relationship in its more 
limited sense. The magnitude of the camps would in itself imply 
this, as from the amount of continued labour bestowed upon them, 
they could never have been erected, except by a community which 
included many families. The very extensively and strongly con- 
structed defensive arrangements (enclosing in many instances large 
tracts of country within their lines) are strongly indicative of a com- 
bination which necessitated a union of very considerable bodies of 
men, and there is every reason to believe that these works were 
constructed by the same people. Within what may perhaps be de- 
signated as a larger federation, held together by common origin and 
mutual interest, there were doubtless several smaller tribal divisions, 
ruled over by their respective chiefs, either independent of or more 
or less under the authority of the federal head. It may also be that 
there were still more minute sub- divisions, where the family govern- 
ment might prevail, and where the interest and property in the 
land would be parcelled out into tracts, not larger than what is com- 
prised witnin contiguous ranges of high land, in some cases not 
more extensive perhaps than the present parishes. The west of the 
county of Durham consists of a tract of high land which has never 
been cultivated, but would, in similar circumstanced parts of Eng- 
land, have been occupied with the cairns and barrows of the people 
who once lived there. Such memorials of the dead are almost en- 
tirely, if not altogether, wanting on the Durham moorlands. Camps 
or other fortified places are very uncommon, and seem, with the 
exception of some of doubtful date on Cockfield Fell, 4 to be con- 
fined to the valley of the Wear. I visited The Castles ' on Satur- 
day, the 6th June, 1903, with my friends Messrs. Turnbull and 
Mountford, and found climbing the mounds of stones a difficult 
task. The interior plain would be capable, according to Hutchinson, 
of receiving about 500 huts of the character above described so 
that the fortress would secure within the ramparts probably between 
2,000 and 3,000 people, basing the calculations on five persons or 
thereabouts to each hut. Some antiquaries surmise that this 
camp was on the line of the Scots or Black dyke (see Bruce' s 
Roman Wall), others that the Brigantes after they were defeated 
by the Romans at Stan wick camp, fled hither and entrenched 
themselves. As favouring the latter view, a road leads from ' The 
Castles ' to Stanwick, and Ancient British and Roman remains 
have been found within a few miles of the old fortress. 

I have here four photographs of ' The Castles ' from different 
positions. Number 1 is a view of the south-east corner from 
outside the fort ; number 2 is a view of the same corner from 
the inside ; number 3 is the south of the ruins from the inside ; 
number 4 is the east wall looking south on the top of the wall ; 

< Lord Barnard's agent has very kindly lent me an old map of CockfieJd Fell, 
made in 1810, in which the three camps mentioned in Hutchinson are shown. I think 
there can be no doubt they are on the line of the Scots Dyke, as I have found another 
camp near Winston station, described by Cade. There is a description of the camps on 
Cockfield Fell given by Bailey in the Antiquarian Repertory. 


and number 5 is a plan (see p. 65) of the camp prepared by my friend 
Mr. Woodward of the Engineer's department of the North-Eastern 

These photographs have been reproduced in the plates facing pages 
64, 66,, and 68, and numbered respectively 1,2, 3, and 4. 

Thanks were voted by acclamation to Mr. Wooler for his paper. 


Mr. Blair read a supplemental paper by Mr. H. A. Adamson, V.P., 
on ' The Villiers Family as Governors of Tynemouth Castle and 
owners of the Lighthouse,' which will be printed in Archaeologia 
Aeliana, vol. xxv. 

Thanks were voted to Mr. Adamson by acclamation. 


Mr. J. C. Hodgson, V.P., F.S A., read ' Notes on the Sources of the 
Testa de Nevill,' and gave extracts from it relating to Northumberland. 

Thanks were voted by acclamation to Mr. Hodgson, who had borne 
the cost of making the extracts from the original document, and it was 
unanimously rosolved to print the paper in Archaeologia Aeliana, xxv. 



"A quaint rhyming chronicle of the Percies, compiled by William 
Peeris, clerk and priest and secretary to the fifth earl of Northumber- 
land, preserved in the Bodleian library (Dodsworth MS.. L, fol. 119), 
gives this reason for Sir Henry Percy being named Hotspur : 
The eight Henry, sone to the seaventh Henry bounteous and good, 

His father yet livinge, was a right valiant knight, 
And did many notable acts, as became his noble blond, 

For defence of his Princes Kealme hee spared not to fight, 
For his sharpe quicknesse and speedinesse at neede, 

Henry Hottespur hee was called indeede. 

The chronicler goes on to describe him as ' crowne of all vertues,' and 
then speaks of the place of his burial : 

In Yorke Min.ster this most honourable knight 
By the first earle his father lyeth openly in sight. 

The Antiquary, for July 1903, p, 206. 


Extracts relating to Durham & Northumberland : 

Haselwood, John, of Ogle castle (p. Whalton), Northumberland, gent. 

Will [43 St. John] pr. Ap. 27 by Sir Henry Babington, kt. 
Howson, John, D.D,, Lord Bishop of Durham, dec d in p. St. Sepulchre, 

Lond. Will [24 Audley] pr. Nov. 14 by Gilbert Ford. 
Smith, Elizabeth, of Durham, widow (described in the will, <tut<'</ 

March, as ' late of Durham, and now of Little Eden ' [p. Easing- 

ton co. Durham]. Will [65 Audley] June 16 to dau. Elizabeth 

Smith, Roger (of p. St. Mary in the South Bailey), Durham (gent.). 

Aclmon. w. Will [65 Audley] June 16, to dau. Eliz. Heath, rel. 

Eliz. dec d . 
Shaftoe, Henry, of Berwick on Tweed, co. Northumberland. Will 

[53 Audley] pr. May 1, by brother Thomas. 
Slmftow, Eplmihim (of Berwick on Tweed, gent., but belonging to the 

4 Royal James' in HWO) ; deceased abroad unmarried. Will 

[104 St. John] pr. Dsc. 22, by brother Thomas. 






VOL. I. (3 Ser.) 1903. No. 9. 

The usual monthly meeting of the society was held in the library 
of the castle, Newcastle, on Wednesday, the 26th day of August, 1903, 
at seven o'clock in the evening, Mr. R. Coltman Clephan, F.S.A., one 
of the vice-presidents, being in the chair. 

An account, recommended by the council for payment, was ordered 
to be paid. 

The following ordinary members were proposed and declared duly 
elected : 

i. Matthew R. Bigge, 18 St. George's Square, Stamford. 

ii. James Thompson Nisbet, Criffel, Ryton. 

iii. Ethel Mary Neucella Williams (Miss), M.D., &c., Newcastle. 

The following NEW BOOKS were placed on the table : 

Presents, for which thanks were voted : 

From the librarian of the Newcastle Public Libraries : Useful Arts 

Catalogue. 4to., J bd. 

From Mr. T. V. Holmes, F.G,S., the writer : ' On Tree- trunk Water- 
pipes ' (reprint from the Essex Naturalist, xni. 60-75). 8vo. 

Exchanges : 

From the Numismatic Society of London : Numismatic Chronicle, 
4 ser. no. 10, 1903, pt. ii. 8vo. [In a paper by Mr. Grueber, 
on the Colchester find of pennies of the early Henrys, &c., ' the 
largest find of medieval coins that has ever occurred in this 
country,' some interesting coins of ' the bishopric ' are noted.] 
From the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, U.S.A. : Natick 
Dictionary, by James Hammond Trumbull ; large 8vo., cl. 

Purchase : Jahrbuch of the Imperial German Archaeological Institute, 
xvin. ii. 8vo. Rom, 1903 ; and Notes and Queries, 292-4, 


By Mr. J. S. Robson : Eleven 18 cent, copper coins and tokens, 
including penny of Isle of Man of 1766, Coventry token, half- 
pennies and farthings of the Georges, found during the altera- 
tions of his premises in Saville Row, Newcastle. 

Thanks were voted to Mr. Robson. 



By the Rev. Thomas Stephens, vicar of Horsley, Redesdale (per 
Mr. R. Blair) : 

(i.) A fine 17 cent. ' Book of Arms ' giving the coats of arms of the 
peers of England, Scotland, and Ireland, and at the end those of 
the gentlemen of Yorkshire, Northumberland, and Durham. Last 
sold at the Phillips sale. 

(ii.) Two Roman brass coins, from the bed of the river Tyne 
at Newcastle, discovered when the foundations of the old bridge 
were being removed to give place to the present swing bridge, 
and purchased by his father, the late Dr. Stephens of North 
Shields. One is a first brass coin of the emperor Hadrian, in 
the finest condition, without the least trace of oxide, having 
on obverse the laureated and bearded head of the emperor to 
the right, with draped bust, and inscribed HADBJANVS AVGVSTVS ; 
and on the reverse a galley with nine oars, though only 6 rowers, 
having a man on the bow. and another man with 2 standards 
on the stern, the inscription being FELICITATI AVG, in field s c. 
and in exergue cos in PP The other is a second brass of the 
elder Faustina, wife of Antonimis Pius, shewing her draped head 
and bust on the obverse to right, with inscription DIVA PAVSTINA ; 
and on the reverse a figure standing to left, and the inscription 
AETERNITAS, in the field s c. 

By Mr. Walter S. Corder ; Three Roman coins 2 of silver and 1 
of bronze discovered in Swan & Hunter's yard at Wallsend, 
near the end of the Roman Wall. 

1. Den. Trajan. 

obv. IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC p M TR p ; head laureated 
and bust cuirassed and draped to right. 

rev. cos v p P s p Q R OPTIMO PRINC ; figure standing to 
left, cornucopia in left hand, rudder [?] in right. 

2. Den. Hadrian. 

obv. Inscription illegible ; bare head to right. 
rev. MONETA AVG ; female figure standing to left, cornu- 
copia in left hand, scales in right. 

3. Third brass. Marius [?]. 

obv. Inscription illegible ; radiated head to right. 

rev. [VICTORIA AVG] ; figure marching quickly to right. 


Mr. R. Oliver Heslop, F.S.A., one of the secretaries, read the following 
notes on this discovery : 

" The discovery of an alta% dedicated to Oceanus, found on the site 
of the Aelian bridge at Newcastle, was announced at our meeting in 
May last. This has been followed by the disinterment, on Thursday, 
the 20th instant, of another Roman inscribed stone at the same place 
and under similar conditions. We are again indebted to the engineer 
of the River Tyne Commissioners (Mr. James Walker) for the discovery 
itself, for the courtesy with which he has allowed the stone to be ex- 
amined, and for the photographs now submitted for your inspection. 

The stone before you has been a wall-tablet, inscribed upon a slab of 
sandstone, close grained and of great hardness. It measures twenty-six 
inches long by eighteen and three-quarter inches wide ; and in its 
thinness, of about two inches only, it resembles on? of our footpath 

Proc. Soc. Antiq. Newc. I. ( 3 Ser.) 

To face page 72. 



( From a photograph by Mr. Charles Webb of the Tyne Commissioners' Office, Newcastle.) 

In the French 4 Cabinet des Medailles de la Bibliotheque Nationale,' at Paris. 

( From a photograph by Mr. Parker Brewis.) 

flags. It is, with the exception of a slight crack, in an almost flawless 
state ; the depth and conditions under which it has been buried having 
been so favourable to its preservation that tool marks are yet fresh upon 
it. Its whole face is covered with a moulded and ansated panel, the 
centre compartment being filled with lettering occupying nine lines. The 
inscription reads: IMP . ANTON [i] NO . AVG . PIO . p . PAT . VEXIL [L] A- 

T[I]0 LEG . II . AVG . ET . LEG . VI . VIC . ET . LEG . XX . VV . CON[T]n[l] 

Expanded thus : IMP(ERATORI) . ANTONINO . AVG(VSTO) . PIO . p 

As Antoninus Pius became emperor in A.D. 138, and was succeeded 
by Marcus Aurelius in A.D. 165, the date of the Newcastle inscription 
falls presumably within the period of 27 years thus represented. 
Towards the end of A.D. 139 and in A.D. 140 the Propraetor Quintus 
Lollius Urbicus was engaged in building the Antonine Wall in Scotland. 
But the Newcastle stone records the presence of another distinguished 
imperial legate in the person of Julius Verus. Again, detachments 
of the three legions here named were the builders of the Antonine 
Wall. Four of its sections were completed by those of the second 
legion, four sections by those of the sixth legion, and three sections 
of its length, with other connected works, were built by those of the 
twentieth legion. The work done is recorded by each for itself ; in 
one instance only, on the Antonine Wall, are any two of the vexilla- 
tions associated in one inscription. But in the Newcastle inscription 
occurs the remarkable conjunction of all three vexillations. A note of 
Horsley may be quoted in this connexion : ' Excepting the Germans,' 
he says, ' we seldom or never have the vexillatio of any but legionary 
' soldiers, either in the Roman historians, or any of our Roman in- 
' scriptions in Britain. The Germans seem to be spoken of as fit for 
' expedition, and are particularly on several occasions famed for their 
' swimming. Tacitus tells us that the Roman soldiers being loaded 
' with their arms were afraid to swim, but the Germans were accustomed 
'to it, and qualified for it by the lightness of their arms and the 
' tallness of their bodies.' If,' continues Horsley, * the notion of 
* vexillarii and vexillatio which I have already endeavoured to establish, 
' be right (he had described them as picked men from the legion, 
despatched on special service, as our grenadiers used to be), we may 
' hence be furnished with a good reason, why there should be vexillations 
' of Germans, rather than any other auxilliary forces' (Britannia 
Romana, p. 298). 

The large force represented by the association of three vexillations, 
and their command by an imperial legate, indicate operations of more 
than ordinary importance. Of their nature and extent our tablet is 
silent. That it records the execution of work of magnitude, either on 
the Roman bridge itself or in the adjacent stationary camp of Pons 
Aelii, may be reasonably presumed." 

Mr. F. Haverfield, F.S.A., said that the inscription is on a singularly 
perfect slab, measuring about 18 inches in height and 26 in length. It 
has a neat appearance, but a close inspection shews that it is not really 
well cut, as it seems that the cutter has omitted several letters which 
(as the spacing shews) were drawn or painted on the stone for him to 
engrave. The expansion appears to be Imp (eratori) Antonino Aug 


(uato) Pio p(atri) pat(riae), vexil[l]atio leg(ionis) ii Aitg(ustce) et 
leg(ionis, or legio possibly) vi vic(trix) et leg(ionis) xx v(aleriae) 
v(ictricis), con[t]r[i]buti ex Ger(maniis) duobus, sub Julio Vero leg(ato) 
Aug(usti) pr(o) p(raetore). To the Emperor Antoninus Pius, father 
of his country, the draft or detachment of the second legion August, 
the sixth Victrix, and the Twentieth Valeria Victrix, recruited (?) from 
the two provinces of Germany, under Julius Verus, Governor of Britain. 
Contributi is a novel phrase to me, but the British legions in the 
second century (when Pius reigned) were largely recruited in Germany, 
and perhaps the word means recruits or reinforcements, landed in the 
Tyne from a voyage over the North Sea. The altars to Oceanus and 
Neptune, now in the Blackgate, may refer to the same thing. Julius 
Verus seems to be named on one other British inscription as governor 
in the time of Pius : he is (as I conjecture) the Julius V. ... of an in- 
scription of the reign of Pius, recently found at Brough, in Derbyshire. 
The presence of the vexillatio is doubtless concerned either with 
campaigns connected with the erection of the vallum of Pius, or with 
operations against the Brigantes, to which the Brough stone relates. 

Thanks were voted to Mr. Heslop by acclamation. 

Mr. S. S- Carr read some * Notes on the Early Monumental Remains 
at Tynemouth,' which were illustrated by careful drawings bv Mr. H. S. 
Clarke of North Shields. Mr. Carr and Mr. Clarke were thanked. 

Mr. R. Coltman Clephan, F.S.A., read a translation by himself of a 
paper from the Bonn Jahrbiicher, by Dr. Krueger of the Trier Museum, 
on the Roman Wall in Northumberland. Many novel points were 
raised by the writer, but some of them were contested by Mr Haverfield. 

Mr. Clephan was thanked for his translation. 


(See p. 69.) 






VOL. I. (3 Ser.) 1903. No. 10. 

A country meeting of the society was held on Thursday, the 3rd day 
of September, 1903, at 


Members, of whom there was a small attendance, assembled at 
Morpeth railway station, on the arrival there at 10 a.m, of the 9'35 
train from Newcastle. Seats were at once taken in the carriage, and 
the visitors were driven through the pretty village of Longhirst, with 
its gardens gay with flowers, and picturesque though modern church 
embosomed in trees, direct to 


where, near the remains of the village cross, the Rev. A. R. Gregory, 
B.D., the vicar, met and welcomed the small party. 

Ranulph de Merlay, the principal founder of Newminster abbey, 
gave to it common of pasture of all his lands, and also land at 
Wlacain [Ulgham], to construct granges from the Eagle's nest to 
Egard's well, and by the rivulet from the well to the Line, and from 
the Line to the bounds of Lintun, and so to the march of Forum. 
This was confirmed by his son Roger de Merlay I., who in addition 
gave 10 acres of land beyond Egard's well ; and also by his son 
Roger II., who also gave the meadow at Hulgham next Edgard's well. 
William de Merlay also confirmed these grants, and besides gave 30 
acres of wood at Hulgam to Newminster. Roger III., lord of Ulgham, 
who died in 1265, likewise confirmed these grants, and gave a road 
from the grange of ' Hulgam ' to the eastern end of the village. These 
grants were also confirmed by John de Gray stock and by Ralph de 
Graystock (who was paid ten marks and his steward half a mark for 
it), whose body was buried in the church at Newminster, where the 
* Ewangelium ' was read. Their names all duly appear in the list of 
benefactors to the abbey. 1 

A final concord was entered into by the abbot and convent of 
Newminster and Gerard de Wodrington, concerning the boundaries 
between the grange of ' Hulgam ' and ' Wodrington,' the bounds are 
given, the marks being crosses and oak trees marked with crosses. 

i Newminster Cartulary (66 Surt, Soc. publ.), 2, 3, 8, 10. 


The still existing * Ulgham ' or ' Bounder Oak,' in the north-wood 
near Ulgham, may be one of these marked oaks. An illustration of 
it is given on plate facing page 75. 

According to an ancient roll, Roger de Merlay held Morpeth, with 
Ulgham its member, and many other places, of the king in capite, by 
four knights' fees, of the old feoffment. Roger de Merlay III., in 1376, 
* intuitu caritatis,' and for fifty marks, gave letters of freedom to John 
Spendloue, born at the vill of Ulgham. This Roger left two daughters, 
one Mary married to William, baron of Greystock, the other Isabella 
to Robert de Somerville. John de Graystock, his son, ' vir strenuus, 
sed corpulentus,' divided the lands of his grandfather between himself 
and Robert de Somerville, John retaining three knights' fees, including 
Morpeth and Ulgham, Robert taking one knight's fee. In a charter of 
1279, of the same John, it is stated that his ancestor Ralph de Merlay, 
founder of Newminster, had granted to the abbey common of pasture 
of all his lands, but that afterwards a certain heir of Ralph had 
ejected them from Stobswood and Ulgham, and wishing that his own 
soul and the souls of his ancestors should not be placed in jeopardy by 
reason of such disturbance, he granted the same common of pasture at 
Ulgham in free, pure and perpetual alms, for all animals except goats, 
and that the abbey pigs should have pannage in his wood of Ulgham. 2 

At an inquisition taken before Robert Sapy, the king's escheator 
beyond Trent, on the Friday before Pentecost, 1317, the jurors said 
that Robert son of Ralph, lord of Graystock, died in 1316, seised of 
half of the barony of Merley, including the manor of Ulgham, which 
used to be worth in time of peace 482. 13*. 4d. This Robert, who 
married Alesia de Nevil, was buried at Boterwyk. He left a son 
Ralph, he who besieged Gilbert Middlemen at Mitford. By the roll 
already referred to, it is to be noted that Ralph, lord of Nevil, and 
Alesia his wife, who died in 1374, mother of William de Graystock, 
son and heir of Ralph, baron of Graystock, held the vill of Ulgham in 
dower. She surrendered it and other places to her son, as no lands 
or tenements in Northumberland had descended to him, except 
Hepscot and half of the vill of Stannington. Ralph III., baron of 
Graystock, was, with others, captured at Horsridge, in Gleridale, by 
George, earl of Dunbar ; his brother William went as a hostage for 
him to Dunbar, and being attacked by a pestilential disease died and 
was buried there, but after two years his body was removed and buried 
before the high altar in Newminster, next Margery, lady of Ulgham. 3 

Francis Dacre claimed the barony as sole male representative of 
William, lord Dacre, grandfather of lady Arundel and lady Elizabeth 
Howard, and entered upon the estates. In 1586, a trial took place at 
Newcastle, in an action brought by a lessor of lord Arundel, lord 
William Howard, and their wives, against a person named Turner, 
who persisted in keeping possession of the demesnes of the manor of 
Ulgham as a tenant of Francis Dacre, when the verdict was in favour 
of the plaintiff, but as judgment was not given owing to a defect in the 
proceedings ' Ulgam' for ' Ulgham,' the matter was ultimately settled 
by arbitration. 4 

When Ulgham fell to lady Elizabeth Howard, the rents were 211. 
16s. 6d,. In 1595 or 6, when lord William Howard petitioned the 
queen, it then being in her hands, the rents are given as 30/. 9s. IQd., 
while by the rental of 1611, it was 31Z. 13s. Od. 

2 Newm. Cart., 9, 267, 299, 28!. 3 Ibid. 292, 305, 295, 298. 

4 Household Book of Lord William Howard (68 Surt. Soc. publ.) XV. 370. 


Mark, in his Survey of a portion of Northumberland (p. 84), tells us 
that Ulgham is situated on the south side of the rivulet, called at 
this place. . . .Ulgham burn, which conies by Tritlington, and makes 
the most considerable branch of the river Line, which name, after 
it meets with another called Pottling, it assumes.' ' The chapel stands 
at the east end [of the village], on the south side of the rivulet. 
The Manor of Ulgham, being part of the Lordship of Morpeth, 
belongs at present [1734] to the Earl of Carlisle, but was formerly 
part of the estate of the .... Dacres, and fell to the Howards by the 
marriage of the third son of the Duke of Norfolk to an heiress of 
the Dacres. The whole chapelry is supposed to contain about eighty- 
nine or ninety families, and about 450 inhabitants.' 

The lands in Ulgham, which belonged to Chibburn preceptory, came 
to Lawson Armstrong, who died in 1802. John Swallow, one of his 
nephews, ultimately obtained the entirety ot fhe Ulgham estate and 
sold it in 1846 to the then earl of Carlisle (Mr Woodman's note). 

The manor descended to the present earl of Carlisle, who in 1886 
sold it to sir James Joicey, bart., of Longhirst, though he retained 
the patronage of the living. 

The communal holding of land in Ulgham continued till a com- 
paratively late date, the arable land being divided into rigs strips 
corresponding with the number of dwellers in the hamlet. The same 
person did not hold the same rig or rigs always, but every year there 
was a change, so that the good and bad rigs were held in turn, known 
as ' running the rig.' The parson originally had to ' run the rig ' with 
his parishioners, but ultimately he was freed from this obligation, and 
a particular rig was assigned to him in perpetuity. This is known in 
Ulgham as the ' priest's rig ' and it is said to be the richest and best 
piece of land in tho hamlet. A fair used to be held in Ulgham near 
the cross, on St. John's day, known as Ulgham feast. 

Anthony Rumney," bailiff of Ulgham, died in 1621, and there is an 
inscribed table-stone to his memory in the graveyard a little to the 
south of the church; for a copy of the inscription, see these Proceedings 
(v. 23). His family, it is said, fled to the park to avoid the plague, but 
it followed them, and they all died from it (Mr. Woodman's note). 
In 1633-4, George Lawson was bailiff of Ulgham. 4 

Mr. Gregory first pointed out an old house in the village, on the site 
of an older which formerly belonged to the Hospitallers, and also an 
ancient well, known as Erard's well, which is referred to more than 
once in the Newminster Cartulary. 5 

The remains of the shaft o? the village cross, about four feet long, on 
a base of steps, were next examined. The stone is so much worn and 
decayed that it is difficult to assign a date for its erection, but it may 
probably be of the 14 or 15 century. The illustration on the opposite 
page shews it. A large enclosure at the east end of the village, which 
judging from the ditch-like depressions has been moated round, was 
next pointed out. In it may have stood a house of which no trace now 
remains. The use of the spade, however, would doubtless throw light 
on the matter. The proceedings at Ulgham concluded with a visit to 
the modern church of St. John, which the vicar described. 

According to the Clams Ecclesiastica (Eccl. Proc. of Bp. Barnes, 8), 
' Howgham was a chapel served by a stipendary priest, as it had no in- 
cumbent. In MS. notes, in the editor's possession, of bishop Chandler's 

* Household Book of Lord William Howard (68 Surt. Soc. publ.) xv. 396, 409, 414, 287. 
6 66 Surt. Soc. publ. 


visitation, ' suppos'd in 1736,' it is said that ' Ulgham, C. under Morpeth. 
Tho. Murray 30 U resident in a hired house~not in ye Parsonage. N.B. 
no value acknowledg. Fam. 65, No school. Service twice a day. Cat. 
w th Lewis & Be veredg. Sam 4 3 times, 50 at Easter.' According to 
Randal (State of the Churches, 49) 'Ulghanr chapel dedicated to St. John,' 
was ' not certified.' 

In the church the vicar read an account of the chapelry which, he 
said, contained 3,445 acres ; this constituted the manor, and that 
though written Ulgham, the name of the place was pronounced 'Uffam.' 
The present church was erected to replace an older structure, 
from funds raised by a brief. The frontispiece to Mr. Woodman's 
Ulgham and its Story shows this. The carved stone shewn below was 
built into the north wall of the chancel of the old church. 

Of this fragments are 
built here and there 
into the walls, in- 
cluding a small Nor- 
man window head 
in the outside of the 
west wall. On the 
east side of the 
north transept the 
early window head 
shewn in the annexed 
illustration, is to be 
seen. Th9 only piece 
of old plate is a silver 
salver bearing the 
London hall marks, and the date letter for 1718. There are a 1 so a 
flagon and other vessels of pewter (See Proc. v. 22). The registers com- 
mence in 1600. The first volume, which is of 9 pieces of parchment, 
ends in 1623, the writing in it and in the second book has faded so much 
as to be almost illegible. This book, also of parchment, begins in 
1637 and ends in 1672; on the fly leaf of it is written ' . .list of Ulgham 
Churchwardins of the chapelrie of Ulgham, 1644, Robert Mitford and 
William Dobson. The order of the 24 in the year 1645 is this that the 
2 Churchwardens shall repaire the Churchdoores, Bells and other things 
belonging to the Church, and then to deliver up their accompts to these 
Churchwardens chosen in the year 1645, Churchwardens Henry Watson 
and Robert Pace.' The third register is on paper and begins in 1691. 

Extracts from the registers have already been given in these Pro- 
ceedings (v. 23). The following are some additional extracts of bap- 
tisms : 

1694. Elizabetha filia Gulielmi Bowman Curat' baptizat : 
August .... 

1695. Radulphus filius Richardi ffenwicke, 6 baptizat. Julij 4. 

In ' 1748, Frances, daughter of the Rev d . Thomas Murray, 7 was 
baptized Jany. 19th.' 

6 There are numerous entries of sons and daughters of Richard and Gerard 
Fen wick. Many baptisms and burials of the children of Mr. Edward Wilson, who was 
bailiff of Ulgham, are also recorded. Lord William Howard sent Peter Wilson from 
Westmorland to take charge of his Northumberland properties. He resided at Ulgham, 
as did his descendants until comparatively recent years (Mr. Woodman's notes). 

1 'Thomas Murray came to serve the Cure of Ulgham (under Mr. Cuth; Fenwicke 
Rector of Morpeth) the Sixteenth Day of December A. Domini 1724.' Ulgham Register, 
On the 10 October 1728 Thomas Murray Curate of Ulgham and Frances Fenwick 
of Ulgham Grange married. Mitford Register. 


Anne, the daughter of John Miller, a soldier in Lord Charles 
Manner's Regiment, borne at the Cockles, in this Ch'appelery, 
was Baptized July ye 24 [1757]. 

Robert, the son of Robert Ogle, of Hilthorn, In the Parish of 
Woodhorne was Baptized March ye 4th [1759]. 

There are several entries of baptisms apparently of Nonconformists' 
children, as the minister adds ' according to the accounts given us.' 

Then come marriages : 

In 1696 Henricus Henderson Nauta & Janeta Lawson vidua 
nupt. Martij 17 th 

1715 Robert Coward & Dorathy ffoster was maried June the last 
day 1715 

1716 Mr. George Lawson & Susanna Miller was Married August 
9th with A Licence by Mr. .Cuthbert ff en wick Rector of 

1717 Henry Taylor & Jane Mulcaster was married with a licence 
May 10th 1717 

1720 William Brown & Catherine Shaftoe was married March 

30th p. licenciam 
1722 Jacob Robinson & Dorathy Mulcaster was married May 

16th, 1722 
1748 Mr. Matthew Scaife and Miss Anne Wilson Novr 8th, by 

Amongst the burials are : in 

1693 RaduJphus films Roborti Lawson de Ulgham Sepult Sep- 

temb r 7th 

1700 Gulielmus Bowman Curate de Vlgham Sepult Septemb r 26th 
Johannes ffenwick de bothell Sepult' ffebruarij 12th 
Janeta uxor Georgii Lawson de Ulgham Sepulta Martij 1 1th 
1724 James Mulcaster Curate de Ulgham Sepult Dec 20th 
1742 Isabel Mulcaster widow was buried May ye 14th 
[1779] Sarah daughter of Rev Mark Blackburn November 23 
There seems to have been a succession of parish clerks of the same 
name for a long period, as the following records are in the books : 
1733 William James Parish Clerk of Ulgham was buried August 

ye 9th 

1738 William James jun r Clerk of Ulgham Augst ye 12th 1738 
1774 Thos James Parish Clerk of Ulgham was Buried May ye 30th 
He appears to have been succeeded by John James, as he is entered 
as clerk on 1st June 1774. 

The following note of a visitation by archdeacon Thomas Sharp is 
made in one of the registers : 

" Memdum Sept. 21st, 1723, This day the Chappel of Ulgham was 
visited by ye Archdeacon, & upon a view of ye defects ye following 
directions were given to ye chappelwardens 

Imp' to Provide a Register of Parchment 

2 a napkin or small linnen Cloth to cover ye Elements 

3 A Table of Marriages 

4 The hole in ye Roof for bell chain to be contracted 
These to be certified at ye next Easter Visitation 

5 Seats to be floored at ye discretion of ye Parish 

6 The Porch to be flagged 

These to be certified at Easter 1725 to ye Archdeacon himself. 

Tho: Sharp." 


A pen has been drawn across the last entry and * all this is duly 
performed* added. 

After heartily thanking Mr. Gregory for his services, and accompanied 
by him, the drive was resumed, and 


This as before mentioned, was granted to Newminster by Ranulph de 
Merlay, the founder of the abbey. To Ranulph, son of William de 
Merlay, Henry the first granted free chase in the manor of Ulgham. 
' The only relict of this once powerful family is ' The Marlish gate,' the 
portion of the road from Morpeth to Ulgham where the Howard and 
Portland estates meet the road to the Cockles.' 3 

In the ' Newminster accounts' of 1536-7, the sum of 13Z. 6s. 8d. was 
received from Ulgham grange, with the buildings and 30 acres of 
arable land, and 116 acres in all of meadows, late belonging to the 
abbot and convent. 

By his letters patent of 21 Dec. 1546, Henry VIII. granted to Sir 
Richard Tyrrell, esquire, for 21 years, amongst other possessions of 
Newminster, * all that Grau'ge called Vlwham Grau'ge, togeyther with 
all lands, medowes, leyssues [leazes], and pastures to the same 
pteynyng with thapp r tenanc s .... to the seyd late Monasterye be- 
longyng & pteynyng ' subject to a reserved rent of 13Z. 6*. Sd. ; and on 
17 Dec. 1547, he assigned the same to Sir Thomas Grey for the 
remainder of the term, and subject to a lease of Ulgham grange with 
the tithes to Thomas Wilson, William Grene, and Thomas Beard, for 
20 years, at a yearly rent of 22l. g 

At the muster of the Middle Marches on 26 Mar. 1580, at the Moot-law, 
five ' able horsemen furneshed ' attended from Owgham Grange. 9a 
Ulgham Grange appears to have been in the hands of the Crown till 
1601, but Sir Ralph Gray, knight, of Horton and Chillingham, whose 
will was proved on 28 Aug. 1624, left it and Nunnykirk to his son 
Edward. 9b In 1648 Colonel Edward Grey owned and resided in it. 
The Fen wick family occupied it for a considerable time until 1849. 

The Line was crossed by the ' Middle ford ' and 


soon reached. 

Members proceeded at once to the church, which was anciently 
dedicated to St. Mary. The principal features were described by the 
Rev. J. Walker and the Rev. R. C. MacLeod. 

The church consists of a chancel with a chapel on the south side, a nave 
of three bays with north and south aisles, a bell turret at the west end 
and a south porch. The north arcade, with round columns and square 
capitals, is of late twelfth century work, and the south arcade of the early 
thirteenth century, the boldly moulded south door being also of this 
period. The late fourteenth century east window is of three lights. The 
other windows are square headed. The chantrylchapel on the south side of 
the chancel opens into the chancel and south aisle by arches. The slender 
easternmost column of the south arcade supports four arches including 
the arch across the south aisle. The illustration opposite shows this. There 

8 Mr. Woodman's MS. note in his own copy of Ulgham and its Story, kindly lent 
by Miss Woodman. 

9 flewm. Cart. 307, 310, 312. 9* Calendar of Border Papers, I. 21. 
9b Durh. Wills and Inv. II. 61 n. 


is a piscina under the most easterly window of the south aisle marking, 
probably, the site of one of the two Trinity chantries which were 
formerly in the church. They are thus referred to in 2 Ed. vi. in 
the 'Certificate of all the Chauntryes, &c., within the Countye of 
Northumberland:' ' Two Chauntryes of the Trynyte, founded in the 
Chappell of Wodrington, apending to the Paryshe Church of Woodhorne. 
Edwarde Thompson, of liiij. yeres of age, and Thomas Hedely, of the 
age of xxxvj. yeres, Incumbents ther, meanly learned, of honest con- 
versacion and qualytes, having no other lyving then the same. The 
seyd Chauntry is dystaunte from the parishe churche iiij. myles. And 
ther ys no landes nor tenements sold syth, &c. And ther ys of howseling 
people within the same paryshe MXX. Yerely vale we of the same 
chauntrys with Ixvjs. viijd. geven towards the fynding of the Incum- 
bents meat and drynke, yerely, by Sr. John Wydrington, Knyghte, 
as he ledgeth, is xZ. iiijs. ; repryses xxs. ; clere, ixl. iiijs. Plate, vj. onz. 
Goodes, unpraysed;' and further in ' The Chauntry of the Trynyte in 
Wederington. Item, one vest of red sateii, one vest of white fustyan, 
one olde cope of red sea, and one olde masse boke ' are recorded. 10 

There was besides in 1307, an altar of St. Edmund in the church. 
The seats in the chantry chapel belonged to Linton, and this altar 
was formerly supported out of the mill of that vill, and the ' porch ' 
was repairable by the owner of Linton. In the north chancel wall 
there are two tomb recesses, the arch of the more easterly is high and 
pointed, and has above the apex the arms of Widdrington (quarterly 
over all a bend), the other recess is much lower, and in it is a small slab 
having rudely incised upon it a cross-crosslet. Mr. Longstaffe l 
noted the coincidence between these two recesses, and the two brothers 
Sir Gerard de Widdrington and his heir Roger, who witness deeds 
together in 1361; the latter died in 1372. On the south side of the chancel 
there is a piscina on the east side of a window, consisting of a short 
shaft apparently of 12th cent, date, with its capital hollowed out for 
the bowl. To the east of it is another piscina of later date. A door 
head and a window sill in the vestry are formed of medieval grave 
covers. There are a silver communion cup, made in Newcastle by 
James Kirkup, having on its side the initials J.A. and W.C.; and a 
modern saucer shaped salver (Proc. iv. 185). 

Neither John Scott, a Scot, the curate of * Witherington Capella,' nor 
Thomas Burrell, the parish clerk, attended the Chancellor's visitation of 
27 Jan. 1577/8; the latter in consequence of illness. At the general 
chapter of 29 July, 1578, the same John Scott, alias Clerke, curate of 
Withrington, made no appearance, nor yet did he appear at the 
general chapter held in Morpeth chapel on 20 Jan, 1578/9. 

According to the Clams Ecclesiastica, compiled by bishop Barnes of 
Durham, Wodrington was one of the chapels, wanting an incumbent, 
which was served by a stipendiary priest ; it and two others were at 
that time annexed to Woodhorn. 12 

At the visitation of bishop Chandler, already referred to, it was stated 
that ' Widdrington Chap, under Woodhorn of Ease, 4 mil. f. Woodh. 
N.B. in a ruinous condition, not floored seated or glazed, roof decayed. 
The lands of Ld. Widdrington to repair, but ye Presb. Std. for ye gov- 
ernm 1 neglects .... The chap. Warden never swore tho' elected. Fam. 
68, 15 Presb. a meeting house, once a month, 4 papists. Private school. 

10 Eccl. Proc. of Bishop Barnes (22 Surt. Soc. publ.) Ixxxv., Ixxxvi., xciii. 

1 'Notes on Widdrington and the Widdringtons.' Arch. Ael. (8vo. Ser.) in. 193. 

13 Eccl. Proc. of Bishop Barnes, 35, 76, 94, 8. 


Cat. Sam*- 4 times, 30 come.' Mr. Simcoe was vicar of Woodhorn at 
the time. 

Randal says that ' Vic. Wibbersley, Aug. 1768, gave up to Widdring- 
ton chapel,of which Sir George Warren, knight, was patron, all the profits 
and emoluments arising within the said chapelry, not reserving right 
of patronage, to the Vicars of Woodhorn,' and that there was at 
Widdrington ' a Cell of Benedictine Monks, subordinate to Tynmouth, 
at the dissolution granted to John, Earl of Warwick ' ; it then belonged 
to the duke of Northumberland. 13 

On leaving the church, the site of the ancient 


was pointed out in a field to the east of the church. This building has, 
however, almost disappeared, the only remains of it being the mound 
on which it stood, and a large deep hollow marking the site of the base- 
ment of the 14 cent, tower. Near the site are standing some old trees, 
apparently part of an avenue formerly leading to the castle. The 
ancient structure is well shewn in the plate iacing this page, repro- 
duced from the original drawing by the brothers Buck, made about 1728, 
in the possession of the society. This is the building referred to by 
Dugdale, who, writing in 1819, informs us that ' though irregular, and 
the work of various ages, the castle was a noble structure, especially the 
most ancient part of it which was a Gothic tower, finished with 
machicolations and four round turrets built on double tiers of corbules. 
It was burnt down about forty years ago [about 1779], and the only 
remaining part of it is an octagonal embattled tower to which a square 
modern edifice has been added.' This ' octagonal embattled tower ' 
has, since Dugdale' s time, also entirely disappeared, as has already 
been stated. The castle was the seat of Gerard de Wodrington in 
1272, and it was held by him of the barony of Whalton with ' Dirig ' 
and ' Bordon ' by the service of one knight's fee., 14 

Leland (Itin. vii. 60) says ' Witherington Castle longinge to the Wyther- 
ingtons stondethe with in halfe a Myle of the Shore, somewhat as 
towchinge againg Coket Isleland. By it runnithe a litle Broke on the 
Northe Syde, and there is a litle Village of the same Name. The Broke 
renneth into the Se by it selfe.' 

Sir William Lisle and his son Humphrey on their way home from an 
attack on Newcastle castle when they released some prisoners, took 
some horses from Sir William Ellerker's park at Widd -rington. Sir 
William Lisle was captured, and hanged, drawn and quartered, 1 

On 7 Feb. 1584-5 lord John Hamilton addressed a letter from 
Widdrington castle to the queen. 2 

In a letter of 25 July, 1691, to Sir Edward Harley, Robert Harley, 
the writer, stated that an express brought tidings last night that the 
ships which got out of Dunkirk had landed some men in Northumberland 
who plundered and then burned the house of lord Widdrington, a 
papist. This refers to Jean Bart, the Frenchman who was off the 
Northumberland coast in 1691. His lieutenant, Forbin, landed, and 
pillaged and set fire to Widdrington village, and afterwards sacked and 
burnt the castle. A farmhouse at Chibburn was also burnt. Damage 

13 State of the Churches, 52, 53. 

1* 'Testa de Nevill,' quoted in Hodgson's Description of Northumberland, 183. 

^ Cat. of Letters <t-' Papers, For. 0-- Dom. Henry V11L iv. 1005. 

* Hatfiekf papers (H. MSS. Com. Rep.) ill. 94. 

Voc. Soc. Antiq t Newc, i. (3 ser.) 

To face page 82. 


(From a water-colour drawing). 


Photographed by Mr. Parker Brewis from the original drawings in the possession of the Society. 

This plate presented by Mr. T Taylor, F.S.A., of Chipchase Castle. 


to the extent of about 6,000 was done, judging from the * briefs ' 
issued. It is said that the Frenchmen regretted that the castle had 
been sacked when they found out that lord Widdrington was a co-re- 
ligionist. 3 

On 8 May, 1725 the second earl of Oxford, then lord Harley, passed 
Widdrington castle on his journey through the northern counties. 4 

The Rev. John Horsley (Materials for the History of Northumberland, 
1729-30, p. 25) says that ' This seat has been built at several times, for 
which reason it wants true regularity and uniformity, which it might 
have had, if the design and building had been at one. But yet it has 
an agreeable situation, and somewhat that looks grand and magnificent. 
It was inhabited by the late lord Widdrington, and since his forfeiture 
the estate was purchased by the York Buildings Company, in whose 
possession it is now. The ancient name of this family was Woodrington 
(query with a gr).' He then states that a stone bearing the date 1559 was 
lying about in the court, and that another stone was built 'in the wall of 
the west part of the house, above a small door.' He then continues : 
' In the Saxon it was Widrington. Some have conjectured it to have 
been Woodhorntown, but this I think is improbable.' 

Sir Walter Scott in Marmion says that St. Hild and her nuns, sailing 
along the coast 

' pass the tower of Widdrington, 

Mother of many a valiant son.' 

It had been owned by the Warrens, and by lord Vernon of whom 
and of his wife, who died in 1836 and 1837, there are memorial tablets 
in the church. After several changes of ownership, the estate is now 
the property of Mr. T. Taylor, one of the vice-presidents of the society. 

The Widdringtons of Widdrington castle, were, in ancient times, in 
high repute. Their arms were quarterly argent and gules, over all a bend 
sable, and their motto * Joie sans fin.' A ring bearing this motto was 
found many years ago, near Washington, co. Durham, which Mr. Long- 
staffe saw. 6 

In 1281 John de Widerington and Roger, his brother, were witnesses 
to a grant. In 1327, 6 (1 Ed. I.) Widdrington was held by Gerard de 
Woderyngton, who died in 1362. In that year Sir Roger de Widdring- 
ton, described as son of John, lord of Widdrington, held Widdrington ; 
on 20 May, 1372, he was sheriff of the county, and in 1369-1371, warden 
of the marches. He died in 1372, and on 24 Sep. an inquisition 
was taken, as he had died seised of lands in Northumberland. 7 He is 
recorded as a benefactor to Newminster abbey. His son and heir, Sir 
John, was sheriff in 1398, 1410, 1426, and 1430. On his death in 
1444, it was found on an inquisition that he held the manor of Widdring- 
ton, the hamlet of Druridge and many other places in the county. 
Sir Roger, who succeeded, was sheriff three times in the reign of Henry 
VI. [1422-1461]. Gerard, who followed, was sheriff in 1465; Sir John 
comes next, he was also sheriff for three years, during the reign of 
Edward IV. [1461-83]. In 1502, Ralph, lord of Widdrington, died, 
and is recorded amongst the benefactors of Newminster. 8 Another Sir 

3 Tomlinson, ' A French Descent on the Northumberland Coast.' Arch. Ael. xxn. 
16 There is a view of the castle, from Bucks' copperplate in the possession of the 
society, illustrating this paper. 

4 Portland papers (H. MSS. Comm. Rep.) vi. 107. 

5 Notes and Queries 6 Ser. xu. 35. Also Arch. Ael. ill. 39u, where Mr. Longstaffe 
gives an illustration of the inscription on the ring. 

6 H. MSS. Comm. App. to 6 Rep., 329 b. 
7 Welford, Newc. <Sc Gateshead, i. 310. 8 Newm. Cart. 385. 


John was sheriff in 1540, 1552, and 1559. On 24 May, 1549 he and his 
deputy had charge of the beacon on Widdrington tower head. In a 
letter of Thomas Randolph, to the earl of Rutland, of 10 June, 1563, 
dated from Edinburgh, he says ' The desire of the borderers is to break 
all good order, but I hope to see some of them break their necks in 
' wythies ' for lack of halters. Mr. Wytherington has been here about 
his goods that were taken away, and his request was thought reason- 
able.' 9 Henry the eighth [1509-1547] gave Thomas Gower the office of 
marshal of Berwick, in joint patent with Sir John Woodrington, but 
the queen (Elizabeth) otherwise disposed of it, he therefore, on 3 Jan. 
1577-8 petitioned her on the subject, and obtained a lease in reversion 
on relinquishing his claim. 10 

By her will of 23 Mar. 1582/3 in which she is described as * Dayme 
Agnes, laclie Woddrington, late wyffe to Sir John Woddrington, late of 
Woddrington,' she directed her body to be buried in St. Nicholas's 
church, Newcastle, and after several bequests to her family and others, 
appointed her son, Robert Woddrington, sole executor. 11 

By his will of 28th April, 1593, Hector Wooddrington, 'one of the 
constables of horsmen, of her majisties towne of Barwicke-on-Twede,' 
who was an illegitimate son of Sir John Widdrington, warden of the 
Middle Marches, by Alice, his maidservant, left in addition to 101, 
all his corn at Chibburn, to his servants, Matthew Humphraye and 
Thomas Raye, and appointed Elizabeth, lady Woodrington, sole execu- 
trix ef his will. He not only obtained the appointment at Berwick by 
the influence of Sir John Widdrington, but the farm at Chibburn from 
him. 12 

' Sir Henrye Woddrington, of Woddrington, Knight, Marshall and 
deputy-governor of her majesties town of Barwick-upon-Twede,' 1 head 
of the great family of Widdrington and sheriff of Northumberland in 
1579, by his will of 15 Feb. 1592/3, directed ' his bodye to be buried in 
the church at Woddrington, amongst my ancestors.' Amongst many 
bequests he gave 20 nobles a year out of his lands and rents at ' Haugh- 
ton and Homeshaughe,' to his brother Raphe Woddrington, who was 
afterwards Sir Ralph Woddrington, knight. He directed that the ' three 
peaces of great ordnance, nowe remaynynge in my houwse at Barwick, 
be caryed to Woddrington, and there to remayne.' He appointed his 
wife, lady Elizabeth Widdrington, executrix. There is a long inventory 
of his household goods, &c., at Widdrington, their value being set down 
as 1013Z. 2s. 9d., a very considerable sum in those days. 2 

In a letter of Toby Matthew, bishop of Durham, to lord Burghley, 
of 30 Jan. 1595[-6] he speaks of * Mr. Robert Witherington, now named 
sheriff of Northumberland.' The Rev. W. Morton, vicar of Newcastle, 
writes to secretary Winwood from Newcastle, on 7 May 1616, 
that * Rodger Witherington hath the brains of the Northumber- 
land serpent in his hed,' and ' a professed enemy to true religion.' In 
a letter of the same date to archbishop Abbott, he informs him that 
' Roger Withrington had poisoned with Poperie all Hexamshire, and 
since hee hath in a manner all Northumberland.' In another letter to 
secretary Winwood, it is said that Sir Henry Widdrington (who was 

9 Belvoir papers, i. 88. 10 Hatfleld papers, n. 171. 

11 Durh. Wills & Inv. n. 99. 12 Ibid. 232 & n. 

i By his will of 2 Sep. 1587, ' Thomas Forster, the yonger, of Ederstone,' after 
making his wife Isabel, and his son Matthew, ' full executors,' gave Beadnell tower to 
his son, when of lawful age, in the meantime the profit for his wife. Amongst other 
bequests is 51. to Mr. William Wodrington, of Wodrington, brother to Mr. governor of 
Barwick. Dur h. Wills & Inv. n. 302. 

2 Durh. Wills <fc Inv. n. 225 & n. 


father of the first lord Widdring.tQ.n-) is. 'the only man of action in the 
shire, and therefore most followed.' Roger Witherington was brother 
to Sir Henry. 3 

Elizabeth, widow of Sir John Widdrington, married Sir Robert 
Carey, 4 warden of the Middle Marches. They resided at Widdrington. 
On her death the estate came to her son Sir Hugh [? Hy.] Wodd- 
rington, the deputy warden, who was sheriff in 21 Eliz. [1579] and 3 
Jas. I. [1605-6] and M.P. for the county, temp. James I. He was 
succeeded by Sir William, eldest son of Sir Henry, of Swinburne, who 
was sheriff, 12 Chas. I. [1636-7], and M.P. 1639-1642. He was expelled 
from the House of Commons on 26 Aug., 1642, for refusing to attend, 
and for raising forces for the king. He was created baron Widdrington, 
of Blankney, Lincolnsh., on 10 Nov. 1643. After Marston Moor 6 he 
took refuge beyond the seas, and his estates were confiscated by the 
Parliament ; he lost his life near Wigan, in the king's service. His son 
William, second lord Widdrington, was one of the Council of State at 
the Restoration. He was in the ' Proceeding to the funerall of George, 
late duke of Albemarle, from Somersett House to Westminster Abbey.' 6 
He was succeeded by his son William, third lord Widdrington. 

On 2 June, 1646, a draft ordinance was before the Lords to clear 
Henry Widdrington of his delinquency. 7 

Sir Francis Howard of Corby, son of lord William Howard, ( ' Belted 
Will ') who died in 1660, married Mary, daughter of Sir Henry Widdring- 
ton of Widdrington castle. 8 

On 22 Feb., 1661-2, a draft of an Act was submitted and read a first 
time in the Commons, but afterwards dropped, to enable William, 
[second] lord Widdrington to sell some lands for paying his brother 
and sisters' portions, and providing for his younger children. Attached 
to the draft is a petition of lady Majj,v Widdrington, late wife of 
William [first] lord Widdrington, objecting to the sale by the ' now lord 
Widdrington ' on the pretence of raising portions, &c., and that if such 
Act pass, petitioner's younger children would be left destitute. 9 On 
12 Dec., 1662, the lord lieutenant of the county directed William 
[second] lord Widdrington, to send in the yearly value of his estates in 
Northumberland, that he might certifv the same to the commis- 
sioners appointed to assess the peers. 10 On 29 July, 1670, a grant 
was made of two thirds of a moiety of all debts in the hands of any 
receiver of his majesty or late queen's revenues ' for March, 1640, to 
our Lady, 1659,' not already granted, and provided they did not exceed 

3 Lord William Howard's Household Book, 428, 430, 432, 434 n, 435. 
* On 24 March 1603, when queen Elizabeth died, Sir Robert Carey of Widdrington, 
warden of the Middle Marches, who was then at Richmond, stole out of the palace and 
rode post haste from London, calling at his own house on the way north on the second 
night, where he rested. The next day he again set off, and when between Widdriugton 
and Norham his horse fell, and the bruises ne received hindered his journey. When he 
left Widdrington he arranged that James should be proclaimed at Morpeth, Alnwick, 
and Berwick. On the 5 April, James the first, on his way to England, was escorted to 
Widdrington and nobly entertained by Sir Robery Carey, and on the 9th he left Wid- 
drington castle for Newcastle. Welford, Newc. & Gateshead, ill. 157. 

6 On 11 July 1644, after Marston Moor, in letters from Sir R. Burgoyne to Sir B. 
Verney, it is said 'that prince Robert [tic, for Rupert] and lord Newcastle and lord 
Witherington and colonel King had fallen put'; and on the 18th of the same month 
'that Newcastle, Witherington, and col. King have gone God knows where.' Verney 
papers (H.MSS. Comm. App. to 7 Rep.) i48a. 

6 Lord William Howard's Household Book, ii85n. Portland Papers, I. 14. 
7 House of Lords Calendar (H. M? S. Comm. App. to 6 Rep.) 119 b. 

8 Notes and Queries, 7 Ser. in. 38. 

9 House of Lords Calendar (H. MSS. Comm. App. to 7 Rep.), 160 b. 
10 H. MSS. Comm. App. to 3 Rep., 91. 


10,OOOZ. n On 3 March, 1674 (-5) the same lord Widdrington addressed 
a letter from Bothal to the duke of Newcastle, concerning the timber 
lying at ' Sheaprock ' [Sheepwash] and Bothal Banks. 12 In a letter of 
13 Dec. 1688, of Sir Christopher Musgrave, to Sir Daniel Fleming, he 
states that the town of Newcastle had refused the assistance offered by 
lord Widdrington from Berwick, and that having refused him, lord 
Lumley need not fear they would accept Papists assistance. 13 

The last [third] lord Widdrington took part in the Rising of 1715. 
In a letter of 14 Oct. 1715, dated from Carlisle by brigadier-general 
Stanwix, to the marquis of Annandale, he says he is sorry to find the 
rebels are troublesome. He believes most of them have left Northumber- 
land. . . ' I had a certain accompt this day that they are not above 
400 in Northumberland which goe by the name of Darwentwater or 
Witheringtons men. They had a designe upon Newcastle, but are 
dissapointed.' 14 In a letter of 29 Oct. 1715, lord Lonsdale informs 
lord Carlisle that the rebels came to Duns, near Berwick, where they 
were joined by lords Widdrington and Darwen water and Mr. Foster, 
out of Northumberland. 15 

On the north-east side of the church of Mitton, in Lancashire, are 
some monuments of the Sherburnes of Stonyhurst. Amongst them 
is a mural tablet to the memory of ' the Honourable Peregrin Widdring- 
ton, who was with his brother in the Preston affair where he lost his 
fortune with his health by a long confinement in prison.' The ' Preston 
Affair' has reference to the surrender at Preston on 13 Nov. 1715, to 
General Carpenter, of 1700 insurgents, upon condition that they should 
not be immediately put to the sword. Amongst them were lord Der- 
wentwater, and lord Widdrington with his brothers Charles and 
Peregrine. In their case capital punishment was remitted, though the 
blood and title fell under the attainder. Thus the Northumberland 
estates were forfeited to the Crown and sold. 16 In a list of English 
carried prisoners by major Bland in 1715, the names of the earl of 
Daringwater [Der went water] and lord Widdrington occur. 17 In a letter 
of James Wilson to L. M., of 29 Aug. 1717, from Paris, it is said that 
lord Widderington was to have annually a pension of 400. 18 This, the 
last lord Widdrington, died abroad in poverty in 1743, and his only 
surviving son died issueless in 1774, consequently the ancient family 
became extinct in the direct male line. 19 

The party then went by a field path to 


the remains of the early 14th cent, chapel and quaint house of Tudor 
times attached to it were examined with much interest. 20 In the 
south wall of the chapel the piscina remains, but it is so covered 
by a pigstye that it wai seen with some difficulty. It seems a pity 
that a more suitable place could not be found for such a structure. 

n MSS. of J. Eliot Hodgkin (H. MSS. Comm. 15 Rep. ii.), 13. 

12 Portland papers n. 150 

13 MSS. of Sir H. le Fleming (H. MSS. Comm. 12 Rep.), 228. 

K MSS. of J. J. Hope Johnston, Esq., of Annandale (H. MSS. Comm. Rep.), 126. 

15 Earl of Carlisle's papers (H. MSS. Comm. Rep.), 17. 

l Notet and Queries, 7 Ser. II. 426. 

17 Hist. MSS. Comm. Appendix to 8 Rep., 50 a. 

1 MSS. of J. Eliot Hodgkin, F.S.A., 230. 

19 Notes and Queries, 7 Ser. 426. 

20 Mr. F. R. Wilson was of opinion that the present house was built in 1553, the year 
of the grant of the manor to Sir John Widdrington. A reh. Ael. v. 118. For plan, eleva- 
tion, <&c., see same vol., also vol. xn. 

Proc. Soc. Antiq. Neivc. i. (3 ser.) 

To face page 86. 


(From a photograph by the Rev. R. C. MacLeod, vicar of Mitford.) 



This Plate presented by Mr, T. Taylor, F.S.A., of Chipchase Castle. 


The west end of the chapel was divided into two floors, of which there 
are structural remains. Over the door are two shields very much 
worn, c ne of them bears a sort of double cross, the other probably 
the arms of Widdrington. About 1275, Robert Grosthette, who is 
described as formerly master of the hospital of St. John of Chibburn, 
confirmed a quit claim of rights at Holy Island to the monks there, 
brother John de Crauine, then preceptor, and brothers Alan and 
Robert, clerks, witnessing the grant. This deed, bearing the seal of 
the preceptory, is in the Durham Treasury. At the time of the 
report of prior Philip de Thame in 1338, the manor house was ruinous, 
and there was hardly any income owing to the war with Scotland, the 
property being situated on the march of Scotland. At this time there 
were a preceptor, two brethren, and servants to provide for, besides 
William de Wyrkelee a pensioner of the house by grant of the chapter. 
The balance in the treasury was only 9m. 65. 8d. and no more, because 
the land had been laid waste many times during the war with Scotland. 
The brethren were brother John de Bilton, preceptor, and brothers 
John Dacombe, chaplain, and Simon Dengayne. 21 The house 
stands greatly in need of repair, especially the roof, as the covering is 
so defective in places that there are large holes. The building has been 
fully dealt with by Mr. W. Woodman in the Arch. Journal, xvn. 35 ; 
by Mr, F. R. Wilson in Arch, Ad. v. 113; and by Mr. J. Crawford 
Hodgson, F.S.A., in Arch. Ael., xvn., 263, to which members are 
referred. See also the Durh. & Northd. Arch. Society's Transactions 
iv. xxx. ; Proc. iv., 150, for record of brief for damage done by the 
French ; and ante, p. 30, for notice and illustration of the rude and 
curious carved oak corbel or truss which was exhibited at the March 
meeting, and which was in the chapel when Mr. Woodman wrote. A 
sermon preached in the Chapel Royal, Savoy, on St. John's day, 1884, 
by the Rev. Thomas W. Wood, chaplain of tho Order of St. John of 
Jerusalem (English Language), may be consulted with profit, an it gives 
some interesting information concerning the Hospitallers. 22 

Members then returned to Widdrington, where they partook of tea 
at the village inn. 

The return journey was made through Ulgham and Longhirst to 
Morpeth, which was duly reached in ample time for the train leaving 
Morpeth station at 5-45 p.m., and thus ended a very pleasant outing. 
With the exception of a shower of rain when leaving Ulgham the day 
was fine throughout. 

Among those present were Hon. and Rev. W. Ellis, rector of Bothal ; 
the Rev. J. Walker, hon. canon of Newcastle, and rector of Whalton ; 
Rev. R. C. MacLeod, vicar of Mitford ; Mr. George Irving of West 
Fell, Corbridge ; Mr. and Mrs. Nesbitt of Newcastle ; Mr. and Mrs. C. 
W. Henzell of Tynemouth ; Mr. and Mrs. J. S. Robson of Newcastle ; 
and Mr. R. Blair (one of the secretaries) of Harton. 

21 ' The Hospitallers in England ' Bajulia de Chibourn, (65 Camden Soc. publ.) 52. 
22 The sermon was published by Charles Cull and Son, Houghton Street, Strand, at 6d, 

I I 






VOL. I. (3 Ser.) 1903. No. 11. 

The usual monthly meeting of the Society was held in the library of 
the Castle, Newcastle, on Wednesday, the 30th day of September, 1903, 
at seven o'clock in the evening, Mr. J. V. Gregory, one of the vice- 
presidents, being in the chair. 

Several accounts recommended by the council for payment wore 
ordered to be paid. 

The following ordinary members were proposed and declared duly 
elected : 

i. H. H. E. Craster of Beadnell Hall, Northumberland, 
ii. George Humble, Elswick Grange, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
The following NEW BOOKS, etc., were placed on the table : 
Presents, for which thanks were voted : 

From the Lit. and Phil. Soc., Newcastle : Catalogue of the Library, 

large 8vo., red buckram, 1903. 

From the Rev. W. K. Burnett, vicar of Kelloe : ' An Address on 
Leper Hospitals, preached at the Re-opening of the Church 
of St. Helen, Kelloe, Durham, on Thursday, the 23rd July, 
1903, by G. W. Kitchin, D.D., F.S.A., Dean of Durham,' sm. 
8vo., pp. 16. 

From Mr. C. D. Newby of the Bailey, Durham : A MSS. book 
stitched in parchment covers, being a record of suits in the 
Durham Court of Pleas for the years 1664 and 1665, known as 
' The Remembrance Book.' It was given to the donor by a 
former prothonotary of the court in whose possession it was when 
the court became extinct in the early seventies of the 19 cent. 
From Mr. William Lyall, surveyor, Darlington (per Mr. E. Wooler) : 
A plan of the entrenchments at Stanwick, Yorkshire, ' to 
preserve among the archives ' of the society. It has been 
mounted on linen by Mr. George Irving. 

Purchases : The Northern Genealogist, vi. ii. ; The Parish Registers 
of Tynemouth, pt. ii., baptisms, 1662-1682, 8vo. ; The Registers 
of Moulton, Northants, and of Coleby, Lincolnshire (Par. 
Reg. Soc.), 8vo. ; The Antiquary for Sep., 1903 ; Notes and 
Queries, Nos. 296-300; Der Oermanisch-Raetische Limes des Roemer- 
reiches, xix. (' Kastell Heddesdorf, Kastell Echzell, & Kastel 


Secmauern ' ) ; Christison's Early Fortifications of Scotland; and 
the rev. E. A. Downam's plans of Ancient British camps [original 
drawings of Lansdown, Littledown, Stokeleigh, Montacute, 
Salisbury, and English Combe, Somersetshire ; Abdonburg, 
Shropshire ; Beeli Clas, Radnorshire ; and Brandon and Risbury, 
Herefordshire. ] 


By Mr. E. Wooler : A photograph and a rubbing of the Roman 
tombstone erected to the memory of her husband byAurelia [Fad]- 
illa ; found at Cliffe, and recorded by both Bruce (Lapid. Sept. 
p. 377) and Hiibner (C.I.L. p. 91), now at Cliffe hall on the south 
bank of the Tees near Piercebridge. [At the same place built 
into the gable of a coach house is the upper half of the Royal 
Arms (1 France, modern, and 2 England)]. Mr. Wooler also 
reported that he had just got a Roman imperial coin of Augustus 
struck at Alexandria, found by an angler on the Roman road 
(now disused) called ' Cat gill lane ' about two miles north east 
of Darlington. 

By the Rev. W. T. Thorp of Charlton hall (per Mr. J. Crawford 
Hodgson, F.S.A.) : A peg tankard 1 circa 1670. Plain, straight 
sided, with flat cover slightly domed, having for thumb piece 
two balls or berries similar to feet, on three ball (or strawberry?) 
feet ornamented with foliage. It has in the interior, attached 
to the side next the handle, a series of five pins or pegs. Four 
marks on bottom, (i) ID with star below in shield, for John Dowth- 
wayte, a Newcastle silversmith, 9 (ii & iii) a lion to the right 
twice, and (iv) a single castle probably. Marks repeated on 
cover but much abraded. Dimensions : height, 7 inches : dia- 
meter at mouth, 5 inches ; at base, 5 inches ; girth, 15 inches ; 
weight, 23oz. 10 dwts. Arms of Thorp on front. 

By Mr. Pierson Cathrick, of Pieroebridge : An incised brass in his 
possession, probably turned out of Stanwick church, Yorkshire. 
It is to the memory of Elizabeth Catherick, and is said to have 
been found in the hall at Hutton Magna, and was presented 
to Mr. Cathrick. The brass is 26in. long by 9|in. wide, and 
an illustration of it on a reduced scale, reproduced from a 
very fine rubbing by Mr. John Gibson, the castle warder, 
is given on page 88. There is a pedigree of the family in Forster's 
Yorkshire Visitations of 1584 and 1612. The following is a 
translation of the inscription, pasted on the back, by Dr. Randal 
of Sunderland: 'A.D. 1591 July 17 on Saint Pantaleon's day, 
in the 33 d year of the reign of Queen Elizabeth, died Elizabeth 
Catherick, widow of Anthony Catherick, of Stanweys, Esquire, 
with whom she lived in matrimony 58 years, and she bore to him 
five sons and six daughters, but his brother's son 6 succeeded him, 
although one son 4 and three daughters 8 survived, which daughters 
are now living married. Moreover the above mentioned Eliza- 

1 Come old fellow, drink down to your peg ! 
But do not drink any farther I beg ! 

Longfellow, Golden Legend. 

2 John Dowthwaite took up his freedom in 1666, and died in 1673. 
s The nephew who succeeded bore the same name as his uncle Anthony Catherick. 
He was the son of George Catherick of Carleton, near Stanwick ; he was born in 1654, 
and living in 1712. 

* Thomas, decribed as ' fatuus,' an idiot. 

5 Margery married Roger Meynell of North Kilvington ; Gra married Robert 
Lambert of Owton, or Oweton, near Seaton Carew ; and Dorothy married a Scrope. 

Proc. Soc. Antiq. Newc. 

To face page 90. 


In possession of the Rev. T. Thorp ( See opposite page.) 

( From a photograph by Mr. Parker Brevis.) 


both greatly enriched the family of her husband, both in wealth 
and in honour. She was the eldest daughter and one of the 
coheiresses 6 of Roland Tempest, of Homsett [Holmeside] in the 
County of Durham ; on her mother's side she was a Radcliffe of 
the worthy Dilston family. The above-mentioned Roland was 
both an esquire in his own right and lawfully held certain lands 
of the noble and illustrious Unfreville 7 formerly earl of Anguishe 
in Scotland, and baron of Prode [Prudhoe] and Riddesdale.' 

Thanks were voted for these exhibits. 



Mr. R. Blair (one of the secretaries) read the following note by the 
earl of Tankerville on the opening by himself of a burial mound on his 
land on the top of Kilham hill in Northumberland, i;nd the discovery of 
the cist in the centre : 

" I am afraid I have 
not much of interest to 
tell you in regard to 
our digging on Kilham 
hill. I suggested to 
Mr. Piddocke that we 
should search there. 
We began without spe- 
cial plan, starting in 
from the west. After 
digging nearly to the 
centre I suggested that 
a large stone on the 
south side might once] 
have marked the meri- 
dian, and that one end! 
or the other of thisj 
stone probably marked 
the spot on which it 
had once stood. With 
this idea in mind, we 
dug towards the cen- 
tre, and in the centre 
we found a large block 
of whin-stone. Up to 
this point we had found 
innumerable pieces of 
bone and a few pieces of charcoal all the way. Besides this there was a 
channel (natural or roughly worked) in the bed rock, which looked as if 
it had once run with blood. The very dark-coloured earth was greasy 
to the touch, and became light-coloured very soon after being exposed 
to the light. After clearing the ground round this large block of 
whin-stone, I tried with the pick and found it covered a hollow space of 
some kind. After some difficulty we raised the stone, and found a cist 
about the size of the blade of my spade, and about a foot deep. The 
stones which formed it rested on the bed rock. They were not hewn 

6 Coheiresses, three sisters : Elizabeth, Grace and Ann. 

7 There are tombs of the Umfreville family in Langham church, Essex. Barrett's 
Eastx, 2 Ser. 105. 


or broken in any way. The cist was full of bones. Whether they 
had been burned or not I could not tell, but I am inclined to think they 
must have been. At any rate they were in fragments, bits of the skull 
and leg bones being jumbled up together. We searched through this 
very carefully with our hands and with a knife. There were no arrow 
heads or weapons of any kind, and there was no urn. The stone 
capping of the cist, however, made a perfect box. It seemed to me 
as if these remains must have been at a lower level than that on which 
the other bodies were undoubtedly burned. These were, I think, 
cremated above the big whin-stone, and to the south of it, between it 
and what I call the meridian stone. There were no bones north of the 
cist, nor any of the dark soil either. We dug away a considerable 
portion of stones and earth west of the N. and S. ditch in my sketch, but 
the bone fragments ceased W. of that line. At the place where this 
meridian stone lay there is a natural or roughly scooped trough at right 
angles to the channel running from the cist. Would this have been 
used, for libations ? I think that is about all there is to say in regard 
to a rather disappointing search." 

The earl of Tankerville was thanked for his communication. 


Mr. F. W. Dendy read portions of his exhaustive account of Jesmond, 
which will form the first volume of the next series (3rd) of Archaeologia 

It was the most important paper that had been read before the 
society for many years.. 

The thanks of members were voted to Mr. Dendy by acclamation. 


Mr. Blair read notes by Commandant R. Mowat of Paris, on the 
twin altars to Neptune and Oceanus, discovered in the bed of the river 
at Newcastle. He also exhibited a number of casts of Roman coins 8 of 
Hadrian, from the National Collection at Paris, shewing anchor and 
river god reverses, kindly sent by M. Mowat to illustrate his remarks. 
The paper will appear in Arch. Aeliana, xxv., together with Mr. Heslop's 
paper on the Oceanus altar, read at the May meeting (p. 50), and his 
paper on the inscribed slab at the August meeting already printed in 
the Proceedings (p. 72). 

He then read notes by Mr. Haverfield on the inscribed slab from the 
same place, temp. Antoninus Pius, naming three legions and a new 
governor Julius Verus. This will also be printed in the same volume 
of Arch. Ael. 

Mr. Blair next drew the attention of members to the slab thus de- 
scribed by Mr. Haverfield, on the ledge of one of the bookcases, which 
had so many points of epigraphical interest, and reported that his col- 
league and himself had asked the Tyne Commissioners to present the 
stone to the society, and to this request they had generously acceded. 

Thanks were voted by acclamation to Commandant Mowat, and to 
Mr. Haverfield for their papers, and especially to the River Tyne 
Commissioners and their engineer for the gift of the slab. 

8 See reproductions of them on the plate facing p. 72, from a photograph by Mr. Brewis. 

Proc. Soe. Antiq. Newc. 3 Ser. Vol. I. 

To face page 

< See page 108.) 

( See page 94.) 





VOL. I. (3 Ser.) 1903. No. 12. 

The ordinary monthly meeting of the society was held in the library 
of the Castle, Newcastle, on Wednesday, the 28th day of October, 1903, 
at seven o'clock in the evening, Mr. J. V. Gregory, one of the vice- 
presidents, being in the chair. 

Several accounts, recommended by the council for payment, were 
ordered to be paid. 

The following ordinary members were proposed and declared duly 
elected : 

i. R. J. Aynsley, Rectory Terrace, Gosforth, Newcastle. 
ii. Arthur Gregory, 2 Brandling Terrace, Newcastle. 

The following NEW BOOKS, &c., were placed on the table : 

Presents, for which thanks were voted : 

From Messrs. J. MacLehose & Son, the publishers : The Scottish 
Historical Review, i, i., 8vo. [contains the very interesting English 
letter of Gospatric, of which the original was recently discovered 
at Lowther castle.] 

From Dr. G. A. Hulsebos of Utrecht, hon. member : ' Verslag 
aangaande het Museum van Oudheden van het Provinciaal 
Utrechtsch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen over 
1902/3'. Overprint, 8vo. pp. 5. 

Exchanges : 

From the Sussex Archaeological Society: Sussex Archl. Coll., XLVI., 

8vo. cloth. 

From the Huguenot Society of London: (i) Proc., vn. i. ; and (ii) 
Byelaws and List of Fellows, 1903 ; both 8vo. 

Pin-chases : Calendar of State Papers, Ireland, Adventurers, 1642-1659 ; 
The Antiquary and The Reliquary, for Oct. 1903 ; Notes and 
Queries, nos. 301-4 ; Jahrbuch of the Imp. Germ. Arch. Inst. 
xviii., iii., large 8vo. ; New English Dictionary, Leisureness-Llyyn 
(vol. vi.), edited by H. Bradley ; and The Scottish Historical 
Review, i. i., 8vo. 


The following were announced, and thanks voted to the donors : 
From the Corporation of Newcastle (per Mr. J. F. Edge, the city en- 
gineer): Two large leaden cistern heads and an old roasting jack from 
an old house on the Quay, recently demolished by the Corporation. 
The cistern heads have a sort of acanthus leaf pattern on them 
similar to those shewn on the accompanying plate (p. 93), on 
one is the letter A and the year 1777 in ornamental letters, and 
on the other a lion rampant and the same date. 


By Mr. Blair (one of the secretaries) : Two old photographs taken 
about 1875, of portions of the Roman camp at South Shields, one 
representing the inside of a portion of the east rampart ; the other 
shewing a large portion of the ' forum' covered by a fallen but 
unbroken wall of a building which was to the north of it, and of 
which the lower courses were standing ; between the fallen wall 
and the pavement earth had accumulated, proving that the camp 
had been deserted for a long time. (See opposite plate.) 
By A. Reid & Co., Ltd., photographs of two leaden cistern heads very 
like those already described, but on each of them the letters M M 
and the date 1790. They were removed from the house 10 Pilgrim 
Street, recently pulled down by Messrs. Reid, and sent to the 
melting pot. (See plate facing p. 93.) 

Mr. Blair (one of the secretaries) reported that he had been shewn five 
Roman coins found at the Trow Rocks, near South Shields, washed up 
by the sea. The man who has the coins informed him that they were 
in the rubbish taken out of the river at Newcastle bridge by the divers, 
which was being tipped at the place named.* The coins are : 

AB. obv. IMP CAES NEBVA TBAiAN AVG GERM ; laureated head to 


rev. P M TB P cos mi p p ; nude figure on pedestal (Her- 
cules ?) with club in right hand. 
1 AE. obv. Head of Trajan to right ; inscription illegible. 

rev. Female figure standing ; much worn ; inscription illegi- 
Antoninus Pius 

1 AE. obv. ANTONINVS AVG Pivs p p TB p cos mi ; laureated head 

to right. 
rev. Female figure standing to left, rudder in left hand, dish 

in right, held over an altar on the ground, in field s c. 
M. Aureliua 

1 AE. obv ANTONIN head to right. 

rev. Victory marching to left, wreath in outstretched right 


3 AE. obv. Radiated head to right. 

rev. LAETITIA AVG ; figure standing. 

* Mr. Walker, the river engineer, in reply to a query, writes ' Some of the rubbish 
from the bed of the river at Newcastle has been tipped at the Trow Hocks, but it is, I 
think, open to grave doubt at to whether the coins were found there.' I do not doubt 
it, as nothing is more likely. Hnce the meeting a beautiful second brass coin of the 
emperor Hadrian has been shown to me from the same place. It is of what is generally 
known as ' Corinthian brass, and is as bright and fresh almost as the day it came from 
the mint. The emperor's head radiated is on one side, and on the other Fortune with 
rudder, seated to left, the inscription cos in being around, and FORT RED in the ex- 
ergue. It was a custom of the Romans to throw money and other objects into springs 
and rivers, to propitiate the deities of the streams. See Arch. Ael. vm. 4, et seq.Ed. 

Proc. Soc. Antiq. Newc. 3 ser. i. 

To face page 94. 



(see opposite page.) 


Mr. Blair read an account of this castle by the Rev. M. Galley, the 

Thanks were voted to Mr. Culley by acclamation. 

The paper will be printed in extenso in the Archaeologia Aeliana, xxv . 


Mr. Blair next read some notes, by Mr. F. W. Rich, on the two stone 
coffins of the Roman period recently discovered in Clavering Place, 
Newcastle, while excavations were being made for the extension of 
Messrs. Robinson & Go's premises. In one of the coffins, which is 3 
feet long, some human bones were discovered, and also a small urn of 
Caistor ware having round its widest part the wave pattern embracing 
pellets, all in white slip. 

The note will be printed in the Archaeologia Aeliana (vol. xxv.) with 
reproductions of photographs by Thompson & Lee of one of the coffins 
and of the urn, and also of a plan of the site, all kindly supplied by Mr. 

Mr. R. O. Heslop proposed a vote of thanks to Mr. Rich for the 
important paper to which they had just listened, and for the photo- 
graphs and plan of the site accompanying it. With this he moved that 
cordial thanks be accorded to Messrs. Robinson & Co., Ltd., for their 
presentation of these most interesting objects to the society. It was 
the first occasion on which a Roman sarcophagus had been acquired for 
the Blackgate museum. Two of these had now been discovered to- 
gether, and their acquisition added an extremely interesting feature to 
their collection of Roman remains. Another point of interest in 
connexion with this discovery had been pointed out by his colleague 
Mr. Blair, namely, the Roman practice of having their burial places by 
the sides of their great roads. These interments may thus indicate the 
direction by which the main road led from the head of the Roman bridge 
to the stationary camp of Pons Aelii. The remains were found by the 
side of the old Toot hill (giving its name to Tuthill stairs) and a road of 
comparatively easy gradient may have led from the bridge-end obliquely 
along the face of the declivity, gaining access to the plateau above by 
the little gorge to the north of the Toot hill. At this point the excava- 
tions made by Mr. Rich had disclosed the course of a stream, carried in a 
lofty culvert, and at the south-west angle of Messrs. Robinson's works 
what appeared to have been a small dene had been filled in with tipped 
material. The defile in the face of this almost precipitous hill is just 
such as would have been taken advantage of by the road engineer ; 
and he hoped Mr. Blair's suggestion of the connexion between the 
highway and the Roman practice of burial might yet afford some clue, 
not only to the position of the roadway but also to the situation and 
extent of the station itself. The sarcophagus containing the vase, 
when first opened, was full of water and its contents were stirred to- 
gether and in a great part destroyed in the haste of the finder to discover 
treasure. The lid had been secured by four iron dowels, run in with 
lead, one at each corner, and the costly nature of the interment indicated 
that the child, whose remains were enclosed, had belonged to some 
person of quality. An examination of the vase, buried with the deceased, 
showed that its edge had been broken, and that the jagged fracture had 
been smoothed by grinding down its upper edge. The prettiness of the 
vase itself, the care taken to render it smooth in the hand, and its 
deposit with the body were indications that this vase had been the 


favourite plaything of the little one. Its parents had thus committed 
their child to earth, in death as in life, clasping its precious toy. Messrs. 
Robinson had added to the society's obligation, not only by presenting 
these objects, but by carting them to the museum ; whilst to Mr. Rich 
himself it was owing that they had been saved from destruction and 
permanently recorded in the beautiful and accurate manner shown in 
his photographs, plan, and most interesting paper. 
The motion was carried by acclamation. 


Mr. John Robinson read the following notes on this building : 
" The Bishop wearmouth tithe-barn is not mentioned in any history 
of Sunderland. Hutchinson has a record of Sir Richard de Hylton, 
giving permission for the prior at Monkwearmouth to use the private 
roads when gathering in their tithes, and of the grant of land on which 
to build their tithe-barn, of which, however, there is no record. Yet, as 
it was one of the largest and wealthiest parishes in the north of England, 
it is reasonable to expect that it would be a building in keeping with 
the size of the parish. It was part and parcel of the rectory buildings, 
and lies within the walls that surrounded the rectory proper, the 
rectory grounds being to the north and east. The whole is now covered 
with streets, &c. Of the ancient rectory, no portion remains but the 
coach-house and saddle-room. The first mention of it is in a parlia- 
mentary memorandum of August 29th, 1650, in which it reports ' that 
whereas the parsonage-house of Bishop Wearmouth was in the year 
1646 defaced and exceedingly ruined by armies, William Johnson, 
admitted at the time to the rectory (by parliament), has since disbursed 
considerable sums of money to make the same habitable. In all 
41 8s. Od.' In a volume of Dr. Paley's works, there is an illustration 
of the rectory. When the building was pulled down, gunpowder had to 
be employed in the work of destruction. The black oak staircase was 
taken to the new rectory ; the stones were used by the speculative 
builder, and the rubbish went to fill up the higher portion of the rec- 
tory burn, or gill. The tithe-barn is now so surrounded by streets and 
warehouses that it is impossible to photograph, or even sketch the 
entire building. The photographs which I now exhibit will enable you 
to form an idea of its size and appearance. Judging from the gable, 
it is evidently as old as the walls, portions of which yet remain, that 
surrounded the rectory, its outhouses and gardens, all of which are of 
the local limestone. The present tithe barn building is only half, or more 
correctly speaking, one-third its original size, for when the Ecclesiastical 
Commissioners sold the rectory and grounds in the early part of last 
century, the western portion of the barn was pulled down to allow a 
street to be built on the ground it occupied. Previous to its demolition 
part had been used as a brew-house and a laundry by the rectors, the 
portion still standing being used as a stable and hay loft. When it was 
last used as a tithe-barn is not known, though probably archdeacon 
Paley would be the last user. He did not believe in the usual methods 
of collecting tithes, but recommended ' their conversion into corn-rents, 
as a practical and beneficial alteration, in which the interest of all 
parties might be equitably adjusted.' Soon after his establishment at 
Bishopwearmouth, to remove even the probability of dispute, he 
granted the principal land owners and farmers leases for his life, at an 

* In the 'Boldon Book' (Pudsey, 153-179) Wearmouth and Tunstall are mentioned 
together, when the punder gave the use of 12 acres of land, and paid a thrave of corn 
from every cart load ; 80 hens, and 50u eggs. (See Surt. Soc. publ.) 


annual rent in lieu of tithes. Dr. Paley found himself perfectly at ease 
by this arrangement, and, when he heard of a bad crop, used to say : 
' Aye, aye, now, I am well off ; my tithes are safe, and I have nothing 
to do with them, or to think about them.' The absence of all informa- 
tion relating to the ancient church and its institution can only be 
accounted for by the same reason one of the rectors gave when a dispute 
arose between him and the tithe payers as to the ancient agreements 
and leases of the glebe lands. He told the discontented parishioners 
that during the scare in the early days of the Jacobite rising all the 
legal documents relating to the church lands were sent by sea to the 
more secure port of Hull, when the vessel was either seized by the 
French, or lost in a storm, for neither documents nor ship were ever 
heard of again. With this information the church tenants had to be 
content, and pay an increased yearly assessment. The tithe barn has 
all the indications of hoary antiquity. The west gable, in which are the 
large double doors, is quite modern, and is a patch work of bricks and 
limestone work. The east.gable, as can be seen from the plate facing p. 
96, is a picturesque piece of masonry, every portion in it being of local 
limestone, with two long slits* high up in the gable for air-holes, and 
supported by two heavy buttresses, there had been a third but it was 
removed some years ago in the building of a neighbouring wall. The 
high pitched roof, some two feet lower than the pointed gable, is covered 
with pantiles, except a lower course of flagstones, some few of which are 
as strong and secure in their position to-day as they were two centuries 
or more ago. A warehouse is built against the south wall, and the north 
wall leads into the ancient saddle room and coach-house of the old rec- 
tory. On the ground floor which is now used as a slaughter-house and 
stable there is a low doorway in the west corner of the south wall ; in it 
also is a fine old window, or half door way, now built up. On entering 
the hay-loft you see a large room, with massive beams binding the 
walls together. In the south wall is a large window space, which had 
originally been trellised, directly opposite on the north wall is a small 
opening 10 inches by 14, for what purpose it is now difficult to say. On 
the east gable wall are the two long slits, or air-holes, the outer opening 
is 2 inches, while the inner splay is 22 inches, their total length is, one 
7 feet 2 inches, the second, 5 feet 9 inches. The walls are 3 feet in 
thickness, and are as solid to-day as when first built. The original 
length of the building was 108 feet, and my informant who built property 
in Eden street (and lives there yet, in his 85th year) which is on the old 
site of the removed portion of the barn, said the west gable was pulled 
down to prevent it falling against his own property. The eastern portion 
left standing was afterwards used by rector Wellesley brother to the 
duke of Wellington as a stable. Adjoining this remaining portion of 
the tithe barn is the harness room and coach house. It was evidently 
part of the original building, and is connected by an ancient doorway 
which is now built up. The original windows of the coach house are 
yet to be seen, the upper one with its original lattice work. The 
massive beam which was above the doorway to the coach house is also 
in position. The associations of these ancient out-houses are more 
romantic than those of the tithe barn. For as we had prince bishops in 
the early days of Durham church history, so the rectors of Bishopwear- 
mouth had their courts leet, and were of much importance, with theii 
income of upwards of 5,000 a year. Their stables, like their tables, 

* The slits are low down in the plate, as it was not possible to photograph the 
whole of the gable. The top of one of the buttresses is just seen. In the second illus- 
tration the whole of one buttress is shown with the gable sideways. 


had to equal to their position in society. The most famous rector 
archdeacon Paley was fond of both ; but he was an indifferent horse- 
man. He has left on record numerous illustrations of this defect in his 
accomplishments. ' I was never a good horseman,' he delighted to 
tell his friends, ' and when I followed my father on a pony of my own, 
on my first journey to Cambridge, I fell off several times, my father 
hearing a heavy thud, would turn his head half aside and say, ' Take 
care of thy money, lad.' Many years after, when a horse was pre- 
sented to him on which to exercise, he sent it to grass at a farm seven 
miles away, and walked the distance every day to see how his horse 
fared. So at Bishopwearmouth he kept his horses near the tithe-barn, 
and rode them for exercise in the grounds behind the rectory ; this gave 
rise to a pleasant story, which he himself delighted to relate to his 
friends. Some wag, who knew him well as a horseman, one morning 
wrote upon the gates of the entrance ' Feats of horsemanship 
here every day, by an eminent performer.' Two or three weeks after, 
when the bishop of Elphin was on a visit to the learned rector, the same 
wag announced on the park door, ' Additional feats, for a few days 
only, by a new performer from Ireland.' 

These historic out-houses, are yet associated wth horses, and are 
now part of the extensive establishment of alderman J. H. Smith, by 
whose kind permission I have been allowed to examine every nook 
and corner of the tithe barn and adjoining buildings, no portion of 
which has been destroyed since they came into his possession, upwards 
of 40 years ago. The tithe- barn has, however, an additional claim to 
historic interest, for, built into the wall of the adjoining building is an 
inscribed stone, 5 feet Tin. by 12 in., which may be of Roman workman- 
ship. Within a short distance from the spot where it has been exposed 
for centuries there are, Deptford, and the well-known Roman ford 
across the Wear near Hylton, on a line with the Roman road from 
Hartlepool to South Shields. It was the usual custom of the Romans 
to guard all their fords. ' I never passed a river,' says Horsley in his 
Roman Stations in Britain, ' where the military way also crossed it, but 
I found a station upon it if the river was considerable, and not too 
near another.'' And Dr. Bruce says ' Whenever the Wall has occasion 
to traverse a river or a mountain pass, a mile-castle has usually been 
placed on the one side or the other to guard the defile.' What applied to 
the great Wall will, with equal force, be applicable to the military road 
along the coast. An ancient fort probably stood at the first bend of the 
river at Wearmouth. Thirty years ago, Mr. John Moore, an observing 
and industrious local antiquary, examined the foundations of an ancient 
building, whih had stood at the point of the river bank, which commands 
a view of the sea and the mouth of the river, and at one time there 
would be an uninterrupted veiw up the river ; the foundations were five 
feet below the surface, and four feet thick. There is no record of the 
existence of such a fort at the spot, but there is traditional evidence 
handed down to this day in the name ' Castle Street,' one of the oldest 
streets in Bishopwearmouth, which leads from High Street to the spot 
where the foundations were found, and not far from the first ford, 
now named ' Deptford.' By the courtesy of Mr. H. H. Wake, engineer 
to the River Wear Commissioners, I was allowed to examine the old 
maps of the river, and it shows that within the length of the Com- 
missioners' jurisdiction there were formerly five fords from the rectory 
grounds upwards. Mr. John Moore informs me that ' At Hylton, 
where the two winding roads meet, at the north and south of the river, 
I have been told by keelmen that their boat-hooks were constantly 

s > 


coming in contact with dressed stones, which at extreme low tides 
could be seen, some with lead and rods of iron in them. I have myself 
felt the stones with a boat-hook, when rowing on the river. The keel- 
men thought there had been a Roman bridge there. I have always had 
an impression that -there was such a bridge, that the stones I have seen 
were part of the pier or wall at the shore end, and that in the centre 
of the stream was a pillar to receive the beam of wood which could 
be speedily removed in the presence of the enemy.' What, therefore, 
is more reasonable to suppose, than that the inscribed stone built into 
the wall of the coach house of the rectory buildings of Bishopwearmouth, 
originally came from the Roman fort which may have guarded the river 
Wear at a point commanding a view of the open sea, and the two 
fords Deptford and Ford where the Roman soldiers had to cross 
to and from the stations at South Shields and Hartlepool. Should my 
conjecture be correct, it will mark the first discovery of Roman sculp- 
tured remains found at the mouth of the river Wear. I am informed 
that the freestone immediately below the inscribed stone, is very 
similar to that found in the neighbourhood of Coxgreen, and is from the 
same quarries from which that for the Penshaw monument was procured. 
The whole of the ancient walling is limestone, the only stone in the 
district, with the exception of seven freestones, including the sculptured 
stone in question, which is 5 feet 7 inches by 12 inches, another of the 
stones, immediately below it, is 5 feet by 8 inches. I regret I have been 
unable to examine the stones that were dredged up at Hylton. Mr. 
Wake, C.E., the engineer to the Wear Commissioners, in reply to my 
inquiries wrote me, ' I am sorry I have none of the stones from the 
ford or bridge foundations at Hylton, as at the time the dredger was 
working on the site my attention was not drawn to the matter until too 
late to save some of the stones, though I understand some were got 
(without my knowledge) by some person at Hylton.' It will thus be 
seen that by a series of misfortunes we have no direct evidence of 
Roman occupation, but I venture to claim in the sculptured stone to be 
seen in the ancient wall of the Bishopwearmouth rectory buildings, is 
an evidence that a Roman soldier in guarding the ford across the 
Wear, put on record his ' vow, willingly and deservedly made,' to his 
household god. For the stone, though much weathered, yet retains 
cjhe well-known initial letters found as the termination of many 
Roman altars V. S. L. M." 

Thanks were voted to Mr. Robinson for his notes. 


Mr. Blair read the following notes on this church by the Rev. R. C. 
MacLeod, the vicar : 

" The oldest portion of the existing building is the Norman arcade of 
the south aisle, which probably dates from the middle of the 12th 
century. There were originally two aisles, but, after the Bertrams were 
attainted in the 13th century, the aisles were taken down and walls 
built on the north and south side of the nave, probably in the 14th 
century. Of these the north wall still remains, the south wall was 
taken down by Colonel Mitford about 1880, when the Norman arcading 
was found embedded in the masonry. The pillars are round, and the 
abacus and bases of a most characteristic Norman character. (See 
plate facing p. 100.) 

The two chapels are 14th century, one known as the Mitford chapel, 
the other as the Pigdon chapel, which latter is now used as a vestry. 


The piscina in the Mitford chapel shews that there was formerly an altar 
at the east end. One has now been placed at the south end under the 
window, which accords rather with the Roman than the Anglican use. 
The chancel is probably masonry ; has been scraped, and if any mason 
marks existed they have been obliterated. 

Similarly the beautiful sedilia on the south side bears marks of 
having been built during the transition from Norman to early English, 
while the abacus on two of the shafts is square, on two it is round, and 
the two last named pillars are filleted. The south door of the chancel 
is distinctly Norman, the capitals are cushion-shaped, and the mould- 
ings are the lozenge, the cable, and chevron. On the east wall o f the 
chancel a stone ornamented with the chevron moulding is built in above 
the south lancet window. I think probably there was a Norman 
chancel whih was destroyed in a Scottish raid or by fire towards the 
end of the twelfth century, and that when the new chancel was built 
some of the old materials were worked in. There is a doorway blocked 
up on the north side of the chancel, and the existence of some building 
here is indicated by the corbel stones which probably supported the 
roof, and by the fact that the base moulding ceases at the point where 
the corbel stones begin. There are some mason marks on the sedilia. 
In other parts of the church there is very early 13th century work, or 
even late 12th century. Though at first sight the three lancet windows 
at the east end appear to be pure Early English, a closer examination 
shews that though the shafts between the lights have a round abacus, 
and bands at intervals upon them, those on the north and south have 
the abacus square, and the capitals are Norman in character. From 
these last named capitals runs a string course which is also Norman in 

Thanks were voted to Mr. MacLeod for his notes. 


Mr. E. Wooler of Darlington, in a letter to the editor dated October 
24th, 1903, writes : 

* You will perhaps know that Messrs. Bolckow, Vaughan & Co. have 
opened out a new colliery, called the Dean and Chapter Colliery, at 
Ferryhill village. It was thought that the coal was virgin, but the 
main seam has been partially worked, and they have made some very 
interesting discoveries in the working, viz., old tools, tub, and a- boar's 
head. Seeing that Newcastle is in the midst of the coal trade, I think 
you should secure these mementoes of old time working for the museum, 
as a large number of pitmen visit the castle. If you were to write to 
Mr. I. A. Derwent of No. 19 Danesbury Terrace, Darlington, I have no 
doubt from what he said to me yesterday that you could secure them.' 

Mr. Blair said he had written to Mr. Derwent, but had received no 
reply to his letter. 


Mr. Wooler exhibited a photograph of a small Roman vase^ which 
had been found in the camp at Piercebridge. It is the top illustration 
on the plate facing p. 64. 

Mr. Wooler was thanked for these communications, 

Proc. Soc Antiq. Neivc. 3 ser. vol. i. 

To face page 100. 


From a photograph by the Rev. B. C. MacLeod, vicar of Mitford. 





VOL. I. (3 Ser.) 1903. No. 13. 

The ordinary monthly meeting of the society was held in the library of 
the Castle, Newcastle, on Wednesday, the 25th day of November, 1903, 
at seven o'clock in the evening, Mr. Richard Welford, one of the vice- 
presidents, being in the chair. 

Several accounts, recommended by the council for payment, were 
ordered to be paid. 

The chairman stated that since their last meeting they had lost by 
death three of their members, Mr. George Skelly of Alnwick, and Mr. 
R. Y. Green and Mr. Wm. Glendenning of Newcastle, in addition to 
professor Mommsen, one of their honorary members, of whom a memoir 
was to be read this evening. He was sure the respective families of 
these departed friends had their heartfelt sympathies. 

The following NEW BOOKS, &c., were placed on the table : 

Presents, for which thanks were voted : 

From Mr. J. Crawford Hodgson, F.S.A., a vice-president : The 
Antiquary, vols. i-xxxv, half-bound. 

From Mr. John Moore (per Mr. John Robinson, the writer) : The 
Attwood Family, with Notes and Pedigrees ; 8vo., illustrated, 
printed, for private circulation, by Hills & Co., Sunderland, 1903. 

From the Rev. E. J. Taylor, F.S.A., vicar of West Pelton : A small 
parchment document of 1734, bearing the seal of the burgh of 
Culross, being a ' Burgess and Guild Ticket of the burgh of 
Culross, in favor of Mr. John Eiston.' 

Exchanges : 

From ' La Societe d'Archeologie de Bruxelles': Annales, xvn., iii & 

iv, 8vo. [contains a short article on ' Le tissue de Modene,' and 

additional notes, profusely illustrated, by M. Paul Saintenoy, on 

baptismal fonts]. 

From the Berwickshire Naturalists Club : History, xvm, i, 1901. 
From the Royal Arch. Institute : The Arch. Journal, LX (2 ser. x, 2), 

June, 1903, 8vo. 
From the Numismatic Society of London : Numismatic Chronicle, 

4 ser., no. 11, 1903, pt. iii, 8vo. 


From the Cambrian Arch. Association : Archaeologia Cambrensis 

October, 1903, 6 ser. in, 4. 
From the Bristol and Gloucestershire Arch. Society : Transactions, 

xxv, ii, 8vo. 
From the - Videnskabsselskabet i Christiania' : Skrifter Maalet i dei 

gamle nor she Kongebrev, av Marcus HcBgstad, 8vo. 

Purchases : Griffin's Year Book of Societies, for 1902-3; Mittheilungen 
. of the Imp. Germ. Archl. Inst. vol. xvni, large 8vo., Rom, 
1903 ; and Notes and Queries, 305-308.J 


By Mr. M. H. Hodgson of South Shields : A carving in wood, 8in. 
long by 6in. wide, representing, under ' an arched recess, a 
crowned figure seated in a chair, a female figure behind and two 
in front. 

By Mr. If old of Newcastle : Two wooden nutcrackers, from Berk- 
shire, each Gins, long, worked by a wooden screw ; one has 
two comic faces back to back, one with wide open mouth in 
which the nut is to be placed ; the other represents a squirrel 
with a nut in its mouth. 

By Mr. E. Wooler of Darlington: The Roman vase found at 
Piercebridge of which he exhibited a photograph at the last 
meeting of the society (p. 100). A reproduction of this photo- 
graph may be seen on the plate facing p. 64. The urn is 7in. high 
and about Gins, in diameter at the widest part. 

By Mr. T. J. Bell of Cleadon, (per Mr. R. Blair) : Four Roman coins 
found at the Trow Rocks one each of Vespasian and. Antoninus 
Pius, and two of Faustina the younger. The following are de- 
scriptions of them : 

2 M obv. IMP CAES VESPASIAN Avo cos mi ; laureated head to 


rev. An eagle, with outspread wings, fronting and standing 
on a globe, head turned to right ; s c in field. (A.D. 71, 
Cohen, 2 ed. no. 481.) 
Antoninus Pius 

2 & obv. ANTONINVS Avo pivs P P TR p xvni; laureated head 

to right. 

rev. BRITANNIA cos iin ; in exergue s c. Britannia seated 
to left, on a rock on which she rests her left hand, right 
hand upraised. (A.D. 155) 
Faustina the younger (wife of M. Aurelius) 

1 M obv. FAVSTINA AVGVSTA ; head to right. 

rev. AVGVSTI PII FIL ; Concord, a column behind, standing 
to left, holding a cornucopia in left hand and a patera 
in outstretched right. 

2 JE. obv. Inscription illegible ; head to right. 

rev. Inscription illegible ; figure standing. 

The Chairman reported that the council had accepted the tender of 
Messrs. R. Robinson & Co., Ltd., for printing the first volume of the third 
series of the Archaeologia Aeliana, subject to confirmation by the society ; 
and that the council recommended that a volume, bound in buckram, 
with paper label, be issued about the middle of each year. 

This was unanimously agreed to. 

The Chairman then gave notice, in terms of statute xv, that at the 


anniversary meeting of the society on the 27th January, 1904, he would 
move that that portion of statute x, which provides for the issue to 
members of two illustrated parts of the Archaeologia in the months of 
January and June in each year, be rescinded ; and that instead thereof 
the words, a ' complete illustrated volume of the Archaeologia, bound 
in cloth or buckram, shall be issued to members in June of each year.' 

The recommendation of the council that no meeting of the society be 
held in December, and that the annual meeting be held on the 27th 
January, 1904, at two o'clock in the afternoon, was unanimously agreed 


Bishop Hornby, rector of Chollerton, reported that while excavating 
at the north-east corner of the chancel of Chollerton church, in order to 
fix a boiler for the new heating apparatus, the foundations of an old wall 
running parallel with the church were uncovered. In the wall was 
found a stone 18ins. long by 12ins. across at the top, having incised in its 
centre a ' dagger-shaped ' cross of somewhat rude workmanship. A 
quantity of skulls and other human remains were also found. The 
bishop sent a cutting from the Evening Chronicle of the 21st November, 
in which a representation of the stone is given. The bishop asked if 
any members could throw light upon the discovery. 


Mr. Blair (one of the secretaries), read an obituary notice of professor 
Mommsen, by Mr. F. Haverfield, F.S.A., which will be printed in the 
Archaeologia Aeliana. So recently as the week before his death the 
learned professor elucidated an obscure word in the recently discovered 
inscribed slab from the Tyne, at Newcastle. A photograph of professor 
Mommsen, and a letter from him, were passed round. The former and 
a portion of the latter will be reproduced. 

Thanks were voted to Mr. Haverfield, and it was resolved to send a 
letter of sympathy to the widow of professor Mommsen. 


Mr. Blair next read an obituary notice, by Mr. T. M. Fallow, F.S.A., of 
the author of Old English Plate, a book that has passed through many 
editions. A portrait of Mr. Cripps, which will be reproduced for the 
Archaeologia, was passed round. 

This memoir also will appear in the Archaeologia Aeliana. 

Thanks were voted to Mr. Fallow. 


The Rev. J. Walker, rector of Whalton and hon. canon of Newcastle, 
read his paper on the Whalton bonefire, which will be printed in the 
same volume (xxv) of Archaeologia. A fine series of photographs, by 
Sir I. Benjamin Stone, M.P., illustrating different stages in the cere- 
mony, was passed round the room. 

In moving a vote of thanks to Canon Walker, Mr. R. O. Heslop gave 
an interesting account of the Newcastle ' bonefires,' as the correct word 
used to be (actually fires of bones), and read local records relating to fires 
in July, 1579, on both Midsummer Eve and St. Peter's Day, and there was 
a further record of a ' bonefire ' in 1593. This last, however, was merely 
a feu-de-joie. He remarked that Dr. Murray in his dictionaryjnentioned 
that the 'rubbish about bale-fires imported from the Old Testament was 


outside the pale of scientific enquiry.' Bale-fire was used by Sir Walter 
Scott as a picturesque word to describe a beacon fire, and the word was 
of Teutonic origin. 

In reply to a question, Mr. Walker said he had heard of the ashes being 
surreptitiously taken away as a medicine for cattle, as it was considered 
there was a certain efficacy attached to them as the remains of that par- 
ticular fire, and in acknowledging the vote of thanks, he said the feeling 
he had himself about the custom was that it was rather Druidical than 
either Semitic or Phoenician in its origin. He remarked that although 
there were traces of Phoenician worship having taken place in Northum- 
berland, as when they were restoring Elsdon church they found built 
into the tower the three horses' heads which were sacrificed at the 
dedication of any building by the Phoenicians. And certainly the 
Whalton fire could not be connected with any modern cause. 

The vote of thanks was heartily carried, and the meeting concluded. 


MABY BOWMAN SWINDON. Wanted, for literary purposes only, in- 
formation of the family of Mary Bowman Swindon, formerly of W. 
Auckland, county Durham, who married Henry Angelo the Fencer, in 
1778, at St. Anne's, Soho. 

In a catalogue (no. CCXLVI.) of MSS. of James Coleman of Tottenham 
Terrace, Tottenham, near London, N., the following local documents 
are offered for sale : 

66. Durham. Deed between John Gargrave of Hetton-in-the-Hole, eo. Durham, and 
Robert Crawe of Elwick, in same co., relating to land in Hetton-le-Hole. Sig. 
and seal of Gargrave, 1628, 5. 

107. Deed between Hy. Grey of Durham, co. Durham, gent., and Rich. Wilson of 
Ulgham, relating to land in Hepscot, co. Northumberland, with fine sig. and 
seal of Hy. Grey, 1668, 5*. 

196. Deed between Philip Musgrave, son of Richard late of Howick, co. Northum- 
berland, and Anthony Musgrave of the town and co. of Newcastle, relating to 
land in Thornehope, co. Northumberland, with sig. and seal of Philip, 1713, 4s. 6d. 

222. Deed between the Right Hon. John Bowes, earl of Strathmore and Kinghorn, 
in Scotland, and Percival Clennell of Harbottle, Northumberland, esq. , relating 
to land in Hetton-le-Hole, co. Durham, two large skins with fine sig. of earl of 
Strathmore, 1774, 5s. 6d. 

242. Deed between William Ramsay of Newcastle, and James Fryer, Ralph Wallis 
of Knaresdale hall, Northumberland, relating to land, &c., in Knaresdale ; sig. 
and seals of Wm. R., J. F., and R. W., 1707, 4s. 6d. 

326. Large Vellum Map of Scremeraton S. Side Moor farm, co. Durham [North], of 
827a. of land in Ancroft, 1783, 30s. 

In a catalogue of Mr. John Hitchman, Bulleins Bulwarke of Defence 
against all Sickness, 1572, is advertized for sale. The writer, speaking of 
the salt made in England, informs us that he had a share in the salt-pans 
at ' The Shiles ' [Shields] by Tynemouth Castle. He also relates how 
he did ' recouer one Eellises (of Jarrowe in the Bishoppricke), not onely 
from a spice of the palsie but also from the quarten. And afterwards 
the same Belhses, more unnatural! than a viper, sought divers ways 
to have murthered me : taking parte against me with my mortall 
enemies ! ' 

The Rev. T. Stephens vicar of Horsley, has in his possession a book 
purchased at the Phillips sale, 'An Alphabet of Arms,' by William 
Stephens. It bears the book-plate of J. Trotter Brockett, and 
this memorandum : ' This book was the property of Mr. William 
Stephens of Gainford, and formerly resident at Cambridge, a capital 
engraver. I bought it, amongst other books and prints, of his executors, 
G. Allen' [of Darlington]. 






VOL. I. (3 Ser.) 1904. No. 14. 

The ninety-first anniversary meeting of the Society was held in the 
library of the castle, on Wednesday, the 27th January, 1904, at two 
o'clock in the afternoon, His Grace the Duke of Northumberland, K.G., 
F.S.A., president, being in the chair. 

Several accounts, recommended by the council for payment, were 
ordered to be paid. 

The following ordinary members were proposed and declared duly 
elected : 

i. E. Brock-Hollinshead (Miss), 27 Nelson Street, Edinburgh, 
ii. George V. B. Charlton, Grafton Underwood, Kettering. 
iii. Robert Holmes Edleston, F.S.A., Gainford, Darlington, 
iv. George H. Glendenning, 114 St. George's Terrace, Newcastle, 
v. James McMillan, 2 Bishopton Street, Sunderland. 
vi. Frederick George Skelly, Alnwick. 

The following NEW BOOKS, &c., were placed upon the table : 
Presents, for which thanks were voted : 

From Mr. J. P. Gibson : Two permanent carbon photographs (each 
24" by 18") of the pretorium at Housesteads and of the Roman 
Wall at Cuddy's Crag. 

From the Rev. E. J. Taylor, F.S.A., vicar of West Pelton : A scarce 
sermon, the title page of which is: "The Holiness of Christian \ 
Churches : \ Set forth in a | SERMON | Preach'd September 4, 
Chaplain to the Right Reverend Father in GOD, JOHN Lord 
Bishop of London. \ Published at the Request of the Audience. \ 
LONDON: \ Printed for W. and J. INNYS at the Prince's 
Arms, | the West end of St. Paul's ; and F. HILDYABD, | Book- 
seller in York. MDCCXIX. (Price 4d.)" 

[Mr. Taylor in a note says that ' This sermon seems to have been 
highly appreciated, for it was ordered that ' Wee ye Vestry and 
Churchwardens doe all joyne in a letter to him, desiring him to 
print ye Sermon, preached ye fifth inst., in this Church.' At a 
subsequent meeting it is ' ordered that the Churchwardens pay Mr. 
Guy Robson, or order the sum of eleven pounds and eighteen 
shillings, being his bill due to him for wine sent to Dr. Mangey as a 


present for his preaching the Consecration Sermon.' The book- 
plate on the back of the title page, is my late father's, being his 
arms quartering Weatherley of Newcastle and Northumberland. 
Lord Crewe, bishop of Durham, made Dr. Mangey a prebendary of 
Durham, for the flattering dedication to his sermon, which the 
bishop had never read '] 

From R. Blair (one of the secretaries) : A collection of newspaper 
cuttings, mounted on folio paper, relating to the ' Railway Fever ' 
of 1845-46, collected by John Bell in 1846. 
Exchanges : 

From the British Arch. Association : The Journal, N.S., ix, iii, Dec. 

1903; 8vo. 
From the Royal Archaeological Institute : The Archaeological 

Journal, vol. LX, No. 239 (2 ser., x. 2), Sep. 1903 ; 8vo. 
From the Cambridge Antiquarian Society : List of Members, May 11, 

1903, &c., 8vo. 
From the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, U.S.A. : Annual 

Report for 1901, 8vo., cl. 

From the Yorkshire Archaeological Society : The Yorkshire Arch- 
aeological Journal, part 68 (xvn, iv), 8vo. Leeds, 1903. 
From the Powys-land Club : Coll. Historical and Archaeol. relating to 

Montgomeryshire and its borders, xxxin, i, (pt. LXIV, Dec. 1903). 
From the Shropshire Archaeological and Nat. Hist. Society: Trans- 
actions, 3 ser. in, iii ; 8vo. 

Purchases Rev. E. A. Downam's plans of British Camps (12 original 
drawings) [Wall Hill, Ledbury, and Offa's Dyke, Lyonshall, 
Herefordshire ; Burfa Bank, Radnorsh. ; Tongo Castle, Stock- 
bury, Thurnham Castle, Caesar's Camp (Folkestone), Tonbridge, 
Canterbury Danejohn, and Binbury, Kent ; and Northolt, 
Middlesex] ; The Scottish Historical Review, No. 2, Jan. 1904, 
8vo. ; Mittheilungen of the Imp. German Archl. Inst., vol. xvin. 
8vo. Rom, 1903 ; Notes and Queries, 9 ser. 309-312, 10 ser. 1-4 ; 
The Reliquary for Jan. 1904 ; and The Antiquary for Dec. 1903, 
and Jan. 1904. 

Archaeologia Aeliana, part 61. 

The editor placed on the table Archaeologia Aeliana, vol. xxv, part ii, 
which is about ready for issue to members. 


From Messrs. Howe and Thornton (per Mr. J. S. Robson): An inscribed 
stone, apparently part of a mantelpiece, taken out of an old house 
in Newgate, Newcastle, adjoining the Empire theatre, recently 
pulled down. The stone is 2ft. high by 16in. wide. On it is a 
shield divided into four quarters, the letters RM, AM, IM, and the 
year which is uncertain, being in the respective quarters. The 
first illustration facing page 36 shews it. 

[Mr. Welford said he believed the stone came from one of two houses 
which belonged to the family of Mould, tailors in the Bigg Market, 
near the entrance to St. John's lane. If that were so, the initials 
might be those of Ralph Mould and members of his family ; the 
will of one of them dated 1662, was quoted on page 159 of Arch. 
Aeliana, xxiv (q.v.).] 

From Mr. R. Blair (one of the secretaries) : (i) tho damaged group 

of the mother-goddesses, from the Roman camp 4 at South Shields 

(see Arch. Ael. x, 318) ; and (ii) a fragmentary Greek inscription 

on marble, found in South Shields (see Proc. vi, 204). See page 

, 107. 



(See opposite page.) 


(See opposite page.) 



By Mr. E. Wooler of ^Darlington : 

i. Two photographs of the upper stone of an Ancient British quern 
of Shap granite found in the camp at Stanwick St. John, near 

[Mr. Wooler notes 'that evidently a glacial boulder has been used. It is 
15in. in diameter, 3|in. thick, and the pivot hole, worn very smooth 
by rotating, is 2|in. in diameter. It is convex to the extent of 
one inch. The stone has unfortunately got broken where/ it has 
been drilled for the fixing of the turning handle. The quern must 
have been worked by a man or a very powerful woman as the stone 
is heavy. The grinding of corn during the Anglian period appears to 
have been a domestic employment left entirely to women ; at any 
rate, by the laws of Ethelbert, king of Kent, who ruled from 560 
to 616, a particular fine of 12s. is imposed upon any man 
who should corrupt the king's grinding maid. In Deuteronomy, 
c. 24, v. 6, there is an injunction 'that no man shall take the 
nether or upper millstone to pledge for he taketh a man's life to 
pledge,' The late Mr. Backhouse of Shull Wolsingharn, found a 
somewhat similar stone near the British camp at Hamsterley, but it 
had never been used. It was an upper quern-stone, also made of 
Shap granite, and the Briton, in holeing the stone at the centre for 
the wood pivot, had worked from both sides, but as he had not set 
his work out correctly, the two holes had missed, and the stone 
had been thrown away. These glacial boulders of Shap granite 
are found as far south as Doncaster. There is a very fine one in 
Northgate, Darlington, kuown as ' Bulmer's Stone,' and as a^pro- 
minent landmark, the Darlington Corporation is about to place an 
inscription on it to the effect ' That this monolith of Shap granite 
was, in prehistoric times, transported here from Westmorland by 
a glacier. Flax was beaten on it when Darlington was famed for 
its linen industry. Bulmer, the noted episcopal borough ; crier 
(c. 1790), made proclamations from it.'] 

ii. A photograph of the lower half of an inscribed stone found in the 
wall of the Skerne mill-race, Darlington, when it was demolished. 
The stone is 16in. long, by 9in. wide, and bears the inscription 
D'MINI, 1575, a mullet, pierced, a curious ornament, a cinquefoil, 
and the letter B. It is thought to commemorate a member of the 
Barnes family, one of whom became bishop of Durhamj and 
others were borough bailiffs of Darlington in the 16 cent. (See 
Longstaffe'sDarZwgrton, Ixxxii, and Hutchinson's Durham,p.^566.) 
See the first illustration facing page 93. 

By Mr. T. Taylor, F.S.A. : A small plain tankard, with reeded and 
moulded border, flat reeded scroll handle. Inscription or} side 
' The Gift of Geo : Cox to Tho : Bowser,' engraved with the coat 
of arms of the Bowser family : [ ] a cross engrailed [ ] be- 
tween 4 bougets [ ]. Dimensions : height 3fin., diameter at 
mouth 3in. ; weight inscribed on bottom 6oz. 16dwts. 


Mr. E. Wooler reported that a cist, made of stone slabs and con- 
taining human bones, probably of the Roman period, had been dis- 
covered at Piercebridge, and that from the same place he had obtained 
three small copper Roman coins of Allectus, Valerian and Tetricus. 



Mr. R. Oliver Heslop (one of the secretaries) then read as follows, the 
annual report of the council : 

" With their ninety-first annual report your council record with 
regret the death of no fewer than eleven members of the society in the 
past year. 

" The Right Hon. the Earl of Ravensworth succeeded his father 
as President of our society in 1879, and continued in that office until 
the press of other matters compelled him to resign in 1898. His genial 
presence in the chair was, in former years, a welcome feature of our 
annual meetings ; whilst his zeal for the society, and his interest in our 
pursuits were at all times manifested. These characteristics were 
particularly shown when it fell to his lot to represent our society on 
special occasions ; thus, when the Royal Archaeological Institute 
visited Newcastle, in 1884 he received its members on our behalf ; in the 
following year he formally opened the Black Gate museum ; again, in 
1886, he presided at the banquet served in this building to commemorate 
the Pilgrimage of the Roman Wall then undertaken. The addresses 
given at each of these gatherings were of more than passing interest, and 
their scope and character were admirably suited to the occasions. In 
the second of the addresses above referred to, that of 1885, reference 
was made to the peculiar relation that had existed between his family 
and the precincts of the Castle, and his lordship's words may be fittingly 
recalled at this juncture : ' I have a certain interest in this castle,' he 
said, ' not only as being a member of this society myself, but from the 
fact that my ancestors were leaseholders of the Castle Garth for a great 
number of years. In 1736,. my ancestor, Colonel Liddell, entered into 
competition with no less a body than the municipality of this ancient 
town ; they competed for the renewal of the lease, but he got the best 

of it, and obtained the lease from the Crown. In 1756 the reversion 

of this lease was again purchased by the first Lord Ravensworth, but in 
1780 it was sold to Mr. Turner and in 1811 the Newcastle Corporation 
regained the possession of the Castle Garth and its surroundings.' Our 
late president was thus doubly related to our society ; first, by his regard 
for the pursuits of our members, and further, in an attachment to this 
place with its associations of an ancestral possession. 

" The Rev. Anthony Johnson was elected to our membership in 1882. 
His monographs on Bywell and Blanchland form valuable contributions 
to the thirteenth and sixteenth volumes of Archaeologia, Aeliana. A 
retiring disposition hardly disclosed his capabilities to those only known 
to him by casual contact. But on the visits of our society to Bywell 
and to Blanchland, where he acted as guide, his descriptions of the places 
were of the greatest interest, revealing, as they did, stores of local and 
general information and a reserve of erudition ; and these services were 
rendered with a kindliness and geniality not to be forgotten. Mr. William 
Glendenning was elected in 1878, and has thus been associated with us 
for a quarter of a century. To the end of this long period he sustained 
an observant interest in our proceedings and was a regular attender at 
our out-door meetings. Mr. William Harris Robinson was an ardent 
collector whose judgment and taste in matters of art were as conspicuous 
as his urbane and quiet character was unobtrusive. In his speciality 
as a numismatist his services were at the call of the investigator, and 
were at all times willingly rendered ; from his election in 1882 until 
illness prevented, he was constant in his attendance at our meetings, 
where his kindly presence was always welcomed. Mr. Robert Yeoman 
Green, elected 1883, an accomplished naturalist, was always greatly 


interested in archaeology ; he combined a life-long intimacy with, and a 
rare knowledge of, the history and antiquities of Newcastle, where liis 
presence suggested a connecting link between our own and an older 
generation of citizens whose pursuit of knowledge remains one of our 
worthiest traditions. Mr. Walter Scott of Sunderland, was elected in 
1888, and, although unable by distance to attend our monthly meetings, 
took ^part in our country excursions ; he was throughout quietly and 
observantly interested in our pursuits. Mr. George Skelly of Alnwick, 
had been long and widely known as a glossarist and folk-lorist, although 
his membership dated only from 1892 ; as a painstaking observer and 
diligent recorder he enriched the local press from time to time with 
copious notes on his particular studies. Mr. David Arundell Holds- 
worth was elected in 1895, and showed a keen interest in the meetings 
of the society. To an ardent pursuit of knowledge he added rare 
powers of exposition, with the promise of useful capabilities in our 
midst. To our deprivation is added the loss of an eager comrade. Mr. 
Charles William Mitchell of Jesmond Towers, joined our membership 
roll in succession to his father, and was elected in 1896. Circumstances 
prevented an active participation in our gatherings here ; but although 
a stranger to our meetings he was a cordial friend in all that related to 
our proceedings. This was shown in a marked degree when our society 
learned that the frontage of the Black Gate had been threatened with an 
obstruction. At the call of your Council he gave his personal attendance 
and lent his influence on our behalf, with helpful results in averting that 
threatened misfortune. It was a happiness to be associated with a 
colleague who had already won distinction in his high calling as an artist, 
and whose services to his native city had unfolded plans of the brightest 
promise. To ourselves, as to the community at large, his premature loss 
is an irreparable deprivation ; and, besides, it is the loss of a rare person- 
ality, for, as one of his friends has written, ' He was, in a word, of those 
whom to know with any degree of intimacy is to love ; and he lives 
in the memory as an abiding inspiration.' Mrs. Brock-Hollinshead of 
Shap, late of Cheltenham, elected in 1896, as a distant resident was 
debarred from attendance at our customary meetings; but as a student 
of archaeology she took a lively interest in our publications, and was 
constant in her exchange of books from our library. 

" Whilst so many lapses fall to be thus enumerated at home, there yet 
remains for us to record that of a great figure in the wider field of 
continental archaeology. Professor Mommsen was elected an honorary 
member in June, 1883, along with Dr. Emil Hiibner, whom he survived 
by two years. The attachment of these two eminent names to our roll 
of membership was a distinction to our society, and their removal 
leaves us all the poorer. Of the veteran Mommsen' s services record has 
already been made by our colleague, Mr. Haverfield.* It may be 
mentioned, however, as exemplifying his enduring interest in our 
concerns, that the inscription on the recently discovered Newcastle slab 
was submitted to him, and his reading of it was received by Mr. Haver- 
field only a few days before the death of the historian. 

" In the past year the first part of the twenty-fifth volume of Archaeo- 
logia Aeliana was issued. It consists of 159 pages, 135 of which are 
devoted to papers by members. These include the important treatise 
on ' Early Ordnance in Europe,' by our vice-president, Mr. R. Coltman 
Clephan, F.S.A., with illustrations. Mr. William Brown contributes 
' Local Muniments ' in a series of eighteen documents relating to the 

* See Arch. Ael. xxv, 185. 


two northern counties dating from the twelfth to the fifteenth centuries. 
They are accompanied by illustrations of seals, descriptions of which are 
given by Mr. W. H. St. John Hope. The third item is an unfinished 
paper on ' Dagger Money,' by the late W. H. D. Longstaffe, communi- 
cated by Mr. F. W. Dendy. The fourth consists of notes by Mr. Heslop, 
one of the secretaries, on ' Structural Features of the Great Tower of 
Newcastle.' The fifth contribution relates to the discovery by the Right 
Rev. Bishop Hornby, of eighteen 'Ancient Deeds relating to Gunnerton,' 
dating from the thirteenth to the seventeenth centuries and now printed. 

" The first volume of the new the second series of Archaeologia 
Aeliana is dated 1857 and with the completion of the twenty fifth volume 
the resolution of the society to end the series will come into force ; and 
the next ensuing volume will be the first of the third series. 

" The original issue of our publications was demy quarto, measuring 
1 1 by 9 inches, and continued thus in four successive volumes, bearing 
the imprints of the years 1822, 1832, 1846 and 1855 respectively. It 
may be remembered that copperplate and lithography were then in 
vogue for illustrative purposes. At the annual meeting of 1856 a 
resolution was adopted to print future publications in demy octavo, 
and our second series, with its octavo page of eight and three-quarter 
by five and three-quarter inches, has thus continued unaltered for the 
past 46 years. 

" In portability and appearance these last twoi.ty five volumes leave 
nothing to be desired ; and, as far as typography i- concerned, the demy 
octavo form might well be continued. But the alteration made of late 
years in the method of illustration, by which the work of the wood 
engraver is superseded by the process block, has rendered it desirable 
to adopt a size of page that will admit a display of the modern method 
to the greatest advantage. It is accordingly proposed to alter the 
format of our volumes to a size measuring 'eight and three-quarter 
inches high by seven inches wide. No change will thus be made in the 
height of our volumes so that they will continue to appear on the shelf 
in uniform range with the preceding series, whilst an increased width 
of nearly an inch and a quarter will add considerably to the capacity 
of the page for purposes of illustration. 

" A further change, of which due notice has been given, will be sub- 
mitted for your consideration at the present annual meeting. In place 
of the issue half-yearly in covers, hitherto in practice, it is proposed to 
send out a complete volume of Archaeologia Aeliana, bound in a suit- 
able material, at midsummer in each year. As the alteration in form 
and in manner of publication are both in response to a widely-urged 
request your Council trusts that the changes may enhance the apprecia- 
tion with which our publications are regarded. 

" With the year 1903 began the first volume of the third series of our 
Proceedings. One hundred and four pages of this publication have been 
issued during the year besides a large portion of the index to the tenth 
volume of the second series. Copious illustrations, many important 
articles, and numerous records hitherto inedited, enhance the interest 
attaching to these Proceedings. The printing of the Elsdon registers 
brought down to 1813, with the index, has also been finished. 

" In addition to the regular monthly meetings the society has held 
out-door meetings in the summer, visiting severally the Roman camp 
at CILURNUM with the line of the Wall to Limestone-bank ; Mitford and 
Newminster ; and Ulgham, Widdrington and Chibburn. Detailed and 
illustrated reports of these are given in our Proceedings. 


" Two most valuable contributions to local history made in the past 
year have been the work of members of our society. 

"Our colleague Mr. George B. Hodgson, in The Borough of South Shield* 
from the Earliest Period to the Close of the Nineteenth Century, has placed 
the community under a debt of obligation. His work embraces an 
amount of historical and statistical information that will prove a perfect 
mine of facts and figures in itself. These illustrate in the most complete 
manner the rise and progress of an important municipality and its 
relation to the Port of Tyne. From an archaeological standpoint the 
Roman, Anglian and medieval histories are summarized with con- 
spicuous grasp of the subjects, whilst the literary qualities displayed 
add to Mr. Hodgson's book an attraction of themselves. It is equally 
fortunate that another local history has been undertaken by one who 
combines the observation of a naturalist and the erudition of an antiquary 
with a rare power of graphic delineation. In these qualities Mr. D. D. 
Dixon has more than realized anticipation in the publication of his 
Upper Coquetdale. A companion volume to the author's Vale of 
Whittingham it adds another interesting section to the history, tradi- 
tions and folk-lore of the romantic uplands of Northumberland and an 
appreciation to the charm exercised by their scenery. When the new 
County History of Northumberland in its progress overtakes these 
areas Mr. Dixon' s pages will prove to be of the utmost value. Written 
with a full knowledge of their abounding interests, the record partakes 
of the freshness of the hills themselves. The qualities of Mr. Hodgson's 
and Mr. Dixon' s volumes call for more than ordinary recognition and 
congratulation for their respective authors. 

"An interesting feature has been added to the collection of banners in 
the Great Hall of the Castle by the presentation of a framed drawing, 
executed and given by Mr. and Mrs. C. H. Blair. Each banner is 
fully blazoned, its position on the wall being indicated, so that the 
plate furnishes a key to the heraldry and may be said to add a final 
item to the work. 

" Whilst so much has been done in the past to elucidate the structure 
and character of the Stationary Camps on the line of the Wall and else- 
where it is in no small degree remarkable that discoveries in PONS 
AELIUS itself have been so few and far between, and that even the exact 
site of the station is still a matter of conjecture. It is therefore with 
more than ordinary interest that the discoveries made on the site of the 
Aelian bridge and in what appear to have been the precincts of the camp 
call for notice. An altar and an inscribed slab, recovered from the debris 
of the Roman structure in the river bed, furnish, in the one case, a dedi- 
cation to Ocean by the sixth legion, an exact duplicate in design of the 
Neptune altar from the same site already in our museum, and in the other 
a commemoration of Antoninus by Julius Verus his imperial legate and 
propretor. The association of Neptune and Ocean, thus personified, 
present, not only a combination of great rarity, but is pointed out as of 
significance in its relation to the conquest of Northern Britain. At 
the same time the accompanying slab may yet prove to have added 
greatly to our knowledge of the detail of Roman history. With these 
was found the base of a third altar, the altar itself being yet wanting. 

" The discoveries of a well-shaped sarcophagus in Hanover Square, 
accompanied by a second and rough-hewn example near by, are not 
only important for the sake of the objects themselves but for the indica- 
tion they furnish of an adjacent highway. They thus afford the first 
clue yet found to guide our investigations of the direction by which 
the stationary camp called PONS AELIUS was reached from the northern 
abutment of the bridge itself. 


' ' It is, finally, a matter of congratulation to record that all these 
objects have been placed in our museum in the permanent custody of 
our society." 

The curators' and treasurer's reports were also read. The treasurer's 
balance sheet showed a balance of 71 6s. 9d. in favour of the society 
at the beginning of 1903, and a total income for the year of 598 12s. 1 Id., 
and expenditure 522 12s. 8d., leaving a balance of income over ex- 
penditure at the end of 1903 of 76 Os. 3d. The capital invested, with 
dividends, was 100 Is. 6d. The receipts were : from subscriptions, 
350 14s. Od. ; from Castle, 126 8s. 6d. ; from Blackgate museum, 
28 12s. 2d. ; and from books sold, 21 11s. 6d. The printing cost: 
Archaeologia, 111 17s. Od., Proceedings, 53 7s. 6d., and Elsdon 
Register (balance), 21 11s. 6d. ; and the illustrations, 58 13s. Od. ; 
Books bought cost, 33 14s. 2d. ; the Castle, 103 16s. 7d., and the 
Blackgate, 32 12s. 3d. 

Mr L. W. Adamson, LL.D., moved the adoption of the reports, which 
Mr. T. Taylor, F.S.A., seconded. 

The Noble President said ho would have had great pleasure in putting 
the resolution, but for the fact that the report showed that their losses by 
death during the year had been very great. Perhaps those present were 
better acquainted with many of the deceased members than he was him- 
self. But there was one he had known very well for a great number of 
years, and to whom he could not help alluding. He referred to the late 
Lord Ravensworth. He felt that the loss which the society had sus- 
tained by Lord Ravens worth's death was shared by the whole of North- 
umberland. There had never been a native of this county who more 
thoroughly identified himself with all that interested the North, and no 
one had brought more talent to bear upon the questions in which he 
took an interest. Lord Ravensworth was, as stated in the report, very 
intimately connected with the town of Newcastle, and no figure was more 
familiar in its streets than his. But they claimed him, also, as a very 
well known figure in the county. He combined qualities which were not 
always found in combination the qualities of very great power of 
application and very great culture in certain directions ; and at the same 
time he showed thorough sympathy with all that made country life, to 
many of them, so agreeable. He was an ardent sportsman, and a 
thoroughly congenial and cordial companion. The report was a very 
interesting one. It showed that the society had kept up its old tradi- 
tions in leading the way in antiquarian and archaeological studies in this 
country, and that it stimulated the pursuit of those sciences in others 
whilst operating itself in regard thereto. There was one matter which 
was not mentioned in the report, and which he hoped would not be 
forgotten the pieservation of the county records. There were very 
great difficulties in the way of securing the custody of those records, 
which many of them thought was very desirable. If they came to him 
as chairman of the County Council, and asked him to recommend 
expenditure out of the county funds, he was afraid he would be one of 
their strongest opponents. But, at the same time, he hoped something 
might be done in the direction of securing and preserving the most 
interesting of their public local records, and perhaps some of their 
private tecords also, and placing them in some centre in the county, 
where they would be accessible to those interested in consulting them, 
and where they would be in perfectly safe custody. He trusted that 
even if it could not be done at the present moment, the society would riot 
lose sight of the matter, and would join in any action which might be 
taken either in the way of further legislation or otherwise to secure what 
he was sure was a very important object. 


The report was adopted . 


The Noble Chairman then declared the following persons duly elected 
to the respective offices in terms of Statute V. which sets forth * that if 
the number of persons nominated for any office be the same as the 
number to be elected, the person or persons nominated shall be deemed 
elected, and shall be so declared by the chairman,' viz. : 

President : His Grace the Duke of Northumberland, K.G., F.S. A. 

12 Vice- Presidents : Horatio Alfred Adamson, Robert Richardson 
Dees, the Rev. William Greenwell, D.C.L., F.S.A., &c., John Vessey 
Gregory, Thomas Hodgkin, D.C.L., F.S.A., &c., Charles James 
Spence, Richard Welford, M.A., Thomas Taylor, F.S.A., Lawrence 
W. Adamson, LL.D., Frederick Walter Dendy, Robert Coltman 
Clephan, F.S. A., and John Crawford Hodgson, F.S. A. 

2 Secretaries : Robert Blair, F.S. A., and Richard Oliver Heslop, M.A., 
F.S. A. 

Treasurer : Robert Sinclair Nisbet. 

Editor : Robert Blair. 

Librarian : Charles Henry Blair. 

2 Curators : Charles James Spence and Richard Oliver Heslop. 

2 Auditors : John Martin Winter and Herbert Maxwell Wood, B.A. 

12 Council : Rev. Cuthbert Edward Adamson, M.A., Rev. Johnson 
Baily, M.A., Parker Brewis, Sidney Story Carr, David Dippie Dixon, 
John Pattison Gibson, George Irving, William Henry Knowles, 
F.S. A., Joseph Oswald, Rev. Henry Edwin Savage, M.A., William 
Weaver Tomlinson, and Rev. John Walker, M.A. 


Mr. Richard Welford, V.P., moved, in terms of his notice given at the 
November meeting, " that that portion of Statute X, which provides for 
the issue to members of two illustrated parts of Archaeologia in the 
months of January and June in each year, be rescinded ; and that 
instead thereof the words ' a complete illustrated volume of Archaeo- 
logia, bound in cloth or buckram, shall be issued to members in June of 
each year.' " 

The same having been seconded by Mr. R. C. Clephan, was carried 
nem. con. 


A short time ago a firm of ' monumental sculptors,' hailing from a 
town in the south of Durham county, wrote thus to a country parson, 
who as it happened is a vicar of a comparatively new church, and con- 
sequently had neither an * old font ' nor ' old masonry ' under his charge : 
' Rev. Sir, I am in want of an old Font, or any kind of old masonry 
belonging to a church. I am prepared to give a good price for any- 
thing suitable. I shall be glad to hear if you have, or know any one 
having such.' It cannot be too often pointed out that parish ministers 
have no right to part with the property of the parishioners, even though 
the objects themselves cease to be of use. In one case quite recently 
a fine cylindrical Norman font was turned out of a local church, to give 
place to a sham Perpendicular one ; what has become of the former is 
not known. 


The following extract, referring to the ' committal ' of the ' Holy 
Island Enclosure Bill,' is from the reports of the House of Commons of 
20 April, 31 Geo. Ill [1791] : 

* The other Order of the Day being read, for the Second Reading of the 
Bill for dividing, allotting, and inclosing, a certain Stinted Pasture, 
Common, or Tract of Waste Land, within the Manor and Parish of Holy 
Island, in the County Palatine of Durham, and for extinguishing the 
Right of Common upon the ancient Infield Lands within the said Island ; 

Ordered, That the said Bill be now read a Second Time. 

And the House being informed that Counsel attended ; 

A Motion was made, and the Question being put, That the Counsel be 
now called in ; 

The House divided. 

The Noes went forth. 

Tellers for the Yeas, {g + White Ridley . } 12. 

m n e xi TVT ("The Lord Fielding,} ,, 
Tellers for the Noes, ( Mr Lambton . + } 47. 

So it passed in the Negative. 

Then the said Bill was read a Second Time. 

Resolved, That the Bill be committed to Mr. Milbanke, Mr. Grey, &c. : 
And they are to meet this Afternoon, at Five of the Clock, in the 
Speaker's Chamber ; and all who come to the Committee are to have 

The two documents of local interest following, have been kindly 
communicated by Sir Henry A. Ogle, bart. ' The original of the first 
is in Latin, the parchment being 14 Jin. high and 10in. wide. It is in 
fine condition, except that one corner (low down) is torn off. The 
whole is clearly and beautifully written' : 


I, Roger, son of Roger Bertram of Mitford, have given &c., for me 
and my heirs for ever to Sir Peter de Montfort (Monte forti) & his heirs 
or assigns for their homage and service the whole town of Glanteley with 
the appurtenances by those divisions, to wit, from the head of the hedge 
as the way leads from Felton, &c. [in detail] To have and to hold to the 
said Peter and his heirs or assigns, or to whomsoever he willeth to give, 
sell or in any way assign without contradiction, freely, quietly & 
entirely with all liberties, &c., to the said town appertaining Yielding 
yearly one penny at Overlozars on Saint Michael's day for all customs, 
<fcc., and suits of my Court of Midford. The said Peter his heirs or 
assigns and his tenants shall be quit of suit of my mill at Felton and 
repairs of the millpond and hedges of my parks & of pannage, &c. 
The said Peter his heirs or assigns may have & hold the said town of 
Glanteley with all liberties, &c., as freely and quietly as I Roger Ber- 
tram, or my ancestors, have at any time held the said town of the king 
Saving nevertheless to me my liberty of free forest. Estovers of woods 
at Felton also granted to build, burn, enclose, &c. Warranty against 
all men as well Christians as Jews. Witnesses : Sirs Roger de Merlay, 
Roger Bertram of Bothal ; William Hayrun then sheriff of Northum- 
berland, cfcc. [Seal gone.] 

(ii) DE BANCO (339), TRINITY, 18 EDW. III. 

Joh'es fil' Gilb'ti de Oggill p Ric'm de Boltofi att' suu pet' v r sus Edam 
que f uit uxor Joh'is Crag' de Novo Castro super Tynam unum mesuagium 
cum p'tin' in villa Novi Castri sup' Tynam ut jus &c. quod Will's de 
dedit Gilb'to de Oggill in liberum maritagium cum Alicia fil' 


Nich'i Wyght et quod post mortem p r d'cor. Gilb'ti et Alicie p^fato Joh'i 
fil' & heredi p r d'cor Gilb'ti & Alicie descender e debet per formam 
donac'o'is p r d'ce &c. Et unde idem Joh'es dicit q'd p r d'cus Will's dedit 
p r d'cm mesuagiii cum p'tin' p r d'co Gilb'to in lib'm maritagiu cum p r d'ca 
Alicia p quod donu ijdem Gilb'tus & Alicia fuerunt inde seisiti in d'nico 
suo ut de feodo & jure p formam &c. tempore pacis tempore E. Regis 
patris d'ni Regis nunc capiendo inde explec' ad valenc' &c. Et de ipsis 
Gilb'to & Alicia descend' jus p formam &c. isti Joh'i ut fil' & h'edi qui 
nunc pet' Et quod &c. Et inde p'duc' sectam &c. 

Et Eda p Joh'em de Matfen' att' suu ven' Et defend jus suum q'n &c. 
Et dicit q'd p r d'es Joh'es nichil jur' clam' potest in p r d'co mes' p huius- 
modi br'e &c., quia dicit q'd p r d'cs Will's non dedit p r d'cm mesuagiii 
cum p'tin' pd'co Gilb'to in lib'm maritagiu cum p r d'ca Alicia prout ipse 
sup'ius p b're suu suppon' Immo idem Will's dedit pd'cm mesuagiu 
cum p'tin' p r d'co Gilb'to & h'edib. suis in feodo simplici Et hoc pet' q'd 
inquirat r . p p'riam Et Joh' es similit' I's prec' est vie' q'd venire fac' hie 
in octabis s'ci Martini xij, &c., p quos Et qui nee, &c., Ad recogn' &c., 
Quia tarn, &c. 

The following local extracts are from the fourth volume of the 
Catalogue of Ancient Deeds : 

[Scotland] A. 6148. Counterpart indenture between Sir William More, 
lord of Abrecorn, knight, of Scotland, and William del Strothre, mayor 
of Newcastle upon Tyne, witnessing that the said William del Strothre 
has sold to the said Sir William, for 450?. to be paid as specified, the 
marriage of Mary, daughter and heiress of Sir William de Duglas, late 
lord of Liddesdale, ( Voile de Ledalle) which the said William had of the 
grant of Sir John de Bukyngham, attorney of the earl of March. New- 
castle-on-Tyne, 20 January, A. D. 1359. French. Seal of arms (Strothre}. 
See A. 6866. [p. 3] 

[N'th'd] A. 6257. Release by William Elmeden, knight, late receiver 
general of the King's castle and lordship of Bamburgh, to the King, of 
296?. 9s. Id. due on his account from 15 November, 7 Henry V., to 
Michaelmas, 8 Henry VI. 21 November, 21 Henry VI. Seal of arms, 
broken, [p. 17] 

[Surrey] A. 6489. Demise by William de Ayremynne, clerk, attorney 
of Dame Eleanor, late the wife of Sir Henry de Percy, to Sir Hugh le 
Despenser, earl of Winchester, in the name of the said Dame Eleanor, of 
a meadow, pasture, fishery and rent, and of all other lands and tene- 
ments which she held by way of dower in Lameheth. Westminster, 
18 April, 16. Edward II. Seal. [p. 45.] 

[N'thl'd] A. 6804. Grant by John Colt of Hertwayton, to Alan son 
of Robert Scot of Westhertwayton, for 10?. of a toft in Esther twayton in 
the north part of Stodfald, and part of the grantor's messuage for making 
Alan's garden when he wishes ; also part of a croft, and land in the same 
town, part on Hyndesyde, adjoining the stream from Blindewell, and part 
adjoining Orred croft ; the said Alan and his heirs to grind their corn at 
the mill of Hertwayton without giving multure, &c. Witnesses : 
Robert de Camhou, Thomas de Fenwyk, Robert de Toggesden in 
Westhertwayton, and others (named). Seal. [p. 84.] 

[Scotland] A. 6866. Acquittance by William de le Strothir, mayor of 
Newcastle upon Tyne, for 250Z. received by the hands of Sir William de 
Calabre, chaplain, on behalf of his lord, Sir William More, knight, lord 
of Abercorne, in part payment of 675 marks due by him on account 
of the marriage of Mary de Dowglas. Last day of June, A.D. 1360. 
Seal of arms. See A. 6148. [p. 91.] 

*M H 










or THE 



VOL. I. (3 Ser.) 1904. No. 15. 

The ordinary monthly meeting of the society was held in the library of 
the Castle, Newcastle, on Wednesday, the 24th February, 1904, at seven 
o'clock in the evening, Mr. R. C. Clephan, one of the vice-presidents, 
being in the chair. 

Several accounts, recommended by the Council for payment, were 
ordered to be paid. 

The following ORDINARY MEMBERS were proposed and declared duly 
elected : 

i. John Hobart Armstrong, Broomley Grange, Stocksfield. 
ii. Thomas Bailes, 2 Fenwick Terrace, Newcastle, 
iii. Henry Soden Bird, 2 Linden Terrace, Gosforth, Newcastle, 
iv. Albert H. Higginbottom, Simmondley, Adderstone Crescent, 
Jesmond, Newcastle. 

The following NEW BOOKS, etc., were placed on the table : 
Exchanges : 

From the Numismatic Soc. of London : The Numismatic Chronicle, 
4 ser. vol. in, no. 12, 8vo. 

From the Cambrian Archaeological Assoc. : Archaeologia Cambrensis, 
6 ser. iv, i, 8vo. [Included in the part is an interesting account 
of the excavation of a number of hut-circles in the important 
British settlement of Tre'r Ceiri ; many objects of interest were 
found in these hut-circles, in one of them a gold plated fibula 
similar in design to, but smaller than, that found at Aesica, see 
Arch. Ael. xvn, xxviii, and xxiv, 25.] 

From the Historisch-Philosophischen Vereins zu Heidelberg : Neue 
Heidelberger, xn, 2 ; 8vo. 

Purchases : The Registers of Boughton-under-Blean, co. Kent ; Jahr- 
buch of the Imp. Germ. Arch. Inst., xvm, iv ; The English 
Dialect Dictionary, parts xxi-xxm and xxiv ; The Ancestor, 
no. 8, Jan. 1904 ; Pewter Plate, by H. J. L. Masse, M.A. ; Notes 
and Queries, nos. 5-8 (10 ser.) ; Mr. D. D. Dixon's Upper 
Coquetdale ; and Der Obergermanisch-Raetische Limes der Roemer- 
reiches, lief, xx (Kastell Marienfels und Kastell Gross- Krotzenburg. ) 
[An interesting account will be found, in the last-named publica- 
tion, of the discovery of a temple of Mithras, near Kastell Gross- 
Krotzenburg, a large slab depicting the sun-god killing the bull, 
with the attendant figures. An altar also was exhumed. The 
discoveries may be compared with the similar ones made at House- 
steads, and recounted in the recently issued part of the Arch. Ael., 
xxv. See reproduction of the slab on the opposite page.] 



By Mr. T. J. Bell of Cleadon : 

i. A fine bronze looped celt purchased by him at Darlington. It is 
4fin. long, by If in. wide at mouth and 2in. at cutting edge. To 
half way down from the mouth on each side are three parallel 
lines. This example is probably from the same hoard as those 
supposed to have been found at Stanwick, of which illustrations 
are given on plate facing p. 360, vol. x, of these Proceedings. 
(The first illustration on the plate facing this page shews it.) 
ii. A first brass coin of Clodius Albinus [A.D. 193-197], from the site 
of the old bridge across the Tyne at Newcastle (see pp. 50 & 72) ; 
though worn the coin is in a bright untarnished condition. It 
bears on the obverse the inscription [D CLOD] SEPT ALBIN CAES, 
and bare head to left ; and on the reverse : FORT [REDVCI 
cos n], Fortune seated to left, holding in her right hand a rudder 
on a globe, in left hand a cornucopia, under the chair a wheel ; 
in exergue s c. 

By Mr. M. H. Hodgson of South Shields : A small brass coin of 
Constans with reverse of two soldiers standing holding standards, 
and the inscription GLORIA EXERCITVS. 

By the Rev. A. McCullagh, St. Stephen's rectory, South Shields : An 
amphora handle and a fragment of Samian ware with letters 
D....VS in a circle, the remains of the potter's stamp; both 
were found in St. Stephen's churchyard, South Shields. 

By Mr. Maberly Phillips, F.S.A. : Photographs of four lidless 
coffins found about 200 feet east of the Tower bridge southern 
approach, and 20 feet south of Abbey Street, Bermondsey, 
London, S.E. They were formed of blocks of chalk in which 
were male skeletons in a good state of preservation. The burials 
are supposed to date back to the eleventh century, and the 
skeletons are probably the remains of abbots of Bermondsey 
abbey. (See second illustration on plate facing this page of one 
of them.) 

By the Rev. Thomas Stephens, vicar of Horsley : An admittance 
on parchment of 26 Oct. 1708, to Tynemouth manor. The 
following is a copy of the document : 

Cur vis. ffranc' pleg' cu' Cur' Baron' p r nobil' d'ni Caroli 
ducis de Som'sett Marchion' et Comit' de Hartford 
vicecomit' Beauchampe de Hache Baron' Seymour de 
Trowbridge Cancellar' Academ' Cantabrig' p r nobil' Ordin' Garter' 
mil' Equor' Magistr' Serenissimo Majestati et un' p r fect illustrissimi 
Consilij et p r nobiP d'nse Elizabeth* ducissse de Somersett uxor ejus 
Tent'apud Tynemouth p. Manerio p r d' die martis (viz.) vicesimo 
sexto die Octobris Anno RRae dnse nrae Annse Magnae Britanniae 
ffranc' et Hibniae &c. Septimo Annoq' Dni 1708 cora' Will's 
Loraine Ar. deputat' Will'i Coles Ar. Senesc. ib'm. 
Ad hanc Curiam Comp'tum est p' Homagiu' quod Joh'es Selbey 
Obijt Sei't' de et in vno Libr' Burgag' sive Tenement' vel Cottag' 
cu' le Garth scituat' jacen' et existen' in Tynemouth p r d Annual' 
reddit' unius grani piperis et p ultima' voluntat' geren' dat' Decimo 
Septimo die Decembr' Anno RRs Dni nri Will'i Tertij nunc Angl', 
etc., Duodecimo Annoq' Dni Mill'imo Septingentesimo Dedit et 
Devisavit Burgag' sive Cottag' et le Garth cu' p'tin' Cuid'm Mar- 
garetae Selbey nup' de Novi Castr' sup' Tyna' vid' Hered' et assign' 
suis imp'petuum' et sup' hoc in Ead'm Cur' venit p r d Margareta 


Selbey et petit se Admitti inde Ten't'm cui qused'm Margaretae d'n's 
p r d p' Senesc. suu' p r d concesser' inde Sei'nam H'end' et Tene' sibi 
et Heredib' suis sub usual' redd' et servit' dno et Hered' suis et 
fecit fidelitat' Solvit' p. Relevio suo et Admissus est inde Tenens. 

Ex p. Fra. Anderson, Cl'ic. Cur'. 
[Endorsed ' Margt. Selby 6s. 8d. & a pepp r Corne.'J 

By Mr. H. A. Adamson, V.P., A Civil War letter of 17th December, 
1642, relating to Newcastle. 

[ Mr. Blair (one of the secretaries) read the following notes by Mr. 
H. A. Adamson, V.P., on this letter: 

' A Great Discovery of the Queens preparation in Holland, to 
assist the King in England. Also, how Her Majesty hath sent 
Her Standard, with the rest of her Regiments over to Newcastle, 
As it was sent in a Letter from Rotterdam, Dated Decemb. 16, 
atilo novo, 1 and directed to M. lohn Blackston, a Member of 
the House of Commons.' This is the title of a letter which was 
printed in London on Decemb, 17, 1642. The letter appears in the 
Newcastle Reprints of Rare Tracts, printed by M. A. Richardson in 
1843 and subsequent years (Historical I, No. 5). The editor suggested 
that it should be read at a meeting of the members, and in compliance 
with his wish it is now produced, so that it may may be printed in the 
transactions of the society. The letter appeared during the period 
covered by Gardiner's History of the Great Civil War, 1642-49, being 
up to the execution of king Charles I on 30th January, 1649. The 
queen of Charles I was Henrietta Maria, the youngest child of Henry IV 
of France, who was married to the king in 1625, and being a Roman 
Catholic refused to be crowned with him in Westminster abbey. The 
Civil War broke out in August, 1642, when the king's standard was 
raised at Nottingham. In February of that year the queen had gone 
to Holland to raise money and men for the king. She was most active 
in raising money to purchase arms, and in inducing officers and soldiers 
of English birth to forsake the Dutch service for that of their native 
prince. She met with many difficulties at the hands of parliament. 
In October a vessel which she despatched was driven by stress of weather 
into Yarmouth, where it was seized by order of parliament. Two ships 
of war, the sole remains of the royal navy, which were intended to 
escort across the North Sea a little fleet with munitions of war, were 
surrendered to parliament by their own sailors. 3 The letter from 
Rotterdam is dated Decemb. 16, and apparently on the same day it 
was ordered by the Lords and Commons assembled in parliament that 
it should be forthwith printed and published, and it was printed on the 
following day, Decemb. 17, 1642. These dates are explained by the 
fact that in Holland the new style had been adopted, but it had not been 
in England, so that time was 10 days later but for the change in style 
the letter from Holland would have been dated the 6th December. The 
writer of the letter concealed his name. The letter is addressed to 
Mr. John Blackstone, who was one of the representatives of Newcastle, 
and was present at the king's trial when sentence of death was pro- 
nounced. He was also one of the 59 persons who signed the warrant 
for the execution of the king. He died in June, 1649. (See Welford's 
Men of Mark, vol. 1, p. 334). In the letter are mentioned the follow- 

i Stilo Novo. This style was introduced by Pope Gregory XIII. in 1582. In the 
same year it was adopted in Holland and other continental Countries, but was not 
adopted in England until 1751. At fiist the difference in time was 10 days, afterwards 
it was 11 days, and since 1800 it has been 1? days. 

2 Gardiner's Great Civil War, vol. 1, p. 42. 


ing names : M. Knolls, ' that Arch R. Capt. Archibald,' Colonel Goring, 
M. Crofts, Mr. Slingsby, Capt. Bret, and Capt. Mackworth. When 
Fairfax had 1,400 prisoners to discharge, Colonel Goring, who was 
among them, is spoken of as the double Traitor Goring. He 
was lord general of the king's horse a royalist partisan who 
betrayed the army plot to Pym. In the Letters of Queen Henrietta 
Maria, edited by Mary A. E. Green, and published in 1857, 
Slingsby is mentioned. It is probable he was Sir Henry Slingsby 
of Scriven, in the county of York, who represented Knaresborough 
in the Long Parliament, and followed the king to York. He fought 
at Marston Moor, Naseby, and in other battles, in the royalist ranks, 
In 1656 he entered into negotiations with officers of the garrison 
of Hull for surrendering it to the royalists. He was tried and 
sentenced to be beheaded. His execution took place 8th June, 1658. 
Whether the queen was able to send off to Newcastle the 400 officers 
and old soldiers and 400 horse mentioned in the letter, and the 
160,OOOZ. sterling I do not know. There is no mention of the 
circumstance in her letters. 3 On the 2nd February following 
she set sail in person for the Yorkshire coast. Arms as occasion 
served she had despatched to the army in Newcastle from time to 
time, together with a large sum of money obtained by selling or 
pawning jewels, a sum which contemporary rumour, with probable 
exaggeration, reckoned at 2,000,000. This time, however, a fierce 
storm swept over the North Sea, and for nine days the queen, with her 
precious cargo, lay tossing on the waves. She never lost the high spirits 
which accompanied her in every position in which she was placed, and 
she laughed heartily as her attendant ladies were driven by the 
howling of the wind and the creaking of the timbers, to shout out, in 
confession to her chaplain, a catalogue of sins which was never meant 
to reach the ears of their mistress. ' Comfort yourselves, my dears,' 
she said, in unconscious imitation of the Red King, ' Queens of England 
are never drowned.' She landed at Bridlington and met Charles at 
Edgehill. On the 3rd of April in the next year they separated at 
Abingdon, never to meet again. At Exeter on the 16th June she gare 
birth to a daughter, and a fortnight later she had to fly to France to 
escape the merciless treatment of the parliamentarians. She visited 
England twice after the Restoration, and died 31st August, 1669, in 

The following is a reprint of the letter ; a reproduction of the title 
page is given on the opposite page : 

Worthy Sir, 

My last unto you was of the twelfth present, which I sent by Ship ; 
and fearing least that may be long before it come to your hands, I 
thought fit to write unto you now by Post ; and it is to advise you 
that there come hither frequently good and lusty ships from New- 
castle, which are sent hither by the Merchants of that Town, for the 
service of the Queen : And there is continuall transportation of 
great store of Men, Money, and Ammunition, over in them. There 
came hither about 14 daies since M. Knolls, and that arch R. Capt. 
Archibald, who is very diligent and notorious in his service, for the 
betraying of his Countrey, and for that hath of late had that honour 
conferred upon him to be made a Captaine, and is about three daies 
since gon from hence with his ship laden with Men, Money and 
Ammunition for Newcastle. I heare that M. Knolls brought over 

Gardiner's Great Civil War, Vol. 1, p. 108. 




J Q u B E N s preparation in Holland, k 

to aflift the KING in Englwd. ? 

g Alfo, how Her 'Majefty hath fent Her 
dard, with the reft of>her Regiments over 


< As it was fent in a Letter from "Rot- f* 

* f erdatfy Da ted Decewb. 1 6 .ft do novo^z n d * 
dirt fted to M. lokn vLckfton a Member of > 

the Houfc ot ' Common r . 

Dte Veileris ! 6 Decemb. 1 642 . 
/^NRWererf ^y ffce L(?r^ and Commons a^nt'^^ 
\^Jbkd in Parliament ; thafthis Letter flail be I* 
5 forthwith printed and publijlect. ^ 

I.Brown Cler.Parliamentorum. 


Printed for J^Wright in the Old-bay ly, 
Decemb.ij. 1642. 


Letters from his Majesty, that hath been the occasion of the Queens 
stay here, which all that be well affected are very sorry for ; who 
had rather she were elsewhere. Upon the receipt of which Letters 
from His Majesty, I heare that the Queen the next day sent M. 
Jermin to the States Generall, to acquaint them therewith, and that 
His Majesty advised the Queen to stay here for some time longer ; 
and that, because His Majesty was upon a treaty of Accommoda- 
tion, and doubted not but that in short time he should make all 
hings well ; and that, therefore, the Queen gave the thanks for 
those ships that had a long time waited upon her service, and 
desired that they might now be discharged, which was done ac- 
cordingly ; yet notwithstanding Her Majesties Agents labour here 
exceedingly in sending away Men, Money, Horse and Ammunition 
unto Newcastle for the advancing of Her Majesties Army in those 
parts. Upon thursday last T was at the Hague, and there saw 
Her Majesties Standard, which was just then going away, to be 
sent to Newcastle ; and yesterday was seven night, T heard that 
Colonel Goring and M. Crofts, and M. Slingsby, and Capt. Bret, and 
Capt. Mackworth, and divers other Cavaliers went to Amsterdam, 
to take ship there, to go for England with all speed, and it is thought 
Tor Newcastle ; and that Col. Goring is to be Lord General of the 
King's Horse. I heare likewise that there is more going away from 
thence to Newcastle, 400 Officers and old Souldiers, and 400 Horse, 
and 1,000 more are to follow, which are Her Majesties Regiment, 
and should have been a guard to Her person if she had gon on. The 
Prince of Orange I heare suffers all his Officers to goe, that will, 
onely under this colour, that as many as goe hence, shall be con- 
strained ; although he can give them greater honour as he pleaseth, 
and they expect, for so good service, if they do return. It is very 
credibly reported here, that there is now sending away with all 
speed to Newcastle 1 60,000 pouud sterling, which I am very credibly 
informed by some Dutch men, is by way of loane raised by the 
Papists in these parts (which are not few) for the Queen. And 
that the Prince of Orange is engaged for the payment of it, which 
are most horrible things. Therefore I can do no lesse in conscience 
to God and his cause, and in duty and love unto the Kingdom and 
Parliament, (hearing and seeing these things), then give you notice 
of it, who are a member of that Honorable House, which I 
shall desire you (if you shall think fit) to Communicate unto the 
House ; but shall intreat you to doe me the like favour you have 
done, in concealing of my name. Thus desiring the Lord to bo 
with you, and to blesse and prosper your proceedings, and the 
whole House, with the tender of my service, and best respects unto 
you, I humbly take my leave, and rest 

Yours, to love and serve you in the Lord. 

There are two Newcastle Ships here, ready to go with the first faire 
Wind, laden as is before mentioned ; and also three great fDuteh 
Hoyes laden with f Field-pieces and carriages, and many Holland 
Waggons, which are made strong and large, and covered over head, 
such as usually attend the leaguer. 

To his much Honoured friend, JOHN BLACKSTONE Esquire, a 
Member of the House of Commons in the Honourable House of 
Parliament, present these. 

FINIS.' " 
Thanks were voted for these exhibits and notes. 



Mr. Blair (one of the secretaries) read the following paper by Mr. E. 
Wooler of Darlington : 

" Pierce bridge is said by some old writers to be the Roman MAGIS, 
which was garrisoned by the Pacenses of Lusitania the ancient 
name of Portugal, and some adjacent territory. Some 233 yards to 
the east of the station the Roman military way entered the county 
palatine of Durham from CATARACTONIUM (Catteriek) and passed 
.on to VINO VIA (Binchester). The station contained lOf acres within 
its walls, being 610 feet wide and 765 feet in length an unusually large 
size for a Roman station. Possibly this was due to the existence of 
the large British camp at Stanwick^ with which I deal somewhat fully 
hereafter. The Roman camp was erected on a neck of land formed by 
the junction of two streams forming Carl bury beck which flowed from 
the north west into the river Tees and divided the townships of Pierce- 
bridge and Carlbury. This stream undoubtedly supplied the garrison 
and the fosse of the fortress with water, as well as a bath which was 180 
feet from the east rampart and 225 from the south rampart. In 1730 
an aqueduct a yard wide and a yard and a quarter deep was discovered 
on the road adjoining Carlbury beck. Tho Roman road did not pass 
through the station but in very dry weather it is said its track 
may bo seen across the field known as the 'Tofts.' The enclosure 
of the station is still distinctly visible, the north-west corner being 
almost perfect and the fosse easily traceable. A part of the west wall 
remained until the year 1822 when it was demolished by the 
occupant, Mr. James O'Callaghan, M.P. for Winchelsea. Tho farm is 
now in the occupation of Mr. Pierson Cathrick. The stones, many of 
which were of large size and oblong in shape were used in the erection of 
the farm buildings, with the exception of a few which retained fragments 
of inscriptions. I have repeatedly endeavoured to find out what became 
of these, but unfortunately without result 4 

Crossing the Tees was a Roman bridge which was in the direct line 
of the road, and was not diverted, as it now is, through the village, but 
wont straight on over what was until quite recently Carlbury mill-dam, 
This bridge is said to have been constructed of stone piers with, in all 
probability, a wooden platform like the Roman bridge at CILURNU?.! so 
as to be easily demolished in case of danger. Prior to the great flood 
of the 16th and 17th November, 1771 which by the way, rose to a 
height of 20 feet the foundations of the Roman bridge were visible, 
but they were torn up and washed away on that memorable occasion. 
Last summer Mr. W. W. Tomlinson and myself made diligent search 
for Roman stones in the dam, but were unable to find any. This phenom- 
enal flood carried away practically all the bridges across the Tyne, the 
Wear, and the Tees. The bridge at Piercebridge was carried away by 
this flood and appears to have remained down from 1771 to 1798, 
because I find, on searching the records in the office of the clerk of the 
peace for the North Riding, that on the llth July, 1797, the justices of 
that riding ordered that the inhabitants of Durham county be 
indicted for the non-repair of the Durham portion of the bridge at the 
ensuing assizes, and on the 12th January, 1 79^, the North Riding justices 
ordered the treasurer of the riding to pay the clerk of the peace 35 for 
attending at Durham assizes for the purpose of indicting the inhabitants 
of Durham. Shortly afterwards there was a payment of 1300Z. ordered 

* Those interested in Roman stations in England should read Mr. Bosanquet's de- 
scription of Housesteads in the recently issued part of the Arch. Aeliana (xxv, ii). 


to be made for restoring the Yorkshire half of the bridge. Unfortun- 
ately the Durham records are not indexed, but I find that at the 
Durham quarter sessions on the 4th October, 1797, there is the following 
minute respecting Piercebridge, ' Ordeied that this bridge, so much as 
belongs to the County of Durham, be widened and repaired conformable 
to the plan drawn by Mr Eldon, Surveyor, and in conformity with the 
part to be repaired by the North Riding of the County of York.' 

In descending the hill, on the 
south side of the river, on the mili- 
tary way towards Piercebridge, at 
the point where the road branches 
off to Cliffe hall, a Roman memorial 
stone was found in 1844 recording 


DVM CVBAVIT, i.e. fAurelia Fadilla 
took care that this stone should be 
erected in memory of her deceased 
husband. 5 The person to" whom the 
stone was erected was no doubt a 
Roman soldier, in all probability a 
general officer. The Roman places 
for burial were either private or 
public, the private in fields or gar- 
dens, usually near the highway to 
be conspicuous and to remind those 
who passed of mortality, hence the 
frequent inscriptions, Siste viator, 
Aspice viator, etc. 

At Piercebridge from time to time 
large numbers of Roman coins have 
been found, and as recently as last 
year (1903) Mr. Priestman Gordon, 
whilst digging in his garden near 
the present bridge, and on the site 
of the chantry chapel, hereafter 
referred to, turned up a couple of 
Roman coins in excellent preserva- 
tion. One of the coins was of copper 
and of Tetricus the elder ; the other 
was a denarius and bore on the 
obverse the inscription c VALENS 
the reverse PIETAS AVGVS(TORUM). 
Shortly after this there came into 
my possession, very fortuitously, 
fourteen other coins which had been dug up at Piercebridge, and which, 
commencing at or about A.D. 55, ended about A.D. 251. The first was 
a copper coin of Nero, with a characteristic profile of that emperor 
turned to the right on the obverse, and on the reverse the figure of Ceres. 
Other coins were of Domitian, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, Marcus 
Aurelius and Septimius Severus, and were, on the whole, in a remark- 
ably good state of preservation. This month (January, 1904) I have 
acquired three other copper coins, which were turned up in one of the 
allotment gardens between Carlbury beck and Piercebridge railway 

5 See second illustration on plate facing p. 117. 



station. The first is a copper coin of Tetricus the elder (267-273), the 
second of Valerian (253-263), and the third of Allectus ; this is of special 
interest as it was struck in London between A.D. 293 and 296. 

To revert for a moment to the subject of the coins found, I may 
mention that on the 6th April, 1853, a beautiful gold coin was unearthed 
bearing on the obverse the inscription^iMP TBAIANO AVG GEB DAC P M 
TB P, and on the reverse cos v PP s P Q B OPTIMO PBINC 

pieces of Sa- 
mian ware, with 
its beautiful 
glaze, have been 
found at Fierce- 
bridge, as well 
as plain ware of 
an earlier date. 
Some little time 
ago I exhibited 
to the society a 
small vase of 
the latter class 
of ware, which 
is of very good 
design. The an- 
nexed illustra- 
tion shews it. 
A small bronze 
statue of Mer- 
cury of elegant 
reproduced on 
p. 124 from an 

engraving in Archaeologia (ix, 289), was discovered at Piercebridge 
about the year 1788 ; in its present condition it measures 4J inches in 
length ; it was originally something longer, but the feet with the 
pedestal on which it stood and the caduceus are unfortunately missing. 
Cade, who had the figure in his possession in December of that year, 
was inclined to think it belonged to some temple dedicated to the 
god Mercury. 

An altar was found at Piercebridge inscribed D.M CONDATI ATTONIVS 


Attonius Quintianus, the name of the person who erected the altar, was 
a mensor or measurer. 

The neighbourhood has yielded seven or eight other inscribed or 
sculptured stones which belong to the station, and among them the 
following: the first three, found in 1864, were presented to the Durham 
cathedral library in 1896 by the kindness of the vicar of Gainford (the 
Rev. A. W. Headlam) and of the churchwardens. 

1. An altar cut into a semi-circular shape for use in the Early English 
pier of the chancel arch of the church of Gainford ; its diameter is 32 
inches. On the right side the only one preserved is an eagle. The 
inscription informs us that Julius Valentinus erected this altar to 
Jupiter Dolichenus by command of the deity. The last line is very 
obscure ; none of the suggestions hitherto made fits the traces of let- 
tering. 6 The woodcut on p. 126 represents it. 

9 See Lapid. Sept. No. 728. 


2. A fragment, 8| inches high 
13 inches long, inscribed to 
the sixth Legion named the 
Victorious. This legion, station- 
ed at York, was apparently 
employed in building or restoring 
the station at Piercebridge, and 
this stone is a relic of its 
presence. 7 

3. A fragment of (probably) a funeral relief, 12" by 17" and 8" thick, 
representing a man holding in his right hand a rabbit (?) by its hind 
legs. Over his right shoulder is something like a horse's head. The 
left side is broken. An illustration of this is given on p. 7 of the 
Catalogue of Sculptured and Inscribed Stones in the Cathedral Library, 

v See Lapid. Sept. No. 729. 


. Tofts 

Piercebridge ^a\V 



4. This inscription, 2' 6" long by 1' wide, is nowjm the Blackgate 
museum, Newcastle : 8 

Still another remarkable find was made at the end of December, 1903, 
by Mr. Pierson Cathrick of Piercebridge, who, while cutting a 
drain, came across a coffin evidently of great antiquity. The coffin 
was discovered about 100 yards due west of the west gate of the Roman 
station. It was formed of slabs of stone. On removing the cover the 
remains of a man were exposed, probably of one of the garrison 
at the Roman station of Piercebridge. The greater portion of the 
skeleton was exceedingly friable, but some parts, especially the 
skull and thigh bone, were in a good state of preservation owing 
to water containing iron having percolated through the cover of 
the coffin and acted as a preservative. The thigh bone measures 
18 inches in length, showing that the man must have been 
6 feet high. The skull was 21 inches in circumference and 7 inches 
long, and showed a low frontal development, indicating that the man 
was not of very high intelligence. The extreme breadth was 5 inches, 
vertical height 5| inches, minimum frontal width 3f inches, maximum 
frontal width 4|, and the maximum occipital width 4 inches. From 
the appearance of the thigh bone, too, it would seem that he was not an 
exceptionally muscular man. The coffin was composed of roughly- 
hewn slabs, some of which were of red sandstone, and appear to have 
been obtained at Croft. It may be of interest if I mention that at 
intervals several rough stone coffins have been seen projecting from the 
north bank of the river Tees, as the earth was washed away by the 
action of the water. 

In the year 1818 a massive thumb ring of pure gold was found which 
weighed 182 grains, and which, until comparatively recently, was in the 
possession of the late duke of Cleveland. At my request Lord Barnard, 
the duke's successor, has kindly made enquiries as to the present 
whereabouts of this ring, but unfortunately it cannot be traced. 
The hoop of this ring was wrought by the hammer and was joined by 
welding the extremities. To it was affixed an oval facet which was 
engraved in intaglio ; the device, though somewhat defaced, being of 
two human heads male and female -facing each other. This is not 
the only example of the kind found in England, for the same subject 
appears on a ring of the Roman period found on Stainmore common in 
1781, and mentioned in Gough's Camden, p. 120, and also on a red 
jasper intaglio from the camp at South Shields, now in the possession of 
Mr. Blair. 9 The same idea occurs in medieval seals, the heads being 

fi See Lapid. Sept, No. 726. 
9 See Arch. Ael X, 266. 


usually accompanied by the motto * Love me andyi thee.' And 
Galeotti, in his curious illustrations of the Gemmae Antiquae Litteratae, 
in the collection of Ficoroni gives an intaglio engraved with the 
words ' Amo te ama me.' 

It is extremely interesting to speculate why the Roman road ran in 
the direction it did, and why the stations at Catterick and Piercebridge 
were formed. I have no doubt in my mind that the road was originally 
made for the purpose of attacking the Brigantes in the huge British 
camp at Stanwick. This camp, which comprises within its enclosure 
750 acres, is well worthy of a visit by the members of the society. The 
ramparts are in places in a splendid state of preservation, being no less 
than 15 feet high in some parts. In speculating why the Brigantes 
entrenched themselves here, I have come to the conclusion that they did 
so on account of the proximity of the copper mines at Melsonby and the 
neighbourhood mines which were worked until a comparatively recent 
period copper being essential to the manufacture of their bronze tools 
and weapons. The tin necessary for the alloy would probably be 
brought from Cornwall. Many years ago Algernon, duke of Northum- 
berland presented to the British Museum a number of most interesting 
relics of Celtic date found within these entrenchments. They consisted 
of bronze ornaments, of horse furniture, bits, ornamented rings of 
various sizes, a long iron sword in a bronze sheath curiously ornamented, 
portions of iron chain mail, handles, and cross-guards of daggers, some 
fragments of gold, and objects both of light-coloured mixed metal and 
bronze hammered up, some of them representing horses heads. Some 
of these curious remains exhibit traces of enamelled work. At a spot 
adjacent to that where these articles were found, large iron hoops 
conjectured to have been the tires of chariot wheels, have been dis- 
covered. From the camp at Stanwick ran the ' Scots Dyke,' a stupen- 
dous work which it is believed was carried out in a vain attempt to repel 
the Roman invasion. This Ancient British rampart enters Northumber- 
land a little to the west of Peel Fell and runs the whole length of that 
county. It is supposed to have extended through Durham to the south 
of Yorkshire, but there are, beyond all doubt, traces of it now existing 
as far as the Swale, half a mile south of Richmond. Next to the 
Roman Wall I regard the locality of Stanwick as probably the most 
interesting to antiquaries in Britain on account of the unparalleled size 
and comparatively perfect condition of the camp at the present day. 

Reverting to the Roman road it is most interesting to trace another 
portion which branched off to the south of the Stanwick camp, and 
passing from ' Scotch Corner ' proceeded to Carlisle, another Roman 
station being formed at Gretabridge, near Barnardcastle. It would 
appear as though the Romans had attacked the Brigantes at two points, 
the east, and the south which caused this road to be made to Carlisle. 
The Brigantes were probably allowed to remain in this camp at Stan- 
wick because it is recorded that they rose in insurrection. The stations 
at Piercebridge, Catterick, and Gretabridge, were evidently formed 
to overawe and keep them in subjection. Dr. Hooppell had a theory 
that the Romans advanced northwards by Middleton St. George and 
Sadberge, but I do not think this can be correct, because the Romans 
would not be likely to press forward and leave such a large and formid- 
able entrenched camp as that of Stanwick in their rear. I think the 
fact that the camp was early British is placed beyond doubt by the 
numerous finds which have been made there (some of which I have 
previously described in these proceedings) such as bronze celts, and a 
quern, and the gifts of the duke of Northumberland to the British 


Museum. In Cliffe park, near Piercebridge, are two barrows which 
undoubtedly belong to the bronze age, and I think it is more than 
probable that some of the Britons from the Stanwick camp were 
interred there. At the beginning of this year Mr. Murrough Wilson, the 
lord of the manor of Manfield, partially opened one of these barrows, and 
the fact that a quantity of charcoal was found near the base of the 
tumulus and running into an evidently artificial deposit of sand in a hole 
in the earth below the natural level of the surrounding land would 
indicate that the chieftain's remains had been cremated. At the time of 
writing this paper (February 12th) the investigations had not been 

To return to the Roman Station at Piercebridge I think it highly 
probable that there was a temple at the south-east corner of the station, 
and that on its site in later times was erected a chantry chapel. 
However that may be, I find that John Baliol. father of John Baliol, 
king of Scotland, and a descendant of the daughter of David, earl of 
Huntingdon, a brother of William the Lion, was a most powerful baron 
in the north of England in the thirteenth century. His family founded 
the chantry chapel adjoining the bridge at Piercebridge. He charged 
the lands at Piercebridge with corn rents, which are still collected by 
my firm. The priests were in the habit of praying for travellers and 
receiving gifts. At the dissolution of monasteries the chantry rent was 
purchased by Morris & Phillips of London, and sold by them to Viscount 
Campden, who presented the rents to the living of Whitwell, in Rutland. 
This chantry chapel is mentioned in 1315 on an inquisition of the 
property of Guy earl of Warwick. In an inquisition taken on the for- 
feiture of Thomas, earl of Warwick, in 1397, mention is also made of the 
advowson of the church at Piercebridge ; and in another inquisition it is 
described as the free chapel of Piercebridge. A survey was made in the 
second year of the reign of Edward VI. which described the chantry as 
having been granted for the tenure of the life of the incumbent Peter 
Carter of the age of 50 years. The yearly value was then 104s. 4d There 
was no plate, but there was one chalice of silver weighing 5 ounces. 
Neither was there any lead, but there was one bell weighing by esti- 
mation 161bs. The commissioners on that occasion were Sir Thomas 
Hylton and Sir Robert Brandling, knights, and Robert Morrell and 
Henry White. All that is left of this chantry chapel is the south door- 
way, shewn in the first illustration on the plate facing this page. 

This paper would not, I think, be complete, without mentioning that 
on the 1st December, 1642, the earl of Newcastle, being upon his march 
from Newcastle to York, with a considerable royalist army, met, when 
he had advanced as far as Piercebridge, a party of lord Fairfax's horse, 
commanded by captain Hotham. The latter disputed the passage of 
the Tees with the earl for several hours, having but two small pieces of 
ordnance with them. The earl of Newcastle finally overpowered lord 
Fairfax's forces with great carnage, whereupon captain Hotham and the 
force with him retreated towards lord Fairfax's head- quarters at Tad- 
caster. In this engagement colonel Sir Thomas Howard (youngest son 
of lord William Howard), and several other gentlemen under the 
command of the earl of Newcastle, were slain. There is a monument to 
Sir Thomas Howard of Tursdale, county palatine, knight, the seventh 
son of ' Belted Will,' in Wetheral churchyard, Cumberland. On it is 
the inscription ' Sacred to the memory of Colonel Thomas Howard, son 
of Lord William Howard, who died valiantly fighting in the cause of his 
king and country at Piercebridge, December 2nd, 1642.' Colonel 
Thomas Howard was buried at High Coniscliffe, in which parish the 
family had extensive estates until quite recently. In the register of 

Proc. Sac. Antiq. Newc. 
3 Ser. I. 

To face pajje 130. 

CROSS AT Cl.IHFE HALL. See page 131 



burials at High Coniscliffe I find the foilowing entry, 'Sir Thomas 
Howard collenoll buried aet 36 the 2nd of Dscember 1642.' The earl of 
Newcastle marched towards York, and had his commission enlarged, 
in consequence of this achievement, to commander-in-chief in Yorkshire 
and other southern counties, as well as in the rest of the northern 
counties. In this engagement the royalists erected a battery on 
Carlbury hill, and the parliamentarians placed theirs on the opposite 
bank of the river. Cannon balls, human bones, and even entire skeletons, 
have occasionally been found on the banks of the river overhanging the 
road near the scene of the action. In Cliffe woods close to the bridge 
there is an earthwork which appears to have been erected to defend the 
passage of the bridge. There is also an old and curious cross on the 
west of the carriage drive leading to Cliffe hall, but I have not been able 
to make out what it is. 10 It may mark the burial place of some of the 
cavaliers or roundheads engaged in the action. Piercebridge is in the 
parish of Gainford, and on the road to Gainford there used to be a 
cross which gave the name to a farm called ' White Cross.' Upon this 
cross it was the custom to rest the coffin of any deceased person when 
being taken to Gainford for interment. The cross, however has long 
since disappeared, and though I have made most diligent search for it 
I have met with no success. 

In conclusion may I say that I have been extremely anxious to 
collect all the information available relating to Piercebridge, and if any 
of tho members of the society can assist me to increase my knowledge 
of this most interesting locality I shall indeed be very grateful." 

Thanks were voted to Mr. Wooler. 


Mr. Hugh W. Young, F.S.A. Scot., writes thus: 

" I would like to call the attention of your Society at Newcastle to a 
road between Eyemouth and Coldingham, a good section being on the 
farm of Halydown. I believe it runs pretty close to the sea on the top of 
the cliffs, and is still used to the extent of being a right of way. The 
present owner of the farm writes me as follows : ' The former proprietor 
of Halydown, an Edinburgh advocate with antiquarian tastes, always 
regarded the road in question as being of Roman construction, but the 
only way to settle the matter is to dig.' I might here offer the opinion 
that this is a continuation north of Berwick-on-Tweed, of the east branch 
of the Watling Street, which we know ran to Berwick ; and this may be 
the continuation of the same to its terminus at Inveresk where the 
well-known ' Fishwives Causey ' carried it farther along on the way 
to Cramond." 


Mr. Blair read the following note by Mr. Algernon Gissing of Keswick, 
Cumberland : 

" The plan on the other side has been made by Mr. J. S. Anderson, 
schoolmaster at Branton, who professes no antiquarian or ecclesio- 
logical knowledge, but who has most kindly taken a good deal of 
trouble in watching the excavations. He writes ' I herewith send you 
the plan of the chapel, so far as the foundations now laid bare assist me. 
There are some things in the east end not easy for me to understand. I 
mentioned in my former letter that the thickness of the walls slightly 
varied from 27in. to 30in. It is almost impossible for me to be exact in 
that respect in plan, so I have made them uniformly 27in., except the 

10 See second illustration on plate facing p. 130. 


buttress and some walls in the east end. There is only one stone up to 
the present which has any pretensions to carving which I am sketching. 
No flooring has yet appeared, but they have as yet dug very little inside 
the walls. From the doorway there are three steps visible, leading 
down probably, I think, to vaults. I have seen similar ones in other old 
churches. The two places at the east end rather baffle me. There 
seems to be a wall right across the first, and a step in the centre. There 
seems to have been an arch just before this, or they may have been 
pillars. I should think there has been no wall between the east end 
places, as there are just some stones in the centre, favouring the idea of 
arches. The labourers have been again stopped more than a week, but 
I believe they are to contimie shortly. 



The following is the number of burials entered in Eglingham parish 
register as made at Brandon chapel : 





Thanks were voted for these notes. 



The small tankard exhibited at the January meeting (p. 108) by Mr. 
T. Taylor, F.S.A., was made by Eli Bilton, the well-known silversmith 
of Newcastle. It bears the year mark of that town for 1705. 



or THE 


VOL. I. (3 Ser.) 1904. No. 16. 

The ordinary monthly meeting of the society was held in the lecture 
room of the Literary and Philosophical Society of Newcastle, by the 
kind permission of that society, on Wednesday, the 30th day of March, 
1904, at seven o'clock in the evening, Mr. Rich. Welford, M.A., one 
of the vice-presidents, being in the chair. 

Mr. J. P. Gibson of Hexham, gave an address on the excavations 
in the Roman camp at 

HOUSESTEADS (Borcomcus). 

I He exhibited a fine series of eighty lime-light illustrations. Most of 
the lantern slides had been specially made for the lecture of which an 
abstract will be given later. 

Mr. Gibson was heartily thanked for his lecture. 


Included in the Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of London, 
2 ser. xix, ii, (Nov. 27, 1902, to June 18, 1903), 8vo., are notes by 
the Rev. J. T. Fowler of Durham, on the discovery of an ancient fire- 
place ' in the west wall of the south transept of Durham Cathedral, near 
the south-west corner,' of which plan, elevation and section are given. 
The assistant-secretary (Mr. St. John Hope) referred to a similar fireplace 
at the east end of the vestry at Hume priory (a description of this is given 
on p. 184). These fireplaces are supposed to have been for the purpose 
of baking wafer bread. At page 264 of the same publication there is a 
note, by Mr. John Bilson of Hull, of the discovery in the east end of 
St. Mary's abbey, York, during excavations there, of the inscribed slab 
of William Sever, at one time abbot, and afterwards bishop of Durham, 
who died 14 May, 1505. At the meeting of the society on 12 Feb., 
1903 (p. 224), the cheek-piece of a Roman helmet in embossed copper 
was exhibited. It was discovered near South Collington, Notts, and 
bears the figure of a woman standing by a horse. This may be com- 
pared with the device on another cheek-piece discovered in the Tyne, 
and noted in Arch. Ael. x, 263. In the latter case the design is punc- 
tured not embossed. 


The following local notes are from the Calendar of State Papers 
Ireland. Adventurers, 1642-1659 : 

1642. 15 April, 19 July. Two receipts by the Treasurers under the 
arrangement between the King and Parliament, in all for 300, from 
John Blakestone, of Newcastle upon Tyne, M.P. P. * each. Endd. 
Ibid. IQand 17. 

1647. 20 Dec. Receipt by the Treasurers of Nov. 1647, for 300 
from same. P. |. Endd. Ibid. 18. 

164g. 15 Jan. Receipt by the same for 150, from Alderman Thos. 
Andrewes, being one-fourth of the sum formerly adventured by Blake- 
stone, as above. P. f . Endd. Ibid. 19. 

1652. 23 April. Indenture made between Susanna Blackiston, 
widow and executrix of the late John Blackiston of Newton, Durham, 
and John, son and heir of the said Blackiston, of the one part, and Thos. 
Andrewes and Stephen Estwick, Aldermen of London, creditors of the 
said late John and trustees for his other creditors who are named in the 
Schedule hereto. 

Susanna Blackiston and John Blackiston, junr. assign the share of 
750 of their late father and husband to Andrewes and Estwick, in part 
payment of the debt owed by the late John to Estwick, Andrewes and 
those for whom they are trusted. P. f (large parchment. ) Signed by the 
assignors before witnesses. Endd. Ibid. 21. 

1652. Schedule to foregoing. Showing the amounts owed by the 
late John Blackiston to Philip, Lord Wharton ; Thomas Atkins and 
John Dethicke, aldermen ; Thos. Andrewes, alderman, and Thos. 
Vincent ; Stephen Estwick, alderman, and Saml. Lee ; Col. Thos. 
Player, John Lamott, Esq., and partners, Abraham Chambers, Esq., 

executor of the will of Monox, widow, deceased ; Robert 

Sweet ; George Prowse and Arthur Wroth, executors of Martin Pindar, 
deceased ; Nathaniel Cock, Rowland Witherington. P. 1 (parchment). 
S.P. Ireland, 291, 20. [p. 76] 

165f. 19 Feb. Assigning 25, part of the share of 50 assigned to 
him by foregoing [John Gillingham of Winburne [Wimborne] in Dorset 
cordwainer] to Gilbert Marshall, of Houghall, in Durham. P. f. 
Signed, <kc., before witnesses. Endd. Ibid. 104. [p. 339-1 


Proc. Soc. Antiq. Xewc., 3;Ser. I. 

To face page 135. 


I. VIEWS IN OLD NEWCASTLE. See pages 136-138. 






VOL. I. (3 Ser.) 1904. No. 17. 

The ordinary monthly meeting of the society was held in the library 
of the Castle, Newcastle, on Wednesday, the 27th April, 1904, at seven 
o'clock in the evening, Mr. R. Coltman Clephan, F.S.A., one of the 
vice-presidents, being in the chair. 

Several accounts recommended by the Council for payment, were 
ordered to be paid. 

The following ORDINARY MEMBERS were proposed and declared duly 
elected : 

i. Frank Edward MacFadyen, 24 Grosvenor Place, Jesmond, 


ii. Mrs. Mitchell of Jesmond Towers, Newcastle, 
iii. George Davison Reid, 64 Lovaine Place, Newcastle, 
iv. G. Grey Turner, F.R.C.S., 31 Oxford Street, Newcastle. 

The following NEW BOOKS, &c., were placed on the table : 
Presents : 
The following were announced, and thanks voted to the donors : 

From the Cumberland & Westmorland Antiquarian & Archaeological 
Society : Transactions, xiv, ii, 8vo. 

From the Hon. Mr. Justice Bruce : Lectures on Old Newcastle, by the 

late Dr. Bruce, 8vo. cloth. 
Exchanges : 

From the Cumberland & Westmorland Antiquarian & Archaeological 
Society : Transactions, new ser. iv, 8vo. cl. 

From the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland : Proceedings, xxxvii 
(4 ser. i), 1902-3, sm. 4to, cl. 

From the Cardiff Naturalists Society : Proceedings, xxxv, 1903, 
(' The Roman Camp at Gellygaer '), 8vo. 

From the Shropshire Archaeological and Nat. Hist. Soc. : Trans- 
actions, 3 ser. iv, i, 8vo., 1904. 

From the Societe d'Archeologie de Bruxelles : Annales, xvm, i & ii. 

From the Society of Antiquaries of London: (i.) Archaeologia, 58, 
ii, 4to. ; and (ii.) Proceedings, xix, ii, 8vo. 

From the Suffolk Institute of Archaeology and Nat. Hist. : Pro- 
ceedings, xi, iii. 8vo. 

From the Cambridge Antiquarian Society : Proceedings, XLIV, 
(x, iv), from 14 Oct. 1902 to 18 May 1903; 8vo. 


Purchases : The Rev. E. A. Downam's original drawings of Ancient 
British earthworks (being plans of Han worth Castle, Middlesex ; 
Basildon Moat, Great Canfield, Clavering Castle, Chipping Ongar, 
Pheshey, Plumberow, Rayleigh, Ringhill, Stansted, Stebbing 
and Wallbury, Essex) ; Rites of Durham (107 Surt. Soc. publ.) ; 
the Mittheilungen of the Imp. German Archaeol. Institute, XVIIT, 
iii and iv, Rom, 1904 ; Guy Laking's The Armoury of Windsor 
Castle ; The Antiquary for March and April, 1904 ; Notes and 
Queries, 10 ser. Nos. 9 to 17 (Feb. 27 to April 23, 1904) ; Calendar 
of State Papers, Ireland, 1647-1660, Addenda 1625-1660 ; Calen- 
dar of StatJ Papers, Domestic, 1693 ; and Feudal Aids, 12S4-1431, 
vol. in, Kent to Norfolk; all large 8vo. cl. 


By R. Blair (one of the secretaries) : Two Roman denarii taken out 
of the bed of the river Tyne at Newcastle. One, in poor con- 
dition, is of the emperor Galba [A.D. 69], with his head on the 
obverse, and a seated figure on the reverse. The other is of the 
emperor Septimius Severus [A.D- 193-211] having on the obverse 
the emperor's head laureated, and the inscription SEVERVS rivs 
AVG ; and on the reverse, two captives seated at the foot of a 
trophy, and the inscription PART MAX PM TR p vim (A.D. 201). 

By Mr. W. A. Hoyle of the Croft, Ovingham : A small portfolio con- 
taining sketches of Old Newcastle and its precincts. They are 
seventeen in number, and are mostly, if not all, the work of Mr. 
George Bouchier Richardson who died in 1877. He was a son of 
the editor and compiler of the Local Historian's Table Book, and 
was a member of our Society when these sketches were made. 
Three valuable papers by him on local antiquities are printed in 
the quarto series of Archaeologia Aeliana. 

[ Mr. R. O. Heslop, F.S.A. (one of the secretaries,) has kindly supplied 
the following notes: 

*' The sketches represent : ' Staiths at St. Anthonys on the Tyiu-, 
1840,' ' Mabel's Mill, Ouseburn, 1820,' ' The Residence of Thomas Oliver, 
1842,' ' The Glass House Bridge, 1843,' ' Entrance to the [lane ?] be- 
tween Gallowgate and the Leazes, 1843,' 'The Moot Hall, north front, 
1809. Designed from oral and written testimony,' ' Interior of the 
Chapel, Castle of Newcastle,' ' The Great Doorway of the Keep,' ' Old 
Houses Westgate Street, adjoining, on the South, Westmorland Hall. 
Removed for the erection of the Lit. and Phil. Society's Library, 1820. 
[A wood cut of this is given in the Local Historian's Table Book, Hist. 
Div. vol. in, p. 253, apparently taken from this sketch] ; also the eight 
sketches as shewn by the reproductions in the appended plates. 

No. 1, lettered ' In the Close, from the How, just below White Friar 
Tower.' It represents one of the court-yards immediately behind the 
street line on the north side of the Close, and just within the town wall. 
The assemblage of gables and pantile roofs forms a group characteristic 
of the late seventeenth century domestic architecture in Newcastle which 
succeeded the timber frame construction of the early years of that 

No. 2, lettered ' The demolition of the Union Bank, west end of 
Mosley Street, with the exposure of the east end of the Church of St. 
Nicholas, Aug., 1843.' This sketch is engraved in the Local Historian's 
Table Book, Hist. Div. vol. v, p. 88. The site is now occupied by the 
offices of Messrs. Gibson above, in the basement, now the book-shop of 
Messrs. Franklin, was first established the bank of Messrs. Hodgkin, 
Barnett, Pease and Spence in 1859. 

Proc. Soc. Antiq. If ewe., 3 Ser. I. 

To face page 136. 


II. VIEWS IN OLD NEWCASTLE. See pages 136-138. 

Proc.'Soc. Antiq. Newc., 3 Ser. I. 

To face page 137. 

f I 



I i ti 

' I. 

^ i 


' p 

M A> 


1 ii I IIH 


5.-l'X)RTH HOUSE. 


No. 3, lettered ' Houses on the west side of Pilgrim Street, north of the 
south side of Blackett Street, removed in 182[7] for the formation of 
Blackett Street.' The name ' Northumberland Street ' is conspicuous 
on the angle of the corner house on the right ; ' Pilgrim Street ' on that 
to the left. After the formation of Blackett Street the basement of the 
latter house was converted into a shop, and was occupied by the father 
of the draughtsman of these pencil sketches, Moses Aaron Richardson, 
brother of T. M. Richardson, the artist and publisher of the numerous 
local imprints and reprints bearing his name. ' In this shop,' says 
Mr. Welford, ' he remained till the completion of Grey Street afforded 
him more convenient premises,' and here ' he was the local agent for the 
sale of lottery tickets, a dealer in rare prints and pictures, a collector 
of scarce works on the fine arts poetry and music ' (Men of Mark 'Twixt 
Tyne and Tweed, in. p. 295). On the site shown in the sketch stood 
the Pilgrim Street Gate until its removal in 1802. The line of the town 
wall corresponded with the frontage of the narrow street shown on the 
left, where the remains of a turret are visible beyond the house in course 
of demolition. 

No. 4, lettered ' Old houses near the head of Pilgrim Street, east side, 
1843,' and initialled ' G.B.R., 1843.' The shop on the left of the sketch 
is number 89 in the street, facing towards Hood Street. In a directory 
of 1838 it was occupied by William Dalziel, furniture broker, there 
described also as ' Victualler at the ' Ship,' Drury Lane.' The next 
shop to the right, No. 87, is that of Christopher Shephard, ' Agent for 
Morison's Universal Medicines,' and of Sarah Shephard, ' Straw hat 
manufacturer and dealer in straw plat.' The plain house adjoining was 
the White House Inn, rendered conspicuous by its white painted front, 
contrasting thus with its rival in black lower down the street, known as 
the Black House. The tall houses on the right face to Market Street, 
and in the first of these were the offices of Alexander George Gray, 
merchant ; later the proprietor of the Friars Goose Chemical Works. 

No. 5, lettered ' Forth House after the curtailment of the West Wall, 
April, 1843.' The building is on the site now occupied by the North- 
Eastern Railway Company's Audit Office in Forth Banks, and the left 
hand corner of the structure is exactly at the angle formed now by 
Forth Banks and Neville Street. The sketch represents one of the 
most noteworthy features of old Newcastle in its last phase. Bourne, 
describing the Forth says : ' It is at present a mighty pretty Place, 
exceeding by much any Common Place of Pleasure about the Town ; a 
Place at the proper Season of the Year much frequented by the Town's 
People, for its Pleasing Walk and rural Entertainment ' [Bourne, Hist, 
of Newcastle, 1736, p. 146]. The building in the sketch is the Forth 
Tavern, overlooking the bowling green. It was furnished with ' a 
balcony projecting from the front, and a parapet wall, from whence the 
spectators, calmly smoking their pipes and enjoying their glasses 
beheld the sportsmen' [Mackenzie, Hist, of Newcastle, 1827, p. 714]. 
It will be seen that the enclosure, approached by a flight of steps, is con- 
siderably above the street level. The elevated position and the views 
obtainable from the site added greatly to its charm as a place of recrea- 
tion. [There is a wood-cut from this in the Local Historian's Table Book, 
Hist. Div. v, p. 77]. 

No. 6, lettered ' Part of Bailey Gate, looking east, 1843.' This was 
one of the streets leading from Westgate Street to the precincts of the 
old castle. The tall building on the left hand of the street was at the 
corner of Queen Street. On the same side was the Royal Oak public 
house. The entire site is now occupied by the railway viaduct. 


No. 7, lettered ' TheTBlack Gate, west front, 1843.' The densely 
crowded tenements of the Castle Garth and its immediate neighbour- 
hood were almost entirely occupied by dealers in wearing apparel and 
by shoemakers. As the town's liberties did not include the Castle, the 
incorporated trades were without jurisdiction within its limits. This 
immunity had, from an early period attracted ' foreigners,' as the 
freemen called them, to practice their craft or callings. The shops here 
shown were typical of a great number of similar places crowded together 
in the Garth and on the Castle Stairs, where garments new and old were 
displayed, and where shoemakers worked in the open doorways. Those 
who converted old shoes were commonly known as ' translators.' 

No. 8, lettered ' The Fox and Lamb, Pilgrim Street, west side, looking 
W., Sep., 1843.' See the paper by W. H. Knowles, F.S.A., Archaeologia 
Aeliana, xvi, p. 373. 

The references given above to subjects engraved suggest the conjecture 
that the sketches were made by Mr. George Bouchier Richardson for the 
purpose of illustrating the Local Historian's Table Book. ' Many of the 
wood cuts which illustrate the Table Book, says Mr. Welford, ' were his 
productions' [Men of Mark, vol. in, p. 297]. These wood-cuts are all 
of them of the crudest character, suggesting the work of an amateur. 
But a comparison with the original sketches, now reproduced in fac- 
simile, will show how much injustice the roughly executed cuts do to Mr. 
G. B. Richardson's artistic qualities. As Mr. Welford's biographical 
notice shows, both Mr. M. A. Richardson, the father, and his son G. B., 
were compelled by circcumstances to emigrate to Australia at a time 
when, by pen and pencil, they were in the midst of their activities to 
illustrate our local history and topography. Mr. G. B. Richardson at 
the time of his death had supported himself during his last three years 
in the profession of a drawing master, and his qualifications are well 
indicated by the promise shown in these drawings, now for the first time re- 
produced from the original sketches by the kindness of Mr. W. A. Hoyle. ] 

By Mr. G. H. Hogg of North Shields (per Mr. S. S. Carr) : A 
cylinder of ebony Gin. long, yjin. in diameter, with silver- 
mounted ends, having on one end the royal arms and on the other 
a castle. The object was found in an old house in North Shields. 

Mr. C. H. Blair thought the royal arms were of the time of 
George II. or of the early years of George III. 

Mr. Heslop said that the ruler-like object was a sheriff officer's 
staff or badge of office formerly in use. 

By Mr. George D. Reid : The great carving knife and fork from the old 
Mansion House, Newcastle ; the buckhorn handles terminate in. 
heads of the sea-horse, supporters of the arms of the town. The 
length of the knife is 20Jins. and of the fork 14 ins. They are 
described in the catalogue of the Mansion House sale as silver- 
hafted carvers,' and they were sold on the fifth day of the sale 
(5 Jan. 1837). (See plate facing p. 144.) 


The recommendation of the Council to hold the following country 
meetings during this season was unanimously agreed to, viz. : day 
meetings at ( i) Housesteads Roman camp, in conjunction with the 
Durham Society; (ii.) Ford and Etal castles, and if possible Duddos 
tower ; (iii.) Bamburgh church and castle ; and (iv.) Bewcastle 
church and castle, driving from and to Brampton or Naworth ; and 
afternoon meetings (i.) a perambulation of the Walls and Towers of 
Newcastle under the guidance of Mr. Heslop ; and (ii.) Escombe Saxon 
church and St. Helen's Auckland church. 

Proc. Soc. Antiq. Newc., 3 Ser. I. 

To face page 138. 

6.-BAILEY GATE, LOOKING E. See page 137. 

Proc. Soe. Antiq. Newc., 3 Ser. I. 

To face page 138. 

8." THE FOX & LAMB." See page 138. 



Mr. Blair (one of the secretaries) read the following note by Mr. 
Edward Wooler of Darlington : 

" I have received a communication from Mr. William Rutter of 
Wolsingham, calling my attention to the discovery of a portion of what 
is known as ' Chapel Walls.' I went to Wolsingham on Saturday, the 
13th February, accompanied by Mr. Turnbull and Mr. Egglestone, and, 
although it was a very stormy day, we made a most careful examination 
of the site. I find that it has been a strongly entrenched ' Camp ' 
(using the words of the Ordnance Survey) enclosing 1-727 acres. At the 
east side, from the bottom of the ditch to the top of the rampart is 20 
feet. The two becks on the north and east have evidently been utilised 
to fill the moat with water. We found several specimens of pottery, 
some of which I sent you [Mr. Blair], and others Mr. Egglestone sub- 
mitted to the authorities of the British Museum, who pronounced it 
to be what you said it was, i.e. medieval pottery. There is no doubt 
that it has been the site of the bishop's manor house at Wolsingham 
because bishop Hatfield's survey, taken between 1345 and 1381 states 
that there was a manor house with a garden and orchard and three acres 
of meadow land appertaining also a park 8^ miles in circuit. There 
has been a chapel, and Mr. James Rutter, in levelling the rampart and 
filling up the ditch, came across two cross walls which are evidently the 
chapel walls, hence the name ' Chapel Walls.' Of these walls we made 
the most careful examination, and it would appear as though they had 
been destroyed by fire. It is on record that there were several incur- 
sions of the Scots, notably one in 1316 when ' the Scottish army entered 
into England by the Western March and entered into the bishopric of 
Durham by the heights of Weardale ; they took their way so near to 
Durham as to lay waste and plunder, sweeping away all kinds of pro- 
visions and destroyed the beautiful retreat of the monks at Beaurepaire 
(now called Bearpark) together with other places in the neighbourhood, 
etc.' Was this the occasion of the destruction of the manor house 
(note the dates of the survey and the incursion), and did future bishops, 
not being of a sportsmanlike character, neglect to rebuild it. I am 
taking steps to get Mr. G. Y. Wall, the manorial surveyor to the 
Ecclesiastical Commissioners, to examine the records at Durham to see 
if any old description gives any clue to its identity. I have, however, 
no doubt in my own mind that it was a manor house, but whether it 
was the site of an earlier camp it is difficult to say. Possibly it was." 

Thanks were voted to Mr. Wooler for his note. 


Mr. Blair (one of the secretaries) read the following ' Note on the 
discovery of an Ancient Burial at Tally-ho Gate, Brandon Hill, in the 
County of Durham,' by Mr. H. T. Peirson of Brancepeth : 

" This discovery was made on April 14th by a quarryman working 
the quarry at this place, which is on the highest point on Brandon Hill, 
about 4 miles west of Durham, and about 890 feet above sea level. 

A cist was found in the face of the quarry, the top of it being 4 feet 
below the surface, which at the place is quite level showing no traces of a 
barrow. The land here has been cultivated, but not for about 100 
years. The cist is formed of four slabs of stone set on edge, 1 with a 
covering stone, the internal dimensions being as follows, length 5 feet, 
width (west end) at top 1 foot 11^ inches., at bottom 2 feet 10 J inches, 

i Shewn on plate facing p. 140. 


at east end 1 foot 10 inches at top, 2 feet 4 inches at bottom ; depth 2 
feet 6 inches. The covering stone, roughly oval in shape, is about 6 feet 
6 inches long by 4 feet 6 inches wide. None of these stones appears to 
have been worked from this quarry, but are more like the stone in the 
quarry at Brandon village about a mile and a half to the east. Be- 
tween the covering stone and the top of the side and end stones were 
packed, for some reason or other, about two or three inches of small 
flat stones which fell into the cist when the cover was removed, 
doing some damage to the contents. The compass bearings of the 
cist were as nearly as possible E.S.E. and W.N.W. The contents of 
the cist were fragments of the skeleton of an adult male, lying on the 
left side with head to the east and the knees doubled up ; the length of 
the thigh bone being 1 foot 6^ inches. The skull, which was broken 
into pieces by falling stones was of a low type as it has a very receding 
forehead. Just above and between the eye sockets was a small round 
hole which had apparently been made before death, and may have 
been the cause of it There was also found placed behind the skull in 
the N.E. corner of the cist an earthenware vessel 8 8i inches high by 
6 inches in diameter at the widest part, made of sunburnt clay and or- 
namented with punctured lines and a kind of herring bone pattern 
alternately from top to bottom. It did not contain anything, and was 
unfortunately broken by falling stones. The soil from the bottom of 
the cist was carefully examined and contained nothing except small 
pieces of charcoal, pieces of bone and a few of the teeth of the man. 
The bottom of the cist was not on the bed rock but roughly paved with 
small flat stones upon a layer of sandy soil beneath which was the rock. 
Traces of fire are visible in the interior of the cist, and also upon the top 
of the covering stone. The cist still remains in position as found, but 
will shortly be removed. The earthenware vessel is in my possession 
awaiting Lord Boyne's instructions as to disposal. I herewith send 
photographs of the cist and earthenwara vessel, also a tracing from the 
25 inch ordnance 3 with exact position of burial marked with a cross." 

The photographs are reproduced on the opposite plate, and the plan 
on page 141. 

Thanks were voted to Mr. Peirson for his interesting note, and also 
for the care taken by him In carefully opening and preserving the grave 
and its contents. The urn and the bones have been presented to 
Durham university by Viscount Boyne, the owner of the land on which 
the discovery was made. 

Dr. Beddoe, F.R.S., of Bradford-on-Avon, a great authority on the 
subject, states that according to his rule of measurement the man 
would be 5 ft. 8|in. high. 


Mr. Blair read the following letter addressed to him on the 29th 
March, 1904, by Mr. J. R. Carr-Ellison, referring to Mr. Gissing's note 
in these Proceedings, p- 131. 

" If you don't know the old disused burial ground at Brandon, in which 
Mr. Gissing takes so much interest, I can tell you that last autumn the 
Eglingham churchwardens got back possession of the whole enclosure 
inside the walls as church property. 

Ever since I was a boy the small portion on the south-east quarter, 
which had tombstones in it, and the 2ft. high remains of the wall of a 

Shewn on the plate facing this page. 
3 See reduction of this on page 141, 



! a v < 

f \ di o 

v \ />. <? 


very small chapel was covered with a dense growth of nettles and 
dockins in summer, and had become raised 3 or 4 feet higher than the 
remaining 3 quarters, one of which was the potato garden of the farm- 
house, and the other 2 parts, hinds' gardens, and the ordnance maps 
made matters worse by showing it as it was then, viz. : In one quarter 
old chapel and graveyard, and the other three- quarters gardens. 

Last autumn I wrote to the Rev. James Allgood, the owner of the 
surrounding property and the farm, asking him to look for old estate 
maps, as I thought the gardens to be an encroachment, and that the 
whole was really churchyard. 

He kindly sent me a tracing of an estate map of 1832, (much older 
than the ordnance map) which showed that the whole enclosure was 
churchyard. We then agreed to abide by the decision of a land agent 
as to whether Mr. Allgood's map of 1832, the tithe map of Brandon in 
Eglingham vestry (which also shewed the whole enclosure as church- 
yard) and the later ordnance maps, which were on three different scales, 
all represented the same piece of ground. The decision was that all the 
maps did represent the same piece of ground, and that the whole was 
churchyard. Mr. Allgood at once said the land belongs to the church- 
wardens, who have now taken charge of the whole and have built a wall 
on one of the four sides to match the existing wall, in place of an old 
hedge which was the only fence there. They have also walled up a gate- 
way on the south side of the churchyard leading into an arable field and 
have made a new gateway on the north side leading on to the public 
road, for the convenience of any future funerals that may take plaee. 
The higher level of the portion where the tomb-stones were had evidently 
been caused by using it as a deposit for the garden and field rubbish, and 
a rude wall to contain it had been built up with stones found in the 
gardens. The portion which had been used as gardens (the north por- 
tion) appears not to have been used for burials as a deep trench was dug 
across it, but no traces of burials found. The part which had been used 
has been levelled down to the original level without coming upon any 
remains of bones among the tombstones, shewing that the higher eleva- 
tion was of recent date. It is intended by the churchwardens to mark 
out with cement on the level of the ground, as has been done by the 
duke of Northumberland at Alnwick abbey, the foundations of the 
walls of the old chapel. There does not appear to have been any floor 
to the chapel, but the bowl of a font was found and has been removed to 
Eglingham church for preservation. Canon Tristram remembers, when a 
boy, accompanying his father (the then vicar of Eglingham) when he offi- 
ciated at a funeral there. The churchwardens hope that the Brandon 
churchyard may again be used for burials for that part of the parish." 

Thanks were voted to Mr. Carr-Ellison for his communication. 


Mr. Blair read the following note on this discovery : 
*' While an old building at Benwell was being pulled down the work- 
men discovered, embedded in the wall, the fragments of an inscribed 
altar to the god Antenociticus, set up by the 1st cohort of Varduli or 
Vangiones (as the letters VA only remain it is doubtful which it is). 
The Roman station at Benwell (Condercum), from which doubtless the 
altar had in a former year been brought and made use of in the 
building, was occupied by the 1st Ala of Asturians, while the station at 
Risingham (Hdbitancum) was occupied by the 1st cohort of Vangiones 
and that of High Rochester (Bremenium] by the 1st cohort of Varduli. 
In the valuable collection of Roman inscriptions preserved in the 


museum of the Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle, are two fine altars to 
the same god, one, naming him, as in the newly found inscription, 
' Antenociticus,' set up by Aelius Vibius a centurio of the 20th legion, 
the other ' Anociticus,' set up under Ulpius Marcellus by Tineius 
Longus. 1 Both were found at Benwell in a little sacellum in the 
grounds of the late Mr. Rendel who presented them to the Society. 
Antenocitus appears to have been a Ic cal god, as no trace of him has been 
found elsewhere. The inscription, or rather what is left of it, reads : 

DEO ANTENOCIT[I]CO | SACRV //// | COH i VA . . . | OVB (?) The 

letters A & V in the third line are tied. 

The fragments, together are 19 ins. across ; the height of the larger 
is 2 ft. 3 ins. Mr. H. P. Thirl well, on whose premises the two stones 
were found, has kindly presented them to the Blackgate museum. 
The special thanks of members are due to him, and also to the Rev. 
R. R. Mangin, vicar of Benwell, who first drew attention to the find." 

Thanks were voted to Mr Thirl well for his donation, and also to the 
Rev. R. R. Mangin. The reproduction (from a photograph by Mr. 
Parker Brewis) on the plate facing p. 142, shows the inscription - full 


Mr. Blair next read the following list (contributed by Mr. C. Hutchin- 
son, F.R.A.S., of Rock Lodge, Roker) of the rectors of Whitburn since 
the beginning of the thirteenth century, shewing the dates when they 
held office, and giving other interesting particulars concerning them. 
As this list may be of interest to antiquaries, as well as to persons 
belonging to the district, it is given below : 

William dj Burgo. 

1245. John de Rygate. 

1313-1316. William de Ay remynne. 2 

1316. Nicholas de Welburn. 3 
Thomas Kirkeby. 
John Pulhose, constable of 
the castle, and receiver- 
general to bishop Hatfield. 

1352. John de Appleby. 

1362. Richard de Wynchcomb. 

1368. William de Orchard. 

1375. Peter de Stapylton. 
William Marnhull. 

1402. Thomas de Popylton. 

1407. Thomas Kirkeby. 

1409. Thomas Leys, vicar-general 
to bishop Langley. 

1454. John Lownde, LL.B., tem- 
poral chancellor to bishop 

1501. Thomas Poppley, A.M. 

1507. Edmund Jackson, LL.D. 

1525. Cuthbert Marshall, S.T.P., 
archdeacon of Nottingham, 
prebendary of Unsthwayte, 
and canon residentiary of 

1550. Richard Clyff. 

1563. Leonard Pilkington, S.T.P., 4 
master of St. John's Col- 
lege, Cambridge ; prebend- 
ary of the seventh stall. 
John Hicks. 

1031. Thomas Triplet, D.D., eject- 
ed during the Usurpation ; 
after the Restoration, pre- 
bendary of Westminster. 

1662. Richard Hickes, A.M., an 
Intruder, but conformed. 

1 See Lapid. Sept. nos. 20 & 21 ; and C. /. L. vii, nos. 503 & 504, 

2 On 27 Dec. 1313, William de Ayremynne, rector of Whitburn, a sub-deacon, was 
granted letters dimissory to the orders of deacon and priest. Kellawe's Reg. I, 491. In 
June 1316, the fruits and profits of Whitburn were granted to John de Snaynton the 
younger, 'per resignationem domini Willelrai de Ayremynne.nuperrectorisejusdero.' 
Ibid. II, 811. 

s On 23 Oct. 1316, Nicholas de Welleburn was presented by the king, the see of 
Durham being vacant. - Ibid, iv, 145. 

* His will is given in Eecl. Proe. of Bishop Barnes (21 Surfc. Soc. publ.) cxxxiv, Sir 
Anthony occurs as his curate ; and in 1578 Wm. Bramhall. Ibid. 309 and 73. 


1667. Thomas Dockwray, S.T.P., 
perished in action with the 

1672. Samuel Speed, A.M., pre- 
bendary of Lincoln, canon 
of Christ Church. 

1675. Thomas Musgrove, A.M., dean 
of Carlisle, and prebendary 
of Durham. 

1686, Samuel Eyre. 

1694. Francis Blakeston, A.M. 

1704. Nathaniel Ellison, S.T.P., 
prebendary of the fifth 

to the duke of Kent and to 
the bishop of Durham. 

1728. Edward Hinton, A.M. 

1769. Benjamin Pye, LL.D., arch- 
deacon of Durham. 

1776. Zelinger Symons, B.D. 

1810. Thomas Baker, A.M. 

1866. William Maunder Hitchcock, 
A.M., hon. canon of Dur- 

1881. George Frederick Price, D. D. , 
chaplain to the duke of 

1901. W. Moore Ede M.A., hon. 
canon of Durham. 

1721. John Wallis, A.M., chaplain 

Thanks were voted to Mr. Hutchinson. 


Mr. Blair reported that as directed by the council he had examined 
several bundles of old local deeds, from the collection of Sir Thomas 
Phillipps, on sale by Mr. Thorne, and had purchased one bundle for the 
society, which Mr. O. J. Charlton had kindly undertaken to calendar. 

Mr. Charlton then read his notes, which are not yet ready for publi- 
cation, but they will be printed in the next issue of these Proceedings. 
He stated that in one of the deeds, a quayside chare had no less than 
seven different names. 

Thanks were voted to Mr. Charlton bv acclamation. 


A note in the Antiquary for Dec. 1903, refers to the insecure condi- 
tion of Berwick bridge. The common error that the bridge connects 
England and Scotland is repeated by the writer. The Tweed at Berwick 
does not divide the two portions of the kingdom, so how this bridge, 
any more than that across the Tyne at Newcastle, can connect them is 
rather a puzzle. The town of Berwick and its bounds (which extend 
northwards about three miles and up the Tweed about the same dis- 
tance) have been connected with England, both ecclesiastically and 
civilly, for many centuries, and it is now, for administrative purposes, 
a part of the county of Northumberland. 

Prof. Brandl's Archiv fur das Studium der neueren Sprachen und 
Literaturen, contains a fac-simile of bishop Ranulf's grant to his bishopric 
of Durham of the lands of ' Elresdene and Haliwarstelle.' Scottish 
Historical Review, no. m, p. 345. 

Tfie Genealogical Magazine for April 1904 contains a pedigree of 'Jackson of West 
Rainton Hall, co. Durham'. 

Proc. .S'oe. Antiq. Newc. 3 Ser. I. 

To face page 144. 


From a photograph by Mr. George D. Reid. 

See page 138. 






VOL. I. (3 Ser.) 1904. No. 18. 

The ordinary monthly meeting of the society was held in the library 
of the Castle, Newcastle, on Wednesday, the first day of June, 1904, at 
seven o'clock in the evening, Mr. C. J. Spence, one of the vice-presidents, 
being in the chair. 

Several accounts recommended by the council for payment, were 
ordered to be paid. 

The following ORDINARY MEMBERS were proposed and declared duly 
elected : 

i. Wemyss H. Atkinson, 1 Windsor Place, Newcastle, 
ii. Major G. Towlerton Leather, Middleton Hall, Belford. 
iii. F. Sainty, Albourn Terrace, West Hartlepool. 
iv. P. Truttman, 36 Malvern Street, Newcastle. 

The following NEW BOOKS, &c., were placed on the table : 
Presents, for which thanks were voted : 

From Mr. L. W. Adamson, LL.D. : A foolscap folio case containing 
plans and sections of the old Tyne bridge, also newspaper cuttings 
relating thereto, lease of one of the shops on it, &c., &c., chiefly 
collected by Mr. John Bell. The collection was found amongst 
the papers of the late Mr. John George Abbott, Dr. Adamson's 

From the Cambridge Antiquarian Society : Proceedings and Com- 
munications, xvi, xxi, and XLIII. 8vo. 

From the Yorkshire Archaeological Society : The Yorkshire Archaeo- 
logical Journal, pt. 65, vol. xvn. 8vo. 

From the Suffolk Antiquarian Society : Proceedings, x, i. 8vo. 
Exchanges : 

From the Derbyshire Archaeological and Nat. Hist. Society : 

Journal, xxvi, 1904, 8vo. [contains Mr. John Garstang's report 
on the excavations in the Roman camp at Brough, near Derby, 
with several illustrations ; also Mr. Haverfield's paper on the 
Roman inscription discovered in the same camp mentioning Julius 
V . . . . , a Roman legate, thought to be the Julius Verus of the Tyne 
inscription (see p. 92)]. Amongst the discoveries at Brough is 
an underground chamber in the praetorium, 8 feet long by 7 feet 
at the wider end and 5 feet at the narrower, reached by a flight 
of eight stone steps ; it is similar to the chamber near the 
praetorium in the South Shields camp (Arch. Ael. x, 233). 


From the Kent Archaeological Society (i.) ArcJiaeologia Cantiana, 
xxvi, 8vo. cl. ; and (ii.) Archaeological Papers published in 1902, 
compiled by G. L. Go name, F.S.A. 

From La Societe Archeologique de Namur : Annales, xxiv, iv, 
large 8vo. Namur, 1904. 

From the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, U.S.A. : Twentieth 
Annual Report (1898-9), large 8vo., cl. 

From the Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society : 
Transactions, xxvi, i. ; 8vo. [included in it (p. 208) is an obituary 
notice of Mr. John Latimer, a native of Newcastle (born in 1824 
and died in Bristol on 4th January, 1904), who was formerly 
on the staff of the Newcastle Chronicle and well known as the 
compiler of Latimer's Local Records, a continuation of Sykes's 
publication of that name. He became a member of our society 
on 2nd January, 1856, but resigned on his leaving the town in 
1858, when he became editor of the Bristol Mercury. On the 
formation of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological 
Society Mr. Latimer joined it and became its honorary secretary 
for Bristol. He contributes a paper ' The maire of Bristowe is 
Kalendar ' to this part (p. 108), and has contributed many papers. 
dealing chiefly with medieval Bristol, to the same journal, and 
also to the Proceedings of the Clifton Antiquarian Club. A 
photographic reproduction of Mr. Latimer's portrait illustrates 
the memoir, which thus concludes : ' Mr. Latimer has set a 
standard of industry and accuracy for the Bristol historian who 
may come after him ; and those who knew the gentle, kindly old 
man will be grateful to the Council for providing the portrait of 
him which accompanies this notice.'] 

From the Numismatic Society of London : The Numismatic 
Chronicle, 4 ser., pt. i, 8vo. 

From the British Archaeological Association : The Journal, x, i., 

From the Royal Archaeological Institute : The Archaeological 
Journal, LX, 2 ser. x, 4, 8vo. 

From the Clifton Antiquarian Club : Proceedings, v, iii, large 8vo. 

From the Thuringian Historical Society : Zeitschrift, N.S., xiv, i. 

From the Royal Society of Christiania : Skrifter for 1903, large 8vo. 

Purchases : Galletly and Dunlop's Ancient Towers and Doorways ; 
Jahrbuch of the Imp. German Archaeological Institute, 'Gordion- 
ergebnisse der Ausgrabung im Jah'-e, 1900,' von Gustav Korbe 
& Alfred Korbe, large 8vo., |bd. ; The Reliquary, x, 2 ; The 
Antiquary for May, 1904 ; Notes and Queries, 10 ser., 18-22 ; 
The Ancestor for October, 1903 (vii) [see ' English Counts of 
the Empire,' by J. H. Round, in which the Saint Pauls of Ewart 
are referred to], and for April, 1904 (ix) [see p. 137, of latter for 
' The Attwoods and their bard,' being a review of ' The Attwood 
Family ' by Mr. John Robinson ; and p. 18 ' The Ogles, 1 a review 
of Sir Henry A. Ogle's book on that family] ; and Der Oberger- 
manisch-Raetische Limes des Roemerreiches , xxi, Kastell Waldilm 
& Kastell Welzheim. 


The following were announced, and special thanks voted to the 

From Mr. J. D. Walker : A stone axe-hammer head 4" long by 


Proe. Soc. Antiq. If ewe., 3 Ser. I. 

To face page 146. 


See opposite page. 

From a photograph by Mr. Parker Brewis. 


See opposite page. 

From a photograph by Mr. J. Walton. 


wide at the cutting end, 1|" at the narrower end, and 2]" in the 
middle, found in July or August, 1893, some few feet below the 
surface in the timber yard of Messrs. Bumup at Barras Bridge, 
Newcastle, when some workmen were putting in a new drain. (See 
top illustration facing p. 146.) 

[The Rev.W. Greenwell, D.C.L., &c., in a letter to Mr. Heslop, thus 
writes: The axe has apparently had two cutting edges, though 
it may be doubtful if the narrower end has ever been a cutting 
edge, the appearance suggesting that it has originally been squared 
and not blunted, as the other one is, by use. It is of a very un- 
common form ; indeed, I have never seen one. or an engraving of 
one, like it. The hole has been made from each side by a pointed 
instrument, probably of wood, and sand, and in that it differs 
from those which unquestionably belong to the Bronze Period, 
where the hole has been made by a metal tube, and goes straight 
through. I should on the whole incline to regard it as belonging 
to the Bronze Period, though the nature of the perforation is more 
in favour of its having been made before the time of metal. It 
looks more like an implement for ordinary vise than a war axe, of 
which there are numerous examples and of a distinct character.'] 

From Messrs. Watson, Burton, and Corder : 

(i.) Two sculptured panels from Gilpin's yard, Pilgrim Street, 

Newcastle. They were originally taken from the old ruined 

Tyne bridge, and built first into alderman Hornby's garden wall. 

They respectively represent the arms of bishop Crewe of Durham 

and of Newcastle, and are of 17 cent. date, 
(ii.) Gilpin's sign as ' Chymist,' a gilded wooden mortar and pestle. 

[ Mr. Percy Corder read the following note on the arms : ' The old 
Tyne bridge, part of which was destroyed in the great flood on the 
night of Saturday, November the 16th, 1771, which carried away 
three towers with other erections. Mackenzie, in his History of New- 
casile-ti'pon-Tyne, states that at the south end of the bridge was the 
third tower having ' a strong wardyd gate,' near to which was a 
drawbridge. On the south point of this tower were the arms of 
Anthony Crewe. bishop of Durham. This stone was preserved by the 
late alderman Hugh Hornby of Newcastle, and placed in his garden 
wall in Pilgrim Street. He also preserved a stone with the town 
arms upon it, which was originally on the south side of the tower 
on the bridge with the motto ' Fortiter defendit triumphans 1646.' 
Alderman Hornby's house and garden afterwards became the 
property of Mr. Anthony Clapham, who carefully removed these 
curious stones and placed the bishop's arms over his soap-office 
door, and the town arms over the porter office of Brumell & 
Gilpin. According to Grey's MSS., as recorded in Richardson's 
reprints, ' The tower on the Bridg was builded by G Bird mayor 
of this town ; the Bird coots of Armes upon it.' George Bird was 
mayor of Newcastle from various times from 1493 to 1511. in which 
year he died, so that the structure must have been erected about the 
close of the loth or the beginning of the 16th century. This stone 
bearing the town arms is shewn in the engraving of the tower of the 
bridge printed hi Sykes's Local Records, and reprinted by per- 
mission of the owner, Mr. Richard Welford, in the Monthly Chronicle 
for June, 1887. I find in Boyle's Vestiges of Old Newcastle that 
alderman Hugh Hornby was a linen draper and antiquary, and 
carried on his business in the premises 135 and 137 Pilgrim Street, 
the tenancy of which has lately been vacated by Messrs. Mawson, 


Swan, and Weddell, who succeeded to the business so long carried 
on in the same place by Messrs. Gilpin & Co. Messrs. Rowell & Co., 
Ltd., who were Messrs. Gilpin & Co.'s successors in the ale and 
porter business have recently given up their occupation of the 
premises behind 135 and 137 Pilgrim Street, thus terminating 
the connexion between the business and the premises which had 
existed for the long period of 114 years.'] 


By Mr. Edward Wooler of Darlington : A photograph shewing three 
objects, a ring, a cross, and a bead, found at Standard hill, North- 
allerton, where the battle of the Standard was fought. 
[The cross is said to be very ancient looking and made of bronze. The 
bead may be old, but the brooch is doubtful. Without, however, 
a sight of the objects themselves it is not possible to give an opinion 
as to their age.] 

By Mr. John Sanders of Cold Kirby near Thirsk : A large collection 
of flint and stone weapons, found from time to time in tho 
parishes of Cold Kirby, Scawton and Old Byland, on the Hamble- 
ton hills. 

[Mr. Blair (one of the secretaries) read the following notes by Mr. 
Sanders on the objects : 

"By systematically searching the ground in the parishes of Cold Kirby, 
Scawton, and Old Byland, all situate on the Hambleton moors in the 
North Riding, large numbers of flint and other stone implements and 
weapons have been picked up. The various kinds of stone including 
flint, jasper, quartz, greenstone, &c. of which these specimens sub- 
mitted are made, do not occur in the local rocks, and must have been 
brought from a very considerable distance. Hambleton is, roughly 
speaking, a plain 700 feet above sea level, and is intersected by ravines 
of glacial origin. There is only a thin moorland soil covering the oolite, 
and the plough easily brings any relics of the past, which may lie below, 
to the top. The extensive dykes or trenches, and the numerous round 
barrows which exist in the neighbourhood seem to show that the ancients 
lived on these uplands for safety. The ornament on a cinerary urn 
found in a round barrow at Cold Kirby by the Rev. W. Greenwell shows 
that the ancient dwellers here were sun worshippers, and that they 
tilled the soil. It is, therefore, not unlikely that some of the suspicious- 
looking stones of oolite which are found lying about may have been 
trimmed for use as clod-hammers by these people simply because flint 
was hard to get hold of. In flint-hunting here it often happens that we 
find a large number close together, which would seem to be accountable 
for in one of the folio whig ways : 1. The termination of a hunt ; 2. A 
fight ; or 3. The place where someone had been trimming flints. 

It will be noticed that while a great many of the specimens are most 
beautifully worked, by far the larger number are of the very rudest 
description. I have formed the opinion that each individual made his 
own weapons, and the difference in degree of finish shows that some men 
bestowed much care over the forming of their weapons, while others were 
too lazy to do any more than they could help. There is another point 
which I feel very certain about, and that is, that these old craftsmen 
never made up their minds as to what kind or pattern of weapon they 
would make until they had first detached a flake or chip from the parent 
block of stone, and that it was the particular form of this initial chip 
which decided the form or pattern which the finished implement took. 
The opinions expressed here, and in the notes sent with the various 

Proc. Soc. Antiq. Newc. 3 Ser. I. 

To face page 148. 


See opposite page. 


objects being my own, they must be taken only for what they are 
worth. A couple of modern gun flints exhibited, should be well ex- 
amined by every would-be collector, or similar things might easily find 
an honourable place in his collection, for these are not infrequently met 
with in the field." 

Thanks were voted to Mr. Sanders. 


Mr. Blair next read the following notes by Mr. H. H. E. Craster of All 
Souls College, Oxford : 

'Among the Rawlinson MSS. in the Bodleian Library at Oxford is a 
square quarto volume containing 332 pages of manuscript, nearly half of 
the book being left blank. It contains meditations, prayers, collects, 
and a number of autobiographical passages, the whole being composed 
by Mrs. Robert Delaval of Seaton Delaval in Northumberland. The 
writer states that she began from the time of entering into her four- 
teenth year to keep, in scattered papers, most of those resolutions she 
had made against the evils of her life, and that when she was four 
months past twenty she resolved to collect them all together. These 
papers form the first half of the manuscript, and they are followed by 
similar meditations written during the twenty-first and twenty-second 
years of her life, the latest being written at Seaton Delaval on the 25th 
of July, 1671. At a later period of her life, apparently between 1688 
and 1703, she appears to have copied out her earlier writings into the 
volume now in the Bodleian, and to have added autobiographical 
passages, thus giving a fairly complete story of her life down to a year 
after her marriage. The result is the conversion of a common place 
book into an autobiography, and while the earlier passages were written 
purely for her own use, in the later additions she appears to have been 
writing for others. 

The following table shows her relationship to the various characters 
who entered into her life : 

Theophilus\Howard ( 1 ) Sir John Livingstone, = Jane Throxton = (9.) Edward. 
2nd earl of Suffolk bart. lord Gorges 

of Dundalk 

Jfces,3rd earl ( 1 )Lord George = Lady Katharine = (2) James = (2) A.nne,daughter Dorothy = 

1st earl of of Sir Henry Charles,2nd 

f Suffolk Stuart 


Newbnrgh Poole, bart. baron Stan- 

hope of 
\ Howard Ed ward, Charles Stuart, LADY ELIZABETH 

1st lord 3rd duke of LIVINGSTONE Robert Delaval, Son of 
Griffin of Richmond Sir Ralph Delaval, bart. 


The writer was Lady Elizabeth Livingstone, daughter of the first earl 
of Xewburgh. She was born in 1649. Before she was a year old her 
father had to fly the country, being implicated in plots to release Charles 
I. from captivity. Lady Betty, as she was called by her friends, was 
brought up by her aunt, lady Stanhope, at her house at Nocton near 
Lincoln, whence she used to be taken to pay yearly visits to her grand- 
mother, lady Gorges, in London. Her father returned to England at the 
restoration, but married again, and lady Betty continued to live with 
her aunt. When fourteen, her half-brother, the duke of Richmond, 


placed her in the Court, where she was first maid of the privy chamber 
to the queen. She remained at Court for two years, and then, finding 
that she had run heavily into debt, and seeing no likelihood of her being 
able to pay her creditors, she obtained leave to return to Nocton. She 
was only fifteen and a half when her aunt planned a marriage for her 
with lord Brudenell, eldest son of the earl of Cardigan, but she refused to 
marry him on the ground of his being a Roman Catholic. In revenge 
for this, when lady Betty fell' in love three years later with lord Annesley, 
eldest son of the earl of Anglesey, lady Stanhope refused to have any- 
thing to say to the match. She was intending to give her in marriage 
to her neighbour, lord Roos, afterwards first duke of Rutland, who was 
then engaged in obtaining a divorce from his first wife. To put a stay 
to lord Annesley' s suit, lady Stanhope and lord Roos contrived a 
marriage between lord Annesley and lady Elizabeth Manners, lord 
Roos's sister. Negotiations were opened with the earl of Anglesey, but 
nothing was said of the matter to his son. Lord Annesley meanwhile 
had been endeavouring to persuade lady Betty to marry him privately, 
and lady Betty at last sent her lover a letter asking him to meet her at 
the house of her cousin, Essex Griffin, near London, where she would n<> 
longer delay to consent to his wishes. The messenger who was des- 
patched with this letter foolishly put it into the earl of Anglesey's 
hands. The earl had just concluded the treaty of marriage with the 
Rutland family by which lord Annesley should be married to lady 
Elizabeth Manners, and, on learning the state of affairs, he swore to 
disinherit his son if he persisted in his choice. Lord Annesley was 
cowed into submission, and wrote to lady Betty begging her to release 
him from his promises. Shortly afterwards he married lord Roos's 
sister. Meanwhile lord Roos had met with difficulties in the prosecution 
of his divorce, and, till his divorce was secured, he could not decently 
make proposals to lady Betty. Her father, who had secretly urged her 
to make a run-away match with lord Annesley, had taken no part in 
lord Roos's schemes, and now began to force upon lady Betty a marriage 
with Robert Delaval, eldest son of Sir Ralph Delaval of Seaton Delaval 
and lady Anne Delaval his wife. The young Delaval was brought to 
stay at Nocton. But lady Betty had no liking for her proposed husband, 
absolutely refused to marry unless the debts which she had contracted 
at court had first been paid. Her grandmother, lady Gorges, who \va,s 
now dead, had left her a thousand pounds, and this sum she wished to 
apply to clearing herself of debt. Her father would not hear of it, and 
threatened to send her away from Nocton. She stuck to her point. On 
the 10th of May, 1670, she wrote in her book : 

' Suppose my father shou'd send for me to his house, and be so severe 
as to confine me like a prisoner, yet even in his greatest strictnesse 
(tho' he be never so much offended against me for resisting his will), yet 
he cannot take from me the blessing of health, and sure I shall have 
bookes, if not faithfull friends to converse withall, and then certenly I 
shall not be miserable, espeshally since I have a kind good aunt whose 
heart I do not doubt but God will incline to be just to me in paying the 
thousand pound my deare grandmother Gorge left in her hands for me, 
and also generously good-natured in continuing the alowance she has 
settled upon me, let me be in what part of the world I will. So shall I 
be able to pay all my debts and satisfy the murmering wispers of my 

She has left us the following account of what happened : 
' When all things were concluded betwixt Mr. Delaval' s friends and 
mine for our maryage, I absolutely refused to consent to it, till my aunt 


Stanhope (in whose hands my thousand pound was left) had first pay'd 
me that money to disposs of as I pleas' d. My father arid my Aunt 
Stanhope intended it shou'd have been a part of my portion, and did not 
at all consern themselves with takeing any care about my debts, which I 
thought a very great hardshipe towards me, since, had they not been 
pay'd before I was a wife, they must certenly have fallen upon my 
husband, which I might very probable have been many times reproach' d 
withall by his relations, and have lived for that reason (if for no other) 
unhapily amongst them. So I disputed the mater very earnestly with 
my aunt, when I found it was both my father's will and hers to make me 
change my state of life, and ty me up in bonds I never wou'd have chose, 
and which I desier'd might not be made so much the heavyer by a load 
of debts. We had a long and firce argument upon this subject. At 
length I told my aunt that I was very sure, if my grandmother knew 
what pass'd upon earth, I was very sure she wou'd be much displeased 
with her for intending to hinder me from being misstress of what my 
deare grandmother had given me upon her death-bed. My aunt (who 
was extreamly good-natured) being moved by these words, shed some 
tears, and imediately gave order that thousand pound shou'd be 
pay'd me.' 

There was now nothing to prevent the marriage. Though, in lady 
Betty's words, ' it was the sad truth that my father's second maryage, 
in which he had sons, had drawn him to sacrifice my fortune rather then 
not make there's prosperous,' yet the king and queen gave her a marriage 
portion, to which lady Stanhope made a considerable addition, and the 
marriage was solemnised in October. In this way, she wrote, ' God has 
blest me with the kindnesse of a husband and the unspeakeable comfort 
of haveing pay'd my creditors.' She was in easy circumstances, though 
' not dazell'd with the luster of great riches, nor burthen' d with honnours 
nor charmed with so much love for my husband as might make mine 
grow cold to my God.' That last clause tells its story. ' That pleaseing 
word of liberty being now no more to be pronounced by me as what I 
have a right too, I cannot but at the first puting on of shakells find there 
weight heavy.' 

At the beginning of December her father died. Lady Betty refused 
to go and see him in his last illness, an act of revenge on her part which 
she afterwards bitterly regretted. ' I cou'd not,' she says, ' be ignorant 
that my undutyfull behaveour wou'd grive his soul, which certenly it 
did to the very quick.' 

She and her husband had remained in London after their marriage. 
At the end of the month there came to town the young count Dona, 
nephew of the Spanish ambassador, and a relation of William III, then 
prince of Orange. He had been an old admirer of lady Betty's, but, 
being only a second son, and consequently not well off, her family had 
refused to hear of marriage. His arrival hastened her departure, for 
she thought it best not to revive old memories, and refused to see him. 
She wrote , 

' I was at that time liveing in London with my father and mother in 
law, and it was intended we shou'd have pased that whole winter 
all together in towne, it being then but 4 months after my maryage. 
But, upon the comte Dona's comeing into England along with the 
prince of Orange, to whom he had the honnour to be related, and by 
whose interist he hoped my father might be prevaled withall to give 
consent that I shou'd be maryed to him, since he came too late for those 
flatering hopes to signify anything, I toke the resolution of not staying in 
Towne, and I prevaled with Mr. De Laval to go with me to my Aunt 


Stanhope's at Nocton, where we stayed till the winter was done, that sir 
Ralph De Laval and my lady Ann DeLaval came to cary us with them 
into the north. All the court was surprissed that I made so short a stay 
amongst my friends and relations as only 6 weekes, for they were at that 
time of my life very fond of me, and they wonder' d the more at my 
going away, because my father and mother in law stay'd behind us ; 
but none knew the true cause. I have allways loked upon it as a great 
blessing of God Allmighty's that I was then mistresse enough of myself e 
to let reason get the better of my inclenation. It cannot be denyed 
but that it was very naturall lor a person of my age to have liked better 
staying in a place where I was every day much courted by people of the 
best quality, and where I was much favour'd by the queen my mistresse, 
then to retier to a contry house, where, notwithstanding the prospect 
of a hapy peacefull dwelling for a time which I had figured to myself e, 
and the pleasures I proposed to have in receiveing the dayly profes of a 
sincere kindnesse from my aunt, I did not scape the haveing many 
uneasy houers. For I had not been there a weeke, before the Earle of 
Rutland came to his hunting house, and, haveing never spoke to me of 
love at all (my father haveing maryed me to Mr. DeLaval before the Act 
off Parlement was past which gave him leave to mary) I cou'd not but 
live friendly with him and receive his visits as I use to do. My aunt's 
friendshipe and his continued to be the same it was, and so did his 
kindnesse for me. Mr. DeLaval, being a very sickly young man, there 
was a sort of deboach'd crew about my lord Rutland that, to make there 
court to him dayly, made it there busynesse to be intimate with Mr. 
DeLaval, and had resolved amongst themselves to drinke him to death 
(as I was informed some time afterwards). One of them, who was more 
abominably wicked than the rest, braged to his companions that he had 
like to have done up DeLaval's busynesse all at once, for that he very 
narowly scaped the last day hunting, tumbling him downe horse and all 
a great precepice over the edge of the Clife Hills ; for, he said, catching 
him there, he rid against him with all his force, and pretended that his 
horse run away with them. After this, they ticed him to go and be 
mery at the towne of Lincolne for one night, which was about 6 miles 
from my aunt's house, where he stayed with them 3 nights, and at last 
came home very much disorder' d, which put him into a cruell fit of 
asmah, that being a distemper which use to trouble him very often, 
which I knew nothing of before I was his wife. I was so foleish at that 
time of my life as to beleive t'was in my power to change any custome 
he had that I did not like, and to be very much disoblidged when I found 
myselfe mistaken, so that this begining of a maryed life was very 
disagreable to me ; but I knew there was no remedy, and therefoz'e 
resolved to suffer it with the most patience ; and so, when S r Ralph 
DeLaval and my lady Ane DeLaval came from London in the spring, I 
went away with them into Northumberland very willingly.' 

Lady Betty's disputes with her husband were a source of grief. This 
is one of her Lenten meditations : 

' How miserably have I failed in the performance of this last new duty 
I have ingaged myselfe in ; for my wretched heart, being sway'd by a 
vaine-gloryous pride, has been many times most senceibly touched with 
sorow because my husband broke the vows he had made to me, then 
because his intemperate life and other sins of his were offences against 
our God ; for which cause I have most commonly reproach' d him in a 
disdainefull manner with his injustise in seeming to forget the many 
solemn vows he made when he found it difficult day by day to bring my 
unconquer'd will to bend to my father's, who by his consent wou'd have 


given me to Mr. De Laval 8 months before he did. Iff I had taken the 
right course when I found myself e unhappy at first in my mary'd life by 
griveing truly at whatever Mr. DeLaval did amiss which was offensive, 
and had taken a way with a kind consern to represent my thoughts mildly 
to him, 'tis very probable that his love to me might have made my just 
endeavours prove successfull. But, alasse, on the contrary I have by 
another sort of behaveour, with proud ill-natured words to often 
tempted him to fall into the fury of a mad and sinfull passion, and thus 
have been accessury to his iniquities and miserably increased my own.' 

This from Seaton Delaval on the 12th of May : ' The gayety of my 
humour and the harmelesse mirth in my conversation was pleaseing to 
those I formerly kept company withall, and what was estimed by them 
to be wit in this part off the world is look'd upon to be a gidynesse 
unbecomeing a wife, and want of a prudent sober temper.' 

There her story ends. The remainder of the book is blank, and the 
tale left unfinished. 

Amongst the Rutland papers [Hist. MSS. Comm. Reports] is a letter 
from the earl of Anglesey to the countess of Rutland, telling her of 
the desire of an * over-forward beauty ' to marry his son. In the Delaval 
papers in the society's possession, is a letter from Robert Delaval to 
his father (June 13th, 1674) telling him of his wife's great unkindness ; 

* but I may find a way to be even with her yet.' In a later letter 
(Sept. 9th, 1681) the writer tells Sir Ralph that Lady Elizabeth Delaval 

* has gone to Scotland, and, before she went, she made her will, and 
made it so that your family shall have no benefit. Sir Harry Bellairs 
is her chief adviser, and was witness to her will, and said ' your 
ladyship does nothing but what is just. Sir Ralph is fool and knave, 
governed by his sot wife.' " 

Thanks were voted to Mr. Craster by acclamation. 

Mr. T. M. Allison, M.D., read a very interesting paper on * The 
Flail and its varieties, with some examples and photographs,' in which 
he traced the development of the flail to the present time. To place 
with the old examples in the society's collection, he presented a modern 
example which he had purchased in Ireland recently, 

Dr. Allison was heartily thanked. The paper will probably be 
printed in Archaeologia Aeliana. 


Mr. John Robinson then read the following note on the lower stone of 
an old quern and on recent excavations in Low Row, Bishopwearmouth, 
on the site of the ' Hat and Feather ' Inn : 

" Three years ago I brought before the society an interesting discovery 
of an ancient quern and roadway at Seaham, and in October of last year, 
a brief notice of a sculptured stone which is built into the wall of the 
old rectory outhouses at Bishopwearmouth. During the last five 
weeks further discoveries have been made in the same locality, within one 
hundred yards of Bishopwearmouth church. During the pulling down 
of the old ' Hat and Feather ' public house in Low Row at the foot of the 
hill, a licensed house which has existed for upwards of 200 years, the 
contractors have come upon some interesting remains. At a depth of 
about 12 feet below the level of the street and adjoining the disused burial 
ground, a section of an ancient roadway, paved with cobble stones, was 
brought to light. At the same depth, and close to the ancient pavement* 


were the thick walls of what had been the boundary, or retaining, wall of 
the burn, which may yet be heard rushing down in the culvert below to 
the river. There was also fotind the lower stone of an ancient quern, 
of millstone grit, 15 inches wide and 6 inches in diameter ; with bowl 8 
inches wide and 3J inches deep. At the bottom of the bowl is an iron 
spike, or pivot, by which the upper stone was kept in position as it was 
turned round in the process of grinding. (See illustration of it on plate 
facing p. 146. ) This quern is the first that hes been found in the imme- 
diate vicinity of Bishop wear mouth ; and recalls the time when the bishop 
of Durham held all the lands in his own hands. In bishop Pudsey's time 
( 1 153-97], as appears by the ' Boldon Buke,' the manor of Wearmouth and 
Tunstall was held by the bishop, who had 26 villeins and 6 cottagers. 
There were a carpenter and a smith, who held lands for their work. The 
two places paid 20 shillings cornage, and provided two milk cows for the 
household. The lordship was then farmed out and with the increase of 
stock and the mill produced 20 a year. In bishop Hatfield's survey 
;[ 1345-82] the bond tenants of Wearmouth, Ryhope, Tunstall and 
Burden, paid for their mill and brew-farm. We can, therefore, easily 
understand how it came about that the payment of the lord's mill 
charges were avoided, if possible, by the use of private hand-mills ; 
which led to a proclamation that all private mills had to be destroyed, or 
a heavy fine imposed. Hence the few querns that are to be found 
perfect. They had to be as carefully hidden as were the illicit stills, 
for private grinding was the same as smuggling. The discovery of the 
piece of cobble-paved road shows that there was an ancient roadway 
from Seaham, straight on to Wearmouth, for I have heard that a 
similar piece of pavement was uncovered when making deep excava- 
tions some years ago for Langham Towers, near Christ Church, and on 
a direct line between the Seaham pavement, and that discovered in 
the Low Row, Bishop wear mouth. So that within a distance of five 
miles we have evidences of this ancient paved way. If Burleigh & 
Thompson's plan of the river Wear for 1737 the oldest local plan in 
existence be examined, it will be seen that the main road from the 
south went to Bishop wearmouth church, by the Low Row, on to the 
rectory, and then turned to the north west by the river marked ' Road 
from Newcastle by Hylton Ferry Boat.' " 
Thanks were voted to Mr. Robinson. 


The chairman, at the request of some members, drew attention to the 
contemplated reprinting, by subscription, of the only volume of the 1st 
series of the Proceedings, and of the first volume of the 2nd series, at the 
cost of about 10/- or 12/- each, and suggested that those members who 
wanted the books should send their names to Mr. Blair, the editor, as 
soon as possible, in order that the work of reprinting might be proceeded 


Local Extracts from Ancient Deeds, vol. iv. (continued from p. 116) : 

[N'th'ld] A. 6897. Grant by Alan son of Elyas de Merdesfen, to 
John de Reyndone, clerk, and Christian his wife, of a messuage and land 
in Merdesfen, with the reversion of all the lands and tenements which 
Elyas de Wyttone, and Constance his wife, the grantor's mother, held in 

dower, of the grantor's inheritance expectant on the death of the said 
Constance. Witnesses : Sir Hugh Gabion, sheriff of Northumberland, 
Robert Bertrham, and John de Oggil, knights, and others (named). 
Seal. [p. 95] 

[N'thTd] A. 6927. Indenture being a grant by Roger Bertram, lord 
of Mitford, to Sir William de Valencia, lord of Pembroke, for 1,000 marks, 
of all the towns of Merdesfen, Calverdone, and Little Eland, with all bond- 
men, cottagers, and rents of freemen, &c., reserving the advowsons of 
churches and suits of tenants at his mills of Elaunde. Witnesses : Sirs 
Guy de Rocheford, Roger de Clifford, Roger de Layburne, and others 
(named), knights, and others (named). Seal of arms (Bertram), [p. 99] 
[Kent] A. 7042. Confirmation by the king, to Roger Mar tell, of 10 
librates of land in the manor of Sutton which he has of the gift of Baldwin 
de Betun, earl of Albemarle, viz., 114a. land of the lordship of the said 
earl in Est Sutton ; also two meadows (pratella) lying under the wood 
called 'Heicumb' ; also various rents and services specified, from persona 
named ; also the orchard of Est Sutton, and the abbve mentioned wood. 
Witnesses : W [illiam] earl of Warenne, William Briwerr, Warin son of 
Gerold, William de Ros, Hugh de Sanford, and others (named). Given 
toy the hand of master Richard de Mariscis, archdeacon of Northumber- 
land, at Durham, 3 September, 14 John. Portion of Great Seal, injured. 
(Rotuli Chartarum, p. 187.) [p. 114] 

[N'thTd] A. 7183. Grant by Henry de Wynton, lay brother (conver- 
sus), to Sir William de Valence, in consideration of 140. of the mill of 
Faltone with its suit, to hold to him, his heirs, and assigns from the feast 
of St. Cuthbert in autumn, 41 Henry III, for thirteen years, as was con- 
tained in the chirograph made between the said Henry and Roger Bertram 
of the said mill, which chirograph, together with the King's confirmation, 
he had delivered to the said Sir William, so that thereafter, neither he nor 
his heirs should have any right in the said mill. Witnesses : Sir 
Geoffrey Gacelin, Sir Imbert Guy, Richard, parson of Roubyri, and 
others (named). Portion of Seal. [p. 131] 

[N'thTd] A. 1205. Grant by Gilbert, son of Richard the cook of 
Birtely, to Richard de Botteland, of all his land in Birtely, in return for 
20 marks which Richard has paid to him in his great need. Witnesses : 
Sirs Robert de Insula, Robert de Camhou, and Hugh de Herle ; and others 
(named), [p. 133] 

[N'thTd] A. 7485. Indenture of feoffment by Ralph, earl of Westmor- 
land to Ralph Nevyll his eldest son and Edith his wife of the manor and 
lordship of Bywelt, co. N'thTd, the manor and lordship of Bolbek in the 
bishopric of Durham, together with the barony of the same lordships, the 
manor and lordship of Assheford in ' le Peke,' co. Derby, the manor of 
Alverton in Sherewode, co. Notts, the manors of Kirkebymoreshede, 
Brauncedale, Ferndale, Gillernor, Faddemore, Buttrecrambe, Scrayng- 
me, Cottyngham and Witton,two closes of pasture called Manthlome by 
everley and the free farm (liberam fir mam) due from the abbot of Kirk- 
all for the manors of Colynghamme and Berdesey, co. York, the manors 
f Beasby with the soke, and Stowe by Deping with the free farm of 
'rymesby, co. Lincoln, the manor of Caldcottes with the free farm of 
le town of Ormesby, cos. Huntingdon, Norfolk, the manor of Talworth 
ith the fee farm of Iden, Basyngstoke and Andover, cos. Surrey, Sussex, 
.nd Hants, and all his manors with free farms in cos. Devon and Kent, 
to hold the said Ralph and Edith, and the heirs of the body of the 
said Ralph, with reversion in default to himself ; attornies to deliver 
seisin, John Norton, Richard Baynbricc, Henry Cheyne and Richard 
Pulley. Witnesses : George Lomley, lord de Lomley, Thomas de 
Lomley his son and heir, William de Hilton, Ralph Bowes, William Eure, 


and Edward Pikeryng, knights, and William Conyers of Hornby, esquire.. 
1 Sept. 7 Henry VII. Executed by ' Rauff erl of Vestmorland.' [p. 174] 

[Durham] A. 9846. Indenture being an assignment, by William Pollard 
to ' Elizabeth doghtyr of Hewe Lamplew at the tyme of esposelys 
halowyd and made be twyx me and hyre at the kyrke dore of Seynt Olave 
be syde the Abbey of Seynt Maryis of York ' of ' thre mesys ' in the town 
of North Awkeland, co. Durham, on the west of the lane called ' Seynt 
Anne Chare,' and seven ; borowagys ' and divers closes there, described; 
to hold to her for life ' in the name of all hyre dower.' Yorke, [blank] 
October, 16 Henry VI. English, [p. 469] 

A book on Roman Roads in Britain has been recently published by 
the S.P.C.K. The reviewer in the Athenaeum (Nov. 7, 1903, p. 620) 
rightly points out as a warning to readers, that ' No evidence exists of a 
Roman road from Newcastle to the Lower Coquet, or from Barnard- 
castle to Binchester and to Bainbridge.' Perhaps the writer will favour 
us with the sources for his statements. 

The following are from ' Grants and Certificates of Arms ' in The 
Genealogist (xx, 208 & 209) : 

" Lashley* . . a General of the Scottish Army, 1640, who besieged 
and took Durham and Newcastle. Or, on a bend Az. betw. two wolves' 
heads couped ppr., three round buckles of the first. Crest A wolf's 
head couped ppr. Add. MS. 4966. 

Lawson, Thomas, of Little Usworth, co. Durham, and Robert Lawson, 
of Rock, co. Northumberland, and to William, John, George, and 
Rowland Lawson, all six being sons of William Lawson, of Little 
Usworth, gent. Conf. by L. Dalton. Norroy, 28 Feb. 1558. Per pale 
Arg. and Sa. a chev. counterchanged. Crest : Two arms counter em- 
bowed, vested Erm., the hands ppr., supporting the Sun in its splendour 
Or. Hart. MS. 1359." 

* The well-known General Alexandei' Leslie of Balgonie, Fife. 


18 inches long by 12 inches wide. 
(See p. 103.) 



3 2 

"o* > 


~ M 





3 SER., VOL. I. 1904. No. 19. 

On Saturday, the eleventh day of June, 1904, a meeting of members 
was called for the purpose of perambulating 


A large and representative gathering met in the Castle at 2-30 p.m. 
Amongst those present being Mr. William Boyd of North House, 
Longbenton, Mr. S. Story Carr of Tynemouth, Mr. Thomas Matheson 
and Mr. John Dowson of Morpeth, Mr. W. C. Forster of Newcastle, Mr. J. 
R. Hogg of North Shields, Dr. Mason, Dr. and Mrs. Laws and Dr. and 
Mrs. Allison of Newcastle, Mr. Wm. Richardson of Willington-on-Tyne, 
Mr. W. W. Tomlinson of Whitley, Mr. E. R. Newbiggin, Mr. R. S. Nisbet, 
Mr. Truttman, and Mr. J. Wright of Newcastle, and Mr. R. Blair (one 
of the secretaries). Councillor David Adams, Mrs. Adams, and several 
ladies joined in the perambulation. 

The party was conducted by Mr. R. Oliver Heslop, M.A., F.S.A. (one 
of the secretaries), who led the way to the basement of the keep and 
gave a general account of the original wall circuit of the town. Accord- 
ing to Bourne, he said, the entire circuit measured 2 miles 176 yards, but 
Aubone, whom that author quotes, gives the distance as 2 miles 293 
yards and 2 feet, a figure that would seem to be the result of minute and 
accurate reckoning. But whatever the disparity in these authorities 
the fact remains that a very large area was included in the fortified line 
around the town. We must remember, too, that the walls enclosed not 
only the bouses and streets of the inhabitants but large spaces besides, 
occupied by fields, parks, and gardens. For these open places we are 
indebted to the presence in Newcastle of the great monastic institutions 
whose domains they were, and to these monasteries it may be ascribed 
that Newcastle was fortified on a scale of such magnitude. For there 
can be no doubt that these institutions would contribute largely to the 
cost of constructing this effective defence of their possessions. These 
religious orders, you will remember, included the Augustinians, whose 
domain would be represented by the Carliol Croft ; the Grey Friars, on 
whose ground stood what was at a later date known as ' the princely 
mansion ' of Anderson Place, the Court of Charles I., during his residence 
in Newcastle, and commonly said to be the only instance of a gentle- 
man's mansion and park within a walled city. There was also the house 
of the Nuns and its fields, commemorated in the present Nun Street and 


Nun's Gate, and last there was the church and monastery of the Black 
Friars with their adjacent stretch of gardens cut through in the con- 
struction of the walls. The preservation of these great religious houses 
with their extensive adjuncts of fields and gardens accounted for the 
vast area included within the walls of our town. So striking was 
this that Leland has told us that the walls of Newcastle exceeded in 

magnificence those of any city in Britain, 
and indeed those of most of the towns of 
the Continent. The walls varied in thick- 
ness, measurements at the base of various 
parts being 6 feet 10 inches, 7 feet 2 in- 
ches, and 8 feet 6 inches, the greater 
thickness being naturally that of the more 
vulnerable points. Besides its seven 
great gates, and some four and twenty 
intermediate towers the circuit of walls 
was furnished, between the towers, with 
many lofty turrets ; these were four- 
square watch towers, or ' garrites' as they 
are technically called, rising high above 
the level of the wall and forming its most 
picturesque feature. They were pierced 
by a passage way on the level of the wall 
platform ; access to the summit Vas gain- 
ed by outside steps projecting from the 
face of the turret and on the battlements 
were inserted stone sentinels. Exam- 
ples of these figures in possession of the 
society were here pointed out, and were 
examined with interest. The illustration 
annexed is of one of these figures. 

Continuing, Mr. Heslop read Bourne's description of these features : 
' Between every one of these towers there were for the most part two 
watch towers made square, with the effigies of men cut in stone upon the 
tops of them, as though they were watching, and they were called 
Garret, which had square holes over the walls to throw stones down.'* 

The walls were Tampered on the inside, and their defence outwardly 
was completed by a great ditch, twenty yards across and fifteen feet 
deep. This extensive outer defence, commonly referred to as ' The 
King's Dykes,' formed one of the great extramural features of old 

As to the date of the walls the statement that they were probably 
begun in the time of William Rufus appeared to be due to a confusion 
between work done on the castle walls and the erection of a town wall. 
A very little consideration would suggest this period as much too early 
for the construction of a town wall. There is a reference to the walls in 
a grant by Edward I., dated 1280, wherein the king gave the friar 
preachers the concession of a postern gate for access to their garden 
beyond the wall, the new wall having cut their garden ground in two. 
It has been alleged that because the grant speaks of a new wall (novuni 
murum) there must have been an antecedent structure, presumably an 
' old wall ' at this time, but it is by no means necessary to assume such 
a thing. We constantly adopt the same expression, as in speaking of 

Bourne Hist, of Neivcastle, p. 17 

Proc. Soc. Antiq. Newc. 3 Ser. I. 

To face page 158. 

From a p':otograp i by Messrs. Thompson & Lee. 

HAI.L OF THE SHU-WRIGHTS' COMPANY, over the Sallyport Gate 
From a drawing by Mr. R. J. S. Bertram, by permission of Messrs. Thompson & 1-ee. 


the New Bridge and New Bridge Street, New Road and New Cut, all of 
which refer to entirely new works and are not necessarily understood to 
imply the existence of older roads and structures on their sites. We 
have thus the wall of Newcastle-upon-Tyne referred to in the year 1280 
as then completed, and then known as the ' new wall.' No doubt the 
entire circuit would be built in sections, as indeed its masonry shows, 
and would occupy a considerable period of time throughout the later 
years of the thirteenth century for its construction. We do know that 
early in the fourteenth century the circumvallation of the town had 
been completed. In 1299 a charter for the incorporation of Pandon with 
Newcastle had been granted, and in 1307 the wall had been carried 
round the newly acquired territory of the town. 

Before proceeding to examine the walls themselves the siege o 
Newcastle in 1644 was referred to. On that occasion the keep in which 
they were assembled formed the dernier ressort of the besieged. But the 
last occasion on which the town walls of Newcastle were put into a state 
of defence was in the year 1745. In anticipation of the expedition led 
by prince Charles Edward gates were built up with masonry, embrasures 
were protected, and all was made ready for a siege. The pages of John 
Wesley's journal afford a picture of the stir and commotion of the 
mayor and the inhabitants in that time of tension. It was owing to 
this disturbed condition of the town that the romantic flight of Mrs. 
Scott from her house in Love Lane took place, followed by the birth of 
her son William at Heworth. But for this, Pandon might have claimed 
to be the birthplace of lord Stowell, as it had been the birthplace of the 
elder brother John Scott, afterwards lord Eldon. 

The party left the castle at the conclusion of Mr. Heslop's remarks, 
following the line of the quay wall to Sandgate, where a pause was made 
to indicate the site of Sandgate gate. Stones from the wall on the 
quayside, it was pointed out, had been utilized for building St. Ann's 
church in 1768. The probable position of Habkin tower was also indi- 
cated as somewhere between Sandgate and the crest of the hill above. 

At Wall Knoll tower, commonly called the Carpenter's tower from 
its occupation by the fraternity of ship carpenters, also known as 
Sallyport gate, a careful examination of the structure was made. ; Its 
very grand and stately superstructure,' so described on its erection in 
1716, containing the meeting hall of the fraternity, was found in a 
miserable condition. Its interior was occupied by a foreign slipper 
maker ; rough partitions divided the hall into several compartments, 
and the materials of manufacture and the work in progress were littered 
about in confusion. Two carved panels bearing the royal arms and the 
arms of the company, respectively, were hung on partitions, quite un- 
protected, as was an old iron-bound box belonging to the fraternity 
which has on its top the inscription ' SHIPWRIGHTS,' and the date 
' 1673,' with some ornaments, all formed of brass-headed nails. On 
the walls were some old oil paintings equally neglected. Several of 
the party examined the newel stair and doorway leading on to the 
battlements on the west face of the tower. 

Mr. Heslop pointed out the common mistake by which some of our 
older historians had attributed a Roman origin to this site. The line 
of the Roman Wall was just a little to the north of Sallyport gate ; and 
in what used to be known as Stepney Lane a mile castle had stood on the 
crest of the descent into Pandon Dene. This Roman Mile Castle would 
thus be some fifty yards to the north, but descriptions given of it, a,s its 


last vestiges were known, have been confounded with this extant 
fourteenth century structure. If the line of the Roman Wall were 
continued westward from the Mile Castle it would be found to come to a 
point somewhere near the foot of the stairs now leading to the Manors 
Railway Station. Thence it passed in front of the piazza of Jesus 
hospital by Manor Chare and so westward. The town wall ran parallel 
with the Roman line here, but on its southern side. It was also shown 
that in the deep dene immediately below, filled up in the formation of 
City Road in 1882, was the site of Paiidoii gate. Adjacent to it was the 
Stockbridge, so called because the stream had been crossed at that 
point by a bridge of wood, distinguished from the stone bridge by which 
it was crossed at its lower extremity near its junction with the Tyne. 
The name of Fishergate, applied to .the street immediately below, 
indicated the character of the ancient thoroughfare, suggesting a stream 
navigable by the tide to this point ; and a great calamity, which occurred 
here in the year 1339, further showed the character and populousness 
of ancient Pan don. The stream of Pan don burn was carried through 
the town wall by a tunnel slightly to the west of old Pandon gate. In a 
sudden spate, the tunnel, or passage, had become blocked, probably by 
floating timber, hay, or other debris, and the water had accumulated 
behind the wall in consequence, The wall, in fact, had become a huge 
dam across the stream bed until the increasing waters burst their 
obstacle, and rushed through the low-lying streets in a mighty deluge, 
devastating everything in its track. A great breach was left in the town 
wall six perches wide ; and ' 1 60 men with 7 priests and many women 
were drowned.' This event had created a widespread interest ; for the 
calamity was recorded far and wide by the chroniclers of the time. 

Corner tower was the next point visited. Here the right angle turn 
in the wall showed the junction made when Pandon became annexed to 
Newcastle. Mr. Heslop's reference to Pandon as the site Ad murum 
was here genially called in question by one of his auditors and alter- 
native situations for the Saxon town were suggested. The conductor, 
however, urged the claim of Pandon, which he hoped some day to make 
good by sufficiently confirmatory evidence. Corner tower had really 
been a turret or watch tower only, pierced with the usual passage way 
for thoroughfare on the level of the platform of the walls. Its present 
condition is deplorable, the upper courses of stone being loose and its 
summit in a state of dilapidation. 

Plummer tower, also known as Carliol tower, was next visited. 
Once known as the Cutler's tower the building was occupied later by the 
incorporated company of Masons, who in 1742 ref rented the street face 
of the building with a somewhat elaborate elevation. The decorative 
features of the stone work are now much weathered so that the appear- 
ance of the front is that of decay. On its outer face, seen from the 
Corporation stone yard, the masonry presents an excellent example of 
the half round tower attached to the walls. This building will be near 
the line of a new street projected from Market Street to Trafalgar 
Street, and a strong opinion was expressed that it ought to be spared by 
the city council, a rumour of its intended demolition having been heard. 

From this point a wide break in the line of the walls occurs ; every 
vestige having perished from Plummer tower to St. Andrew's church- 
yard in Newgate Street. The walls adjacent to the churchyard have 
been thinned to their inner face courses and used as basements for lofty 
brick buildings facing the street line of Gallowgate. The site of New- 
gate was indicated ; the face of a turret and its outside stair was seen 
in the churchyard. The site of Andrew tower was marked by the gap 

To face page 160. 


In August, 1904. 
l ; rotn a photograph l>y Messrs Thompson, & Lee, Newcastle. 

PINK TOWER. (See page 161.) 
Shortly before its demolition. 



1 3 
I - h 


^ M 

I 3 


D. ? 

5' w 


in the wall now used as an extension of the churchyard. The face of the 
wall was here scanned for indications of the breach made during the 
siege of 1644, said to have been near to Black Bessy's tower. The 
tradition was also referred to that gives this part of the wall as the 
scene of the encounter between the Douglas and the Percy before the 
battle of Otterburn. In the older ballads this is made the central 
incident of events leading up to the battle itself, and it was hardly 
necessary, the conductor observed, to remind members that the feat of 
arms recorded in the stately pages of Froissart had their popular record 
in the cycle of ballads relating to this event. So that in course of time 
the historical battle of Otterburn developed by tradition, and by our 
ballad literature, into the battle of Chevy Chase. It was the recital of 
this later version, even when heard from the harsh throat of an itinerant 
crowder, that so stirred the heart of sir Philip Sidney. 

The splendid length of wall extending from the Darn Crook to West- 
gate Street was now examined with the greatest interest from end to end. 
Ever tower, once the meeting house of the companies of paviors, 
colliers, and carriage men, was seen to be entirely absorbed in the 
adjacent tannery, its windows and doors only appearing as part of the 
wall face. 

Mordon tower, immediately beyond, was entered and examined with 
great interest ; wall and parapet appearing at full height, the bold 
character of the cubical ashlar in the lower courses being a marked 
feature. The watch tower adjacent is remarkably well preserved. 

Between Mordon tower and Herber tower is the postern gate, now 
walled up, by which the Black Friars, as shown by their charter of 1280, 
obtained access to their garden in the Warden Close. By a second 
charter, dated 1312, they obtained leave to construct a drawbridge five 
feet wide across the moat outside the wall. The two dates may perhaps 
indicate the period when the defence was being completed by the con- 
struction of its great moat. There are actually two postern gates near 
together here, one a very narrow doorway, the other five feet wide. 
Either or both may have been original outlets. 

Herber tower, hard by, is fortunately left in an almost perfect con- 
dition. It is at present used as a blacksmith's shop and its preservation 
has been happily ensured by the effort resulting in the negotiation of a 
repairing lease on which it is held. 

Durham tower though seen to be greatly neglected is, like Herber 
tower, in an excellent state of preservation. The great stone canti- 
levers projecting from its face give the appearance of the spokes of a 
wheel. The same feature used to be seen at Pink tower, where pro- 
jections like these were intended to support a bretische, or screen of 
wood, as a protection to the defenders from missiles. 

From Westgate members passed down Pink Lane, observing the wall 
base in the Tyne Commissioners' yard left there to indicate the site of 
the adjacent Gunnar tower. At Forth Street a portion of the wall was 
seen in section as the way was continued to Clavering Place and on to 
Hanover Square. Here a very fine piece of wall with parapets and 
platform complete was seen. The position of the great breach made by 
the Scots in the siege of 1644 was pointed out. The circumstance that 
the mine by which it was effected had been the work of colliers from 
Elswick, impressed for the purpose by the Scots' general, was commented 
on. The position of White Friar tower on the verge of the precipitous 
batik beyond was also indicated ; and here the party halted, having 
completed their long]walk. 


Mr. William Boyd of Longbenton, proposed a vote of thanks to Mr. 
Heslop, expressing an earnest hope that means should be adopted to 
preserve the splendid monuments of antiquity just seen. Their 
present condition he considered to be disgraceful in its utter neglect of 
the structure that had once given splendour to the town of Newcastle. 
At a comparatively small cost very large portions of wall remaining 
might be put into a condition to prevent further dilapidation and 
preserve them to future generations as the prized possessions of the 

Mr. Councillor David Adams, in seconding the proposition, expressed 
his concurrence with the remarks of Mr. Boyd, adding that he would 
gladly, in his position as a councillor, support the spirit of care for all 
such monuments of antiquity as they had seen. Their meeting to-day 
would be abundantly successful if it tended to increase the interest 
taken in our old town walls, and still more if it eventuated in measures 
being adopted for their practical preservation. 

Thus ended what had been a most interesting and successful gather- 

NOTE. For an account of the Walls of Newcastle by the late Mr. Sheriton Holmes, 
see Arch. Ael. xvin, p. 1, et seq. Separate copies of the paper may be had at the 
Castle at I/- each. 



THE FARES to be taken by the CHAIRMEN of this town, for carrying 
from any part of the town to any other part thereof, as assessed and 
rated by the Justices of the Peace, at the General Quarter Sessions of 
the Peace, held in and for the said Town and County, the 14th day of 
April, 1790, viz. : 

For carrying a person to any distance not exceeding 1100 s. d. 

yards 6 

Above 1100 yards, and not exceeding 1300 yards 9 

Above 1300 yards, and not exceeding 2400 yards 1 

The Chairmen are to stop as often as the person carried shall require, 
so as they be not detained longer than ten minutes in a sixpenny fare, 
nor more than twenty minutes in a Twelve-penny fare ; otherwise the 
Chairmen may chuse whether they will be paid according to the above 
rates for length of way, or according to the following rates for length 
of time, viz. : s. d. 

For any time not exceeding half an hour G 

Above half an hour and not exceeding a whole hour 1 

And so on in proportion. 

N.B. From twelve o'clock at night, till six in the morning, in 
winter, and five in summer, all fares to be double. 

** * In case of misbehaviour of the Chairmen, observe the number 
of the Chair, and apply at the Town Clerk's office. 
[Then follows a list of distances.] 


WILLIAM SEYMOUR, at the head of the Groat Market. 

JOHN PEAL, a little above the High Bridge. 

DAVID GRIFFITH, opposite the Nun-gate. 

DANIEL STEWART, middle of the Groat Market. 

1 ( From The Universal Cash Book, and a Newcastle Pocket Diary/ 
for 1792.) 





Sir Arthur E. Middleton has kindly furnished the copy of the ancient 
deed from his deed chest, from which this has been printed : 
Parchment, Jan. 22, 1365, Thomas de Trewyk to others. 

Sciant praesentes et futuri quod ego Thomas de Trewyk dedi con- 
cessi et hoc praesenti carta mea confirmavi magistro Thomae de 
ffarnylawe vicarius de Emyldon Roberto de Aukland vicarius de 
Hertburn et Willielmo Broune capellano totum manerium meum de 
Trewyk cum omnibus pertinentiis suis ac omnia alia terras et 
tenementa mea in Villa de Trewyk et de Belsowe cum omnibus 
comoditatibus ad praedicta manerium terras et tenementa qualiter- 
cunque spectantur una cum molendino de Trewyk cnm secta 1 sua 
habendum et tenendum totum praedictum manerium ac omnia alia 
praedicta terras et tenementa cum omnibus suis pertinentiis una 
cum molendino praedicto cum secta sua praedictis 'magistro Thome 
Roberto et Willielmo heredibus et assignatis suis de capitalibus 
dominis feodorum illorum per servicia inde debita et de jure con- 
sueta imperpetuum et ego vero praedictus Thomas de Trewyk et 
heredes mei totum praedictum manerium ac omnia terras et tene- 
menta praedicta cum omnibus suis pertinentiis una cum molendino 
praedicto cum secta sua praedictis magistro Thome Roberto et Willielmo 
heredibus et assignatis suis contra omnes homines Warantizabirnus 
et imperpetuum defendemus In cujus rei testimonium huic cartae 
meae sigillum meum apposui Hiis testibus Joh'ne de Walyngton, 
Joh'e de ffarnylawe, Joh'e de Wotton, Joh'e de Kyllyngword minor 2 
Will'o de Whytlawe et aliis Dat' apud Trewyk in die sancti Vincentii 
martiris Anno dni millesimo tricentesimo sexagesimo quinto. 

(See reproduction of deed facing this page.) 

Sir Arthur E. Middleton has added the 
following note ; 

' Seal of green wax, in very good pre- 
servation, is attached to the deed of St. 
Vincent's day [22 Jan.] 1365, whereby 
Thomas de Trewyk granted to Thomas de 
ffarnylawe, 3 vicar of Emyldon, Robt. de 
Aukland, 4 vicar of Hertburn, and Wm. 
Broune chaplain his whole manor of 
Trewyk and all other lands and tene- 
ments in Trewyk and Belsowe. 

' On the seal, in the word Trewyk, the 
last letter but one is as it is shown. It 
is more like an 'h' than a 'y.' It might 
be an 'h,' for Trewyk. The 'S' for 
' Sigillum ' is reversed, as shown. The 
l>a,rs mid the circular figures that are 
shown shaded in the arms, are slightly 
rained above the plain of the rest of the 
shield. The stars of six points, and the 
muill crosses, are as put in the drawing.' 

Molendinum de Trewyk cum secta sua, i.e., Trewick Mill with its suit. That is 
tlie right, that the tenants of the manor must have their corn ground there. 

2 Witnesses names are John de Wotton, which was an alias of Longwitton, and 
perhaps for Witton, see Hodgson, vol. n ; John de Killingworth. 

3 Thomas de ffarnylawe was vicar of Embleton. He entered circa 1362, resigned 
1369, and became chancellor of York. See new Hist, of Xorthd., vol. ir, pp. 64-69. 

' Robt. de Aukland, vicar of Hartburn. See Hodgson's Northd., vol. II, p. 296. 



1484, Sept. 15, Westminster. Revocation of the protection with 
clause volumus, for one year, granted on 30 July by letters patent to 
John Monke alias Munke of London, ' wexchaundeler,' staying on the 
king's service in the company of the king's kinsman Henry, earl of 
Northumberland, guardian of the east and middle marches of England 
towards Scotland, and captain of the town and castle of Berwick, on 
the safe custody, defence and victualling of the same, because he 
delays in the city of London, as appears by certificate of John 
Mathewe and William White, sheriffs. ( 1 Richard in, pt. 5, mem- 
brane 1.) [p. 464] 

1483, Feb. 26, Westminster. Grant, during pleasure, to the king's 
servant Richard Draper, of the office of clerk of the works within the 
town and castle of Berwick and wages of 12d. daily from the office of 
chamberlain of the town and castle. By p.s. (2 Rich, in, pt. 2, 
memb. 7.) [p. 511] 

1485, March 8, Westminster. Grant, during pleasure, to the king's 
servant George Porter, of the office of chief carpenter of the king's 
town and castle of Berwick and \"2d. for his wages, viz., 141. 5s. from 
the issues of the city of Norwich, and 41. from the issues of the town 
of Ipswich yearly. By p.s. (Ibid., pt. 3, memb. 3.) [p. 541] 

Scale a in. to i foot 

From a pencil drawing by the Rev. T. Stephens, vicar of Horsley. (Reproduced 
from a copy in ink by Mr. Henry Clarke of North Shields.) 






3 SER., V&L. I. 1904. 

No. 20. 

The first country meeting of the season was held on the eighth day of 
July, 1 904, at 


Members and friends assembled at Belford railway station at 10-48 
a.m. on the arrival there of the train leaving Newcastle at 9*35. 
Carriages were in waiting to convey them to Bamburgh. 

They drove direct to 


'a good burly church of the time of Henry n.' On arriving at the 
church the visitors were met by the Rev. C. Williams the vicar, who 
shortly described the building, and pointed out the various objects of 
interest in it, and also the double crypt under the chancel. The 
' lowside ' window on the north side of the chancel, shown in the illus- 
tration,* on paJge 166, walled up, has been recently opened out and filled 
with painted glass in memory of the Rev. Canon Long, the late vicar. 
They were also shown Grace Darling's monument in the churchyard, 
designed by the late Mr. W. S. Hicks to replace the original monument 
destroyed by a storm. The marble effigy of 1844 was so corroded by 
the action of the weather that it was moved to the north transept of 
the church in 1885, and has since been replaced by a copy in sandstone, 
provided at the cost of the late lord Armstrong. This monument is 
erected opposite to the west end of the church, and at a little distance to 
the north of the spot where the heroine was buried. Her cottage, an ivy- 
covered structure facing the churchyard, was pointed out by the vicar. 

On the 1st April, 1900, a fire broke out in the tower of the church, 
but beyond destroying practically the roof of the tower, no further 
damage was done. 

The Hon. and Rev. W. Ellis, vicar of Bothal, in moving a vote of 
thanks to the vicar for his kind attention, remarked that one could read 
the early history of Northumberland in the stones of that church, 
architecturally it was quite as interesting as it was historically. 

The vote was carried by acclamation. Mr. Williams responded. 

In the * List of Inquisitions ad quod damnum ' of 9 Edward n 
(Public Record Office, Lists and Indexes, No. xvn), is the following 

* Kindly lent by the County History Committee. 


entry, (p. 161): 'William Galoun to grant a messuage and land in 
Bamborough to a chaplain in the church of St. Aidan there, retaining 
lands in Emeldon and Wamdham.' 


(See p. 165.) 

Members then proceeded to the 


where they were met by Mr. Hart, the resident architect, who acted 
as guide to the party, and fully described the buildings and the altera- 
tions that had been made. He explained that the earliest stone work 
in the courtyard was the keep. The stone of which the castle is built 
is very soft. It was doubtful whether the facing in the keep was 
original, and although of questionable date the doorway was very 
curious. It was probably very early, but it was not supposed to be the 
original one. The keep windows were inserted by Dr. Sharp, probably 
about 1760, 


Mr. Hart concluded by reading the following letter, addressed to one 
of the secretaries, by Dr. Hodgkin : 

' T am sorry that visitors coming will prevent my sharing, as I should 
have liked to do, in the Society's visit to Bamburgh. When I was at 
Battle Abbey a fortnight ago," I was much interested by finding that 
oyster sht-lls have been extensively used in the building of one of the 
towers (at the entrance). Most of them are in the mortar between the 
stones, but here and there is one that has been apparently dabbed into 
the flat face of the stone, like those in the north face of the keep at 
Bamburgh. I suppose the attention of architects has been called to this, 
to me, very puzzling phenomenon Possibly the analogy of Battle Abbey 
may throw a little light on the question, though I am afraid the buildings 
cannot have been contemporary,, as the gateway tower there is said to 
date from 1338. Also, in the church at Battle (Transitional) there are 
some capitals of columns which reminded me cf the one solitary carved 
capital in the nave of Bamburgh church. If any of your party has a 
kodak and could photograph this capital for me I should be glad to 
send it to the very well-informed verger at that church for comparison 
with the capitals there. Can you make any personal appeal to members 
to exert themselves on behalf of the Excavation Fund, which, I am 
afraid, is greatly languishing ? If we do not do the work ourselves we 
must not complain if strangers, perhaps from Oxford or Cambridge, 
come and ' take the bread out of our mouths.' ' 

The thanks of members were voted by acclamation to Mr. Hart on the 
motion of Mr. C. B. P. Bosanquet. 

At a former meeting of the society at Bamburgh the late Mr. Long- 
staffe stated that contrary to expectations, as it was the seat of the 
Saxon kings of Northumbria, not a trace of anything Saxon had been 
found at Bamburgh. Since that time, however, one or two fragments 
of pre-conquest work have turned up, in the shape of portions of a cross, 
of which representations are given in the New County History of Northum- 
berland (vol. i, p. 20). 

In Warkworth's Chronicle (10 Camden Soc. publ. p. 38) there is the 
following interesting note of the ' greet gonnes ' that were used in the 
siege of the castle temrt. Edward iv. 'And than my Lorde lieutenant had 
ordennede alle the Kinges greet gonnes that where charged at oons to 
shute unto the said Castelle, Newe Castel the Kinges greet gonne, and 
London the second gonne of irne ; the whiche betyde the place, that 
stones of the walles flewe unto the see ; Dysyon, a brasin gonne of the 
Kinges, smote thouroughe Si r Rauf Greys chamber oftentymes ; Edward 
and Richard Bombartell, and other "of the Kinges ordennaunce, so 
occupied by the ordennaunce of my said Lord, with men of armes and 
archirs, wonne the castelle of Bamburg with asawte, mawgrey Sir Rauf 
Grey, and tooke hym, and brought hym to the Kynge to Doncastre and 
there was he execut.' 

In 1894 an Ancient British burial ground was discovered amongst the 
sandhills a little to the south of St. Oswald's gate, several graves being 
uncovered and an urn found. A short account of what was found, by 
Prof. McKenny Hughes of Cambridge, with illustrations by Miss 
Hodgkin, appeared in the Daily Graphic for 31st August, 1894, p. 13. 
Lord Armstrong has kindly promised to make enquiries as to the present 
whereabouts of the urn, and to exhibit it at one of the meetings of the 
society, that a record may be made of the discovery. *^j 

When the castle and estate were sold to the late Lord Armstrong, 
with the consent of the Charity Commissioners, he very liberally 
signified to the chairman of the Crewe Trustees tho,t ho had no intention 
of breaking his connexion with them, and offered to provide in the 


altered building a room for the library, pictures, and other treasures 
that were so highly valued by the trustees, and also two rooms for their 
accommodation when they visited Bamburgh. The following illustra- 
tion is of the bell tower at Bamburgh : the block has been lent by the 
editor of the Newcastle Weekly Chronicle. 

Both castle and church having been so fully described on the occasion 
of former vieits of the society (Arch. Ael. xiv., 223 ; Proc. in., 393 and 
396 ; vi., 187 ; and vin., 233, &c.), and also in the New County History 
of Northumberland (vol. i.}, members are referred to the accounts of the 
buildings in these publications for further information respecting them. 

Members subsequently drove to Belford, and dined together at 
5 o'clock, at the Blue Bell hotel, a very enjoyable outing thus most 
auspiciously terminating. Most of the party left Belford station by the 
G'20 p.m. express for the south. 


BAMBUBGH (See p. 165). 

The following are a few additional notes from various sources relating 
to Bamburgh : 

In ' a roll of parchment about 5 feet long,' dated London, 5 Dec., 
5 Edw. [2], one article is against Sir Henry de Beaumont. ' Another 
article says that Lady Vescy got the King to give Bamborough Castle to 
Henry de Beaumont ; that it is a regality ; and is to be taken from him.' 
Hist. MSS. Comm., A p. to 6 Rep. p. 345a. 

Thomas de Baumburgh, parson of the church of Embleton, to grant 
messuages and land in Bamburgh and Fulbrigg in Bamburgh to a 
chaplain in St. Aidan's church, Bamburgh, retaining messuages in 
Bamburgh. ' Inquisitions ad quod damnum,' 6 Edward III. (Public 
Record Office, Lists aud Indexes, xvn., p. 317). 

The men of Bamborough to have a lease of the demesne lands of 
Bamborough Castle for a term of years. Ibid. 8 Edw. III. (Ibid. p. 

In a letter of 15 March, 1596-7, dated from Newcastle, Sir John 
Fortescue thus writes to Sir Robert Cecil : ' It hath pleased Almighty 
God to call to his mercy Thomas Collingwood, late son of Sir Cuthbert 
Collingwood, wherefore I must be an humble suitor for the wardship 
and marriage of the son of the said Thomas Collingwood, for that both 
Sir Cuthbert and he owe suit to the castle of Bamburgh. If it may 
stand with your good liking to help me to the same wardship, I will 
bestow 200 upon my good lord, your father, and you.' Hist. MSS. 
Comm., Hatfield papers, VII., p. 115. 

Bartram Dawson, a tailor and draper in the city of York, of which he 
was made free in 1476, and was chamberlain in 1491, sheriff 1496-7, 'and 
elected an alderman in 1507, by his will of 22 Ap., 1515, left ' to Baum- 
burghe kyrke in Northumberlande a vestement wt. all thynges per- 
teynyng, to the price of xxvjs. viijd.' He was a Northumbrian, 
having been ' gotten & borne in the town of Warmedeii in the pariche of 
Bamburght, & Cristened w'in the pariche churche of the same, havying 
to his godfaders Ric' Craucester of the town of Craucester, gent', and 
another, as owing to his accent it was believed he was a Scot, and was 
therefore obliged in York to prove his nationality ; this was vouched for 
by ' George th' abbot of the monastery of our Lady of Alnewyk, Sir 

Rauf Gray of Chelvyngham , Sir Ric' Brown vycar of Heddon 

Sir Robert Crofton M. of the towne of Bamburght, Sir Ric' 

Davyson vycar of Ellyngham John Hall constable of the said 

town of Bamburght,' and others. The curious document is printed in 
full in Testamenta Eboracensia, vol. v., p. 61 (79 Surt. Soc. publ.) 

Amongst those present were : The Hon. and Rev. W. Ellis, rector of 
Bothal ; Mr. and Mrs. L. C. Lockhart, Mr. H. F. Lockhart, and Mr. L. 
A. K. Lockhart, Hexham ; Mrs. Sandwell, Mr. R. S. Nisbet, Mr. T. 
Matheson, Mrs. and Miss Oswald, Mr. and Mrs. W. Heatley, Mr., Mrs., 
and Miss Truttman, Newcastle ; Mr. and Mrs. John Dowson, Mrs. 
Angus, Councillor and Mrs. Allon Burn, Morpeth ; Dr. Burman, 
Alnwick ; Miss Newton, Chathill ; Mr. John Graham, Sacriston : Mr. 
R. J. Semple, Darlington ; Mr. J. M. Moore, Harton ; Mr. J. C. Hodgson, 
Alnwick; Mr., Mrs., and Miss Bosanquet, Rock; M*\ George Irving, 
West Fell, Corbridge ; Mr. T. Williamson, and the Misses Williamson, 
North Shields ; Mr. James Jobling, Morpeth ; Mr. R. Blair, Harton, 
near South Shields, &c. 



The fallowing is copied from the original document in the possession 
of Mr. Ralph Nelson of Bishop Auckland, a member of the society : 


ex d 19 Feb., 1762. p. W. H. 

A Valor of the sev 1 Eccl'i'al Benefices in y e Co. of D m taken y e 26 th 
of Henry y e 8 th by virtue of a certain very regular Commission directed 
to sev 1 Com rs wherein inter alia is contained. 

The Deanry of y e collegiate Ch. of Auckl d W m Strangeways, Clerk, 
Dean there. 

Value. The Site of a Mansion with Glebe Lands 20. The Rents 
of Tenem ts in A d , Redworth, Fishburn, Lintsgreen, Woodhouses, & 
Hamsterley 11. Tythes & Oblacons with o r Profits as Easter 
Offerings &c. 70. In y e whole by y e year 101. 

Then follow y e Outgoings viz. annually. s. d. 

Fee Farm Rent to y e Bp 01010 

To y c Archdeacon of D" 1 for Sinodales & Proxies . . 020 

To P d Greathead (does not say for w l ) 4 13 4 

To Wages of 6 Choristers each 53s. 4d 10 

Tot' Outgoings 21 G 2 

Clear . . 79 13 10 

Hamsterley Preb. 

Nicholas Lentall Preb r y there in y e whole annual value of Is. Od. 
Preb. let to Farm with 66s. & Sd. yearly p d to lohn Thorp Lay Chanter 
there 4 65. Sd. 

Preb 5 Names. Value. 

s. d. 

1. Auckl d & Binchester 9 6 8 

2. Second Prebend of A d 813 4 

3. 1 st Preb. of Eldon 813 4 

4. 2 nd 10 

5. 3 rd Eldon 813 4 

G. 4 th 813 4 

7. Shildon 816 8 

8. Witton ; 413 4 

9. West A d 8 

10. St. Helen A d 

11. Hamsterley 468 

79 16 8 

Witton Preb. The Profits & Emolum ts of y e s d Preb. yearly w th ! 
66s. Sd. p d yearly to In Hodgson Lay Chanter 4 13 4^ 

Lanchester Deanry. 

Scite of y e Mansion of y e s d Deanry Glebe Lands, Tythes of Corn 
Hay Wool Lambs Calves Hogs Geese Chickens Easter Offerings & 

o r small Oblations 40 

[Endorsed : * Abstract of Return of Eccl'i'al Benefices in y e Co. of 
D m w th K. Henry y e 8 th Com" &c. annexed, in 1 st Fruits Office.'] 


The following local notes are taken from the Calendar of Patent 
Rolls, 1476-1485: 

1476 Oct. 14, Westminster. Restitution of the temporalities of the 
bishopric of Durham, with all issues from the time of voidance, to the 
king's clerk Master William Dudley, whom the pope has appointed 
bishop on the translation of Laurence, late bishop, and who has re- 
nounced everything prejudicial to the king ar-d whose fealty the king 
has taken. [Fcedera.] By K. (16 Edw. iv. pt. 2) [p. 2]. 

1476, Oct. 8, Westminster. Mandate to the escheator in the county 
of York for the restitution of the temporalities of the archbishopric of 
York to Laurence, late bishop of Durham, whom the pope has appointed 
archbishop and who has renounced everything prejudicial to the crown 
and whose fealty the king has taken. By K. [Fadera]. 

The like to the escheators in the following counties : Northumber- 
land, Nottingham and Derby, Lincoln, Oxford, Middlesex, Gloucester 
and the marches of Wales adjacent. The like to the Mayor of Kynges- 
ton on- Hull. The like to the mayor of York. 

Writ de intendendo in pursuance to the tenants. 
(Ibid. Membrane 17), [pp. and 10.] 

1477, Jan. 12, Westminster. Licence for the king's kinsman George 
Nevyle, knight, lord Bergevenny, son and heir of Edward Nevyle, knight, 
late lord Bergevenny and Elizabeth his wife, to enter freely into all 
baronies, castles, manors, lordships, honours, commotes, cantreds, alien 
pr-iories, lands, rents, reversions, services, mills, fisheries, pensions, 
portions, forests, offices, courts leets, views of frank-pledge, turns, 
sheriffs' turns, returns of writs and executions, chaces, advowsons, 
knights' fees, tenths, forfeitures, wreck of sea, fee farms, tolls, customs, 
advowsons, franchises, liberties, privileges, jurisdictions, possessions, 
fairs, markets, profits and hereditaments in England, Wales and the 
marches, Ireland and the town and marches of Calais, which should 
descend to him by the deaths of the said Edward and Elizabeth or any 
of his ancestors, saving to the king homage and fealty. By K. (Ibid. 
Membrane 15) [p. 12] 

1478, Feb. 21, Westminster. Licence for the king's brother Richard, 
duke of Gloucester, or his heirs or executors, to found a college at 
Barnard Castell within the castle there of a dean and twelve chaplains, 
ten clerks and six choristers and one clerk to celebrate divine service 
and offices in the chapel within the castle for the good estate "of the king 
and his consort Elizabeth, queen of England, and the said duke and 
Anne his wife and his heirs, and for their souls after death, and the 
souls of the king's father Richard, late duke of York, and the king's 
brothers and sisters, to be called the college of the said duke at Barnard 
Castell, and for the said dean and chaplains to acquire in mortmain lands, 
rents, services and other possessions and advowsons of churches to the 
value of 400 marks yearly. [Monasticon, vi., 1440]. By p.s. (Edw. 
iv., pt. 2, Membrane 16) [p. 67] 

Feb. 21, Westminster. Licence for the same to found a college at 
Midelham of a dean and six chaplains, four clerks and six choristers and 
one clerk to celebrate divine services and offices as above in the parish 
church there, to be called the college of the said duke at Middelham, co. 
York, and for the said dean and chaplains to acquire in mortmain lands, 
rents, services and other possessions and advowsons of churches to the 
value of 200 marks yearlv. [Monasticon, vi., 1440] By p.s. (Ibid. 
Memb. 16) [p. 67] 

1480, Dec. 13, Westminster. Pardon to William, bishop of Durham, 
John, bishop of Worcester, William, lord Hastynges, John Wake the 


elder, esquire, William Catesby, Thomas Lymeryk, Richard Maryett 
and William Crabbe of the trespass in acquiring from Elizabeth, late 
dame, Latymer, late^the wife of Thomas Wake, deceased, esquire, the 
manors of Beeley, co. Worcester, and Wykewone, co. Gloucester, held in 
chief, to fulfil her will and entering thereon without licence. By p.s. 
(20 Edw. iv., pt. 2, Memb. 13) [p. 253] 

1481, May 25, Westminster. Mandate to all bailiffs and others to 
permit William Robynson alias Smyth, ' smyth,' born in Scotland, 
dwelling at Shirbourne in the bishopric of Durham, who has taken an 
oath of fealty, to inhabit the realm peaceably and enjoy his goods. 
Like mandate in favour of Walter Laurenceson alias Lauranceson, born 
in Scotland, dwelling at Greteham, in the bishopric of Durham. (21 
Edw. iv., p. 2., Memb., 17) [p. 270] 

1481, Sept. 25, Scrooby. General pardon to William Fedurstonagh 
alias Fetherstonehaugh alias Fedustone late of Stanhope in Wardale 
within the bishopric of Durham, ' gentilman,' alias late of Boston, co. 
Lincoln, of all offences committed by him before 10 July last. By p.s. 
(Ibid.) [p. 287] 

1483, Dec. 4, Westminster. Presentation of George Ratclyff, 
chaplain, to the parish church of Wermouth, in the diocese of Durham, 
in the king's gift by reason of the temporalities of the bishopric being in 
his hands. By p.s. (i Rich, in., pt. 2, Memb., 24) [p. 374] 

1483, Dec. 11, Westminster. Grant to Alexander Skynner, chaplain, 
of the perpetual chantry of Fernakers within the parish of Quykham, in 
the diocese of Durham, void by the death of Thomas Bartram, chaplain, 
r.nd in the king's gift by reason of the bishopric being void and in his 
hands. Presentation of the said Alexander to the same. (Ibid. 
Memb. 24) [p. 374] 

1484, April 24, Nottingham. Grant to Master John Shirwood, professor 
of theology and the king's proctor in the court of Rome, and his assigns 
of the custody of the temporalities of the bishopric of Durham with 
advowsons from the death of William, last bishop, so long as they 
remain in the king's hands. By p.s. (Ibid., pt. 4, Memb. 14) [p. 436] 

1485, Aug. 7, Nottingham. Pardon to John Shirwode*, bishop of 
Durham, alias prothonotary apostolic, alias late orator of the king, 
alias late archdeacon of Richemond, alias professor of theology, of all 
acceptances and publications of apostolic letters and bulls, and all 
entries upon any ecclesiastical temporalities. [Fcedera]. By p.s. 
(Ibid. Memb. 9) [p. 548] 

1485, Aug. 6, Nottingham. Mandate to the escheator in the county 
of York for the restitution of the temporalities of the bishopric of 
Durham to John, whom Sixtus, late pope, provided to be bishop on the 
death of William, last bishop, and who has renounced everything 
prejudicial to the king in the paper bull by Thomas Scrope of Upsall, 
knight, his proctor, and whose fealty the king has taken by the said 
proctor. [Fcedera]. By p.s. (3 Rich, m., Memb. 8) [p. 548] 

He occurs in commissions of the peace for Yorkshiie from 14S5 to 1494 





3 SER., VOL. I. 1904. No. 21. 

The ordinary monthly meeting of the society was held in the library 
of the Castle, Newcastle, on Wednesday, the 27th day of July, 1904, at 
seven o'clock in the evening, Mr. J. V. Gregory, one of the vice-presi- 
dents, being in the chair. 

Several accounts, recommended by the Council for payment, were 
ordered to be paid. 

The following ORDINARY MEMBERS were proposed and declared duly 
elected : 

i. David Adams, Newcastle, 
ii. Allon Burn, Bridge Street, Morpeth. 

The following NEW BOOKS, ETC., were placed on the table : 
Present, for which thanks were voted: 

From the author : Runeligstene og Mindesmcerker knyttede til Kirker, 
vol. iv., by Ludv. F. A. Wimmev, large fo. Koebenhavn, 1903-4. 
Exchanges : 

From the Shropshire Archaeological and Nat. Hist. Soc. : Trans- 
actions, 3 ser. iv., ii., 8vo. 

From the Yorkshire Archaeological Society : (i.) The Yorkshire 
Archaeological Journal, pt. 69 (xvm, i.) [See pp. 76-78 for a 
list of the names of rebels belonging to Durham county (from the 
Bowes MSS. ), who were executed for their participation in the 
Rising in the North.] ; and (ii.) Index of the'Papers contained in 
vols. i. to xvii. both 8vo. 

From the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, U.S.A. : Annual 
Report, thick extra cl., 1904. 

From the Surrey Archaeological Society : Archaeological Collections, 
vol. viii., 8vo. cl. 

From the Cambrian Archaeological Association : Archaeologia Cam- 
brensis, April and July, 1904, 8vo. (6 ser. iv., ii. and iii.) 

From the Historic Society "of Lancashire and Cheshire : Transactions 
for 1902, LTV (N.S., xvin^. 

From the Nordisk Oldkyndighed og Historie : Aarboeger, xvni, i. 

From the Historisch-Philosophischen Vereins : Neue Heidelberger 
Jahrbucher, xin, i. 

From the Verein fur Nassauische Altertumskunde : (i ) Annalen, 
xxxin , ii , large 8vo ; and (ii ) Mittheilungen, large 8vo. 


Purchases : Unoriginal drawings, by the Rev. E. A. Downam, of Ancient 
British Camps [being plans of Ambersbury Banks, Pitchbury 
Ramparts, and Uphall, Essex ; Arbelows, Brough, Bull Ring, 
Castle Nay (Combs Moss), Hathersage Camp Green, Mam Tor, 
Pilsbury Castle, and Staden Low, Derbyshire] ; Roman Hayling, 
a contribution to the History of Roman Britain, by Talfourd Ely ; 
Jahrbuch of the Imp. Germ. Archl. Inst., xx., i. and h., large 8vo. 
plates ; Der Obergermanisch-Raetische Limes des Roemerreiches, 
lief. xxi.Kastell Walldurn d: Kastell Weltzheim ; The New 
English Dictionary, vol. vni., Q Ree ; Warrington's Roman 
Remains, by T. May, thick 4to, cl. ; Beverley Chapter Act Book, n. 
(108 Surtees Society publ.), 8vo. cl. ; The Registers of Whitburn 
and of St. Margaret's, Durham (Northumberland and Durham 
Parish Reg. Society) 8vo. ppr covers ; The New History of North- 
umberland, vol. vii., large 4to. cl. ; Notes and Queries, 10 ser., 
23-30 ; The Antiquary for June and July, 1 904 ; and The 
Reliquary for July, 1904. 
The editor (Mr. Blair) placed on the table part 62 of Archaeologia 

Aeliana, being the third and concluding part of vol. xxv. 

The following recommendations of the council were agreed to : 
(i.) The purchase of Codrington's Roman Roads in Britain, and Influence 
of the Pre- Reformation Church on Scottish Place-names, by James Murray 
Mackinlay (12/10) ; (ii.) The holding of an afternoon meeting at Tyne- 
mouth, on Mr. Clephan's invitation, to see his collection of arms and 
armour, on a day to be settled Dy him and Mr. Blair ; and (iii.) To join 
the Associated Societies in Conference. 


By Mr. W. Charlton of Northallerton : A water colour drawing (? by 
Good of Berwick) of the interior of Holy Island church from the 
west, made somewhere about 1830, judging from the dress of the 
figures. (See reproduction of exterior of church, and of the 
window shewn on the right of the accompanying plate, both from 
drawings by T. S. Good, Proc. v., between pp. 132 and 133 and 
facing p. 133.) 

Raine (North Durham, p. 147) informs us that in his time ' the church ' 
was ' very respectably pewed with old black oak. The pulpit is even orna- 
mental. One of its decorations is a shield, upon which is carved ' 1646, 
T. S. May 3.' ' Since Raine' s time the ' old black oak ' has all dis- 
appeared. The late Mr. T. W. U. Robinson of Houghtoii-le-Spring, had 
the oak shield bearing the date 1646. The drawing, which probably 
came fiom the Selby sale about 1840 to 1850, is interesting as shewing 
two maiden or funeral garlands suspended from the roof of the nave. 
The latest survival of this custom seems to have been in Derbyshire 
(see article in the Reliquary, 1 ser. i, p. 5, by the late Llewellynn Jewitt 
on the subject ; also Chambers' s Book of Days, i, 271, where some illus- 
trations are given, and Jefferson's History of Thirsk). ' These garlands 
were carried before the corpses of unmarried females on their "way to the 
grave, and then hanging up the garland in the church as a memento of 
the departed one.' ' There is a good garland in a glass case and bracket 
in the vestry of Trusley church, Derbyshire' (C. C. Hodges). 

Amongst the ' Inquisitions ad quod damnum ' of 32 Edward i., as 
given in Lists and Indexes xvii, p. 73 (Public Record Office), is ' William 
de Gosewyk to grant messuages and land in Alnham near Alnwick and 
Ewart near Wooler to a chaplain in the parish church of Holy Island, 
retaining lands in Glantoii in Whittingham (Glentindon), Alnham, ancj 
Earle in Doddington (Yerdel).' 


By Mr. John S. Fairs, one of the churchwardens of St. John's church, 
Gateshead Fell : A rubbing of the inscription on an old bell in 
that church which reads: + IHESVS BE OVR SPED 1610, the 'S' 
being reversed, below the inscription are the letters WB and iw, 
probably the initials of churchwardens of the time, and the bell- 
founder's mark (?), a griffin issuing from a ducal crown. 
[As the church is quite modern, not having been built till 1825, the 
bell must have originally belonged to some other church. It may have 
been brought from Hawkes, Crawshay & Co.'s Works, to which probably 
it had been sent to be broken up, as it was placed in the tower by the Rev. 
W. Hawkes, the first incumbent, a son of Sir R. S. Hawkes of Newcastle. 
The dimensions are, height to crown, 2 feet 2| inches, diameter at 
mouth, 2 feet 11 inches, and estimated weight from 8 to 10 cwt.] 


Mr. Blair (one of the secretaries) read the following note : 
' Tliree inscribed centurial stones have been found within the past 
year amongst the debris of the great Wall, 
north of Allalee, while the tenant, Mr. 
Woodman, was collecting stones to build 
a hay shed at that place. Two of them 
are now built into the wall of the shed. 
One is a stone 12 ins. long by 7 ins wide, 
and the inscription on it is o MAXT, the 
century of Maximus, or something of the 
kind. On the other the inscription is 
illegible. * The third stone has been carried 
to Low Town farm, about half a mile to 
the west. It is 11 ins. long by 9 ins. wide, and bears the inscription 

in a moulded panel : COH vin | > succi 
(of the 8th cohort, the century of Seccus 
or Seccius.) the OH of ' COH ' being tied. 
The curious thing about this inscription is, 
that it is the duplicate almost of a stone 
which for very many years has been built 
upside down in the bottom course on the 
east side of a wall a little west of the house. 
The late Dr. Bruce (Lapid. Sept., No. 291) 
gives the reading of the latter as con 
vin [o] SIL[I]CCI, of the^th'cohort, the cen- 
tury of Silicius. At the back of the 
byre, a very old building, formerly 
the farmhouse, built apparently of 
Wall stones, there is a small pig- 
house. Into it is built, face inwards, 
an inscribed stone. Though the 
tenant distinctly remembers the 
unison building the stone into the 
wall yet he cannot now name its exact position. As Dr. Bruce (Lap. 
Kept., 290) on Horsley's authority, gives inscriptions on two stones at 
Low Waltown, but as they were then lost he could not supply illus- 
trations of them. Horsley's readings are o COH^VIII^XIIAN and co. Can 
that built into the pig place be one of these inscriptions ? 

* Mr Haverfield has seen the stones since their arrival at the Blackgate museum. 
He reads this COH in | 3 KMI . . ' but it is sadly illegible.' Th other, he thinks, reads 
> MAXT, ' but the stroke over the I may be accidental.' 


In a wall about a quarter of a mile to the west of the house is another 
ceiiturial stone with 'two lines of an inscription apparently, but this is 
difficult to read, being rather awkwardly placed. 

I went to Aesica last Saturday and made squeezes of the inscriptions, 
but the only one which has come out satisfactorily, that of the stone now 
in Mr. Robson's possession, I now exhibit. On my return I wrote to 
Mr. Coulson, the owner of Aesica. and of the land on which the stones 
were found, asking him to present them to the society, and I am glad to 
say he has very kindly acceded to my request, conditionally, however, on 
plain stones being inserted in the walls in place of the inscribed stones. 

The best thanks of members are not only due to Mr. Coulson for his 
gift, but also to Mr. Woodman and to Mr. Robson for preserving them. 
Thanks are also due to Mr. Wood of Low Row station, to whom Mr. 
Woodman pointed out the stones, who communicated their discovery 
to me. I therefore move that our best thanks be given to these 

Thanks w r ere voted accordingly by acclamation. 


M. Robert Mowat of Paris, has thus written to Mr. Blair, one of the 
secretaries, respecting this altar : ' I entirely agree as to the reading 
DEO AN[T]ENOCITICO j SACRV [M] | COH I VA .... either Vangionum or 
Vardulorum ; perhaps Vangionum is preferable, as it fits tight in the 
space available, whilst Vardulorum is rather too long by one letter. As 
for that fourth line hitherto unread, and plainly deciphered on the 
phototype QVBP that is to say, quib(us) p[raeest] ; the following 
missing word should then be the name of the commanding officer, 
tribunus or praefectus of the cohort. The formula cui praeest, or quibus 
praeest, is frequent in military diplomas and inscriptions. See Corp. 
Insc. Lot. vn. 1195 and Lapid Sept. p. 3 (Riveling diploma), C. I. L., 
1193 and Lapid Sept. p. 7 (Malpas diploma) ; G. I. L. in., dipl. LI.: 
Equitibus qui inter singulares militaverunt castris novis Severianis,. 
quibus praeest Aelius Victor, tribunus.' 


The following are Mr. O. J. Charl ton's abstracts of the deeds, be- 
longing to the society, from the Phillipps sale : 

1. 20th Nov., 11 Eliz., 1568. Indenture, in English, between Cuthbert 
Collingwood of Eslington, Northumberland, esquire, of the one part 
and Thomas Collingwood of Great Ryall, in the same county, gentle- 
man, of the other part. The said Cuthbert Collingwood grants to tho 
said Thomas Collingwood all his lands, tenements, rents, reversions 
services, and hereditaments, with their appurtenances situate in the 
town, territory and fields of Great Ryall, then or late in the occupation 
of the said Thomas Collingwood, Edward Atcheson, William 1'orat, 
John Read, George Atcheson, John Perat, and Thomas Mawtel;i.u<l. 
Signed by Cuthbert Collingwood. Witnesses : Robert Collingwood, 
Thomas Ledell. Henry Collingwood, John Reid and John Ersdene. 
Seal : circular, ^-$inch in diameter ; in centre a garb tied by a long rope ; 
round the edge the inscription, ' + Sans variaunce terme de vie.' 

2. Same date. A bond, in Latin, by Cuthbert Collingwood, binding 
himself to pay to Thomas Collingwood 40 on the Feast of the Nativity 
next after the date of the bond. Signed by Cuthbert Collingwood- 

177 . 

Same witnesses as in No. 1. The condition, on the reverse, in English, 
is that the said Cuthbert Collingwood shall observe and perform the 
covenants and agreements contained in No. 1. Seal same as before. gj| 

3. 24th Nov.. 1568. Deed poll, in Latin, by Cuthbert Collingwood 
granting all his lands, etc., in Great Ryall, as in No, 1. to Thomas 
Collingwood, in consideration of 60, and appointing Lawrence 
Thornton of Staynton Sheildes, Northumberland, gentleman, and 
John Unthanke of Unthanke, in the same county, gentleman, his 
attorneys to make livery of seisin. Portion of seal remaining, same 
as in Nos. 1 and 2. Signed by Cuthbert Collingwood. Witnesses as 
in No. 1. 

4. 1st Oct., 1618, 16 James I. Bond, in Latin, by Robert Burrell of 
Millfield, Northumberland, gentleman, binding himself to pay 500 to 
Thomas Btirrell of Kyllham, in the same county, gentleman. The con- 
dition, written below, in Engiish, recites that the said Robert Burrell 
had bargained and sold to the said Thomas Burrell for 240 all the 
lands, tenements, and hereditaments in Humbledon, in the county of 
Northumberland, which were late in the occupation of Thomas 
Burrell, father of the said Robert Burrell, or his assigns, and after his 
decease came into the possession of the said Robert Burrell, and at the 
date of this bond in virtue of the said bargain and sale were in the 
occupation of the said Thomas. Burrell, being of the. yearly rent of 
forty shillings ; that the said lands, etc., were purchased in trust in 
the name of William Wallis, late of Akeld, Northumberland, gentle- 
man, deceased, for Robert Burrell, grandfather of the said Robert 
Burrell, party to this bond, and were, at the date thereof, by the act 
of William Wallis, grandchild of the said William Wallis, 'together 
with other his own lands, entailed to such uses as in the entail were 
limited ; that the said Robert Burrell, party to this bond, by reason of 
the said entails could not convey to the said Thomas Burrell such an 
estate in fee simple as was requisite ; and that if the said Robert 
Burrell, his heirs, or assigns, should, within the space of 7 years after 
the date of this bond, give to the said Thomas Burrell such a good and 
absolute estate in fee simple as the said Thomas Burrell should require, 
and until then warrant the said lands, etc., to the said Thomas Burrell, 
then this bond should be void. Signed by Robert Burrell. Witnesses 
Edward Clavering and Oliver Scott. Part of the foot of the deed is 
torn oft', and near the foot is a memorandum of an agreement between 
the parties to the bond that the said Thomas Burrell should be con- 
tented with the rent and service reserved in George Bridon's lease of 
dated the 20th 

5. Copy of a deed poll by John Dove of Whitlowe, Northumberland, 
gentleman, and Mary his wife. Recital of the grant by them to 
Alexander Vaich of Newcastle- upon- Tyne, yeoman, of a tenement in 
the occupation of Edward Forster, cordwainer, situate in the Side, 
Xewcastle-upon-Tyne, adjoining upon a tenement in the occupation of 
the said Alexander Vaich, and warranty of the same to him by them. 
' And I the said Mary not any way forced or compelled by my said 
husband of my own free will and account have come into the Guild- 
hall of the town of Newcastle-upon-Tyne and personally appeared in 
full and open court there betwixt the four benches, thereof before 
Thomas Bonner, esq., mayor, Peter Sanderson, sheriff, the alderman 
of the same town, and divers other honest men and according to the 
custom of the same town being alone examined and sworn upon 
the holy evangelist, have sworn that whatsoever hereafter shall 
become of my said husband this my act and deed I will never 


contradict nor labour to make void but the same against me and my 
heirs shall stand firm and stable and I desire that my act and deed 
may be enrolled. And because unto many our seals are unknown "we 
have therefore procured the seal of the Mayoralty of Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne to be hereunto affixed.' Dated 12th Dec., 1651. Executed in 
the presence of John Williamson, Thomas Cotlowe, Robert Bulmari. 
' Taken and acknowledged in open court the day and year within 
written by the within named Mary Dove first sworn and above 
examined before us Thomas Bonrier, mayor, Leonard Carr, Henry 
Dawson, Mark Millanke, Christopher Nicholson, Peter Sanderson, 
sheriff, Thomas Milbourne, Anthony Walker, Wm. Warren, John 
Waithman, Wm. Jackson. Inrolled in the book of Inrollemeiits 
remaining in the Guildhall of the town of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 
12 Dec., 1651. This true copy of the original taken and examined 
the 2nd day of August, Anno regni regis Caroli secundi nunc 
Angliae vicesimo tertio Annoque Domini 1671 by us George 
Pinckney, Robert Bulman, notaries public.' 

6. 9th June, 2 William and Mary, 1690. Indenture between George 
Armstrong of Sandhoe, Northumberland, yeoman, of the one part, 
and William Dawson of Wall, in the same county, yeoman, of the 
other part. The said George Armstrong in consideration of 160 
grants to the said William Dawson all his messuage or farmhold 
situate within the town and towne fields of Sandhoe aforesaid, 
then in the occupation of the said George Armstrong, except 
one close called Kells Leazes. Proviso for redemption on pay- 
ment of 160 at Whit Sunday, 1693, and also of 9 a year by 
equal portions at Martinmas and Whitsunday. Recital of a bond 
of like date securing the principal and interest. The property, 
if not redeemed on the day appointed, to be similarly redeemable at 
the expiration of any subsequent peroid of three years. Proviso for 
repayment of the 160 at the expiration of 3 years from the date of the 
deed on six months' notice being given by the said William Dawson, 
and similarly at the expiration of any subsequent period of 3 years. 
Signed by G^eorge Armstrong. W T ax on tag without impression of a 
seal. Attestation clause and memorandum of livery of seisin endorsed. 
Witnesses : Edward Straight, Elizabeth Straight, Edmund Burdoss, 
Robert Dawson. 

7. 29th Sept., 3 Anne, 1704. Indenture between William Dawson of 
Wall, Northumberland, yeoman, and Catharine Armstrong, spinster, 
daughter and sole heiress of George Armstrong late of Sandhoe, in the 
same county, yeoman, deceased, of the one part, and Ralph Soulsby of 
Cocklaw, in the same county, yeoman. Recital of the above inden- 
ture No. 6, and that the sum of 160 therein mentioned w r as not paid 
by the said George Armstrong, and that he was since dead. The said 
William Dawson, in consideration of 160 paid to him by the said 
Ralph Soulsby, grants, by the direction of the said Catharine Arm- 
strong, all the hereditaments mentioned in the indenture No. 6, with 
the exception therein named, to the said Ralph Soulsby, subject to 
the provisoes and conditions contained in the said indenture. Proviso 
for redemption on payment by the said Catharine Armstrong to the 
said Ralph Soulsby of 9 12s. Od. on 1st May, 1705, 9 12s. Od. on 1st 
May, 1706, and 169 12s. Od. on 1st May, 1707. Signed by William 
Dawson, and Catharine Armstrong. Two seals, both the same; 
circular, |inch diameter ; device, a conventional flower. Attestation 
clause and memorandum of livery of seisin endorsed. Witnesses . 
John Hutchinson, his mark, Tho. Ridley, William Dixon, his mark, 


John Carr. Receipt endorsed, signed by William Dawson. Witnesses 
as above. 

8. 1st May, 3 Geo. II., 1730. Indenture between Christopher Soulsby 
of Chollerton, Northumberland, gentleman, of the one part, and 
Thomas Allison the younger of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, butcher, of the 
other part. Recital that the said parties, by their several bonds, 
dated the 7th day of August, 1727, were bound to one another in the 
penal sum of 300 conditioned on their standing to the award, if made 
before 18th Oct., 1730, of Thomas Errington of Beaufront, in the 
county of Northumberland, esq., William Potter of Hawkwell, in the 
same county, esq., and Joseph Ledgard of Elswick, in the same 
county, esq., or any two of them, arbitrators chosen on behalf of the 
said Christopher Soulsby and Thomas Allison to arbitrate in all 
differences between them. Recital that the said T. Errington, W. 
Potter and J. Ledgard on the 9th Sept. then last part awarded that 
the said T. Allison should, on or before the 9th March then next 
ensuing, pay to the said C. Soulsby the sum of 160 and all interest 
then due for the same on said 9th March, it appearing to them that 
the said sum of 160 was due by mortgage on the lands and estate in 
the possession of the said Thomas Allison his tenants or others at 
Sandhoe, in the said county, and further awarded that in regard to 
the trouble and expense the said C. Soulsby had been put to that the 
said T. Allison should also pay him on the said 9th March the sum of 
5 5s. Od. And also awarded that the said C. Soulsby on payment of 
the said sum at the request and charges of the said T. Allison should 
release and transfer to the said T. Allison all his right to and interest 
in the said premises, and deliver all deeds in his possession touching 
the same. And that the said C. Soulsby should be indemnified 
against all claims in respect of the premises. Recital that there was 
due to the said C. Soulsby for interest 22 16s. 8d., making together 
with the sum of 160 and 5 5s. Od. 188 Is. 8d. The said C. Soulsby 
in consideration of 188 Is. 8d. to him paid by the said T. Allison' 
releases, assigns, and transfers to the said T. Allison all his right title 
and interest of and in the messuage, land, tenements, farmhold, and 
premises with the appurtenances situate at Sandhoe in the parish of 
Saint John Lee, in the county of Northumberland, then in possess on 
of the said T. Allison or his assigns. Signed by Christopher Soulsby. 
Seal : Oval, finch by finch ; device, a cock treading a hen ; inscrip- 
tion, ' nunquam satis.' Receipt endorsed, signed by Christopher 
Soulsby and witnessed by ff. Arnison, jun., and John Emmerson. 
Attestation clause endorsed ; same witnesses. 

9. 2nd Sept., 6 William and Mary, 1694. Indenture between Dame 
Elizabeth Heron of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, widow, and relict of Sir 
Cuthbert Heron, late of Chipchase, Northumberland, bart., deceased, 
of the first part, Timothy Robson, of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, aforesaid, 
and Matthew White of the same place, esq., of the second part, and 
Mark Browell of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, gentleman, of the third part. 
Recital that Elizabeth Crome late of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, widow, 
by her will dated on or about 5th March, 1687, devised to the said 
Timothy Robson (therein described as merchant and alderman), 
Humphry Pybus of Newcastle, merchant, and the said Matthew 
White (therein described as merchant) and their heirs, all that 
messuage, burgage, tenement and shop, then in the several occupations 
of her the said Elizabeth Crome and Eliazor Hodshon, barber chir- 
urgion, and all that messuage, burgage, tenement and shop, then in 
the several occupations of Joseph Story and Richard Atkinson, 


barber chirurgion, and also all that messuage, burgage, and tenement 
and low cellar then in the possession of Parcivall Vipond, scrivener, 
which said low cellar was under a messuage then in the possession of 
John Meggee, mason. And also one other cellar then in the possession 
of John Wever, gentleman. And also all those four corn lofts then in 
the possession of William Ward, merchant. And also that cellar and 
brewhouse, then in the possession of the said Joseph Story, and also 
that messuage, burgage, and tenement and yard then in the occupa- 
tion of Mary Downey, widow. And also all that little entry and 
little cellar called the Kill Dodd, then in the possession of the said 
John Meggee, with the appurtenances, situate in Newcastle aforesaid, 
in a certain street called the ' Key Side,' upon trust to receive the 
rents and profits, and pay the same to the said Dame Elizabeth 
Heron during the life of her husband Sir Cuthbert Heron, bart., and 
her said husband to have no interest therein. And after the death 
of the said Sir Cuthbert Heron upon trust to convey the same to the 
said Elizabeth Heron, and to the heirs of her body and in default of 
such heirs to the right heirs of the said Elizabeth Crome. Recital 
that she also devised unto her sister ffaith ffrothingham for her life 
All that messuage, burgage, tenement and shop, with the appurten- 
ances then in the several occupations of John Thompson, fitter, and 
Richard, barber chirurgion, situate in Newcastle aforesaid, in the said 
street called the Keyside, and after the death of the said ffaith ffroth- 
ingham she devised the same to the said Timothy Robson, William 
Pybus and Matthew White, and their heirs, upon similar trusts to 
those above recited. Recital of the death of the said Elizabeth 
Crome, and that the said Timothy Robson, William Pybus, and 
Matthew White had not intermeddled with the said messuages and 
premises, and had not received any of the rents and profits thereof. 
Recital of the death of the said Sir Cuthbert Heron since the making 
of the said will. Recital of the death of the said Humphrey Pybus, 
and the consequent vesting of the estate in the said Timothy Robson 
and Matthew White. The said Timothy Robson and Matthew White 
at the request of the said Dame Elizabeth Heron released, conveyed, 
and confirmed unto the said Mark Browell (then in possession by 
virtue of an indenture of bargain and sale dated the day before the 
date of this indenture) All the said premises, etc., to hold the same 
to the said Mark Browell and his heirs as to the messuage, burgage, 
tenement and shop, with the appurtenances as before recited devised 
to the said ffaith ffrothingham from the death of the said ffaith ffroth- 
ingham to the use of the said Dame Elizabeth Heron and the heirs of 
her body, and in default thereof to the use of the right heirs of the 
said Elizabeth Crome, and as to all other the premises to the use of the 
said Dame Elizabeth Heron and the heirs of her body, and in default 
thereof to the use of the right heirs of the said Elizabeth Crome. 
Signed by Timothy Robson and Matthew White, the surname in each 
case being cut away. Timothy Robson's seal is oval, finch by -Unch, 
bearing a shield charged with a chevron ermine between 3 boars heads 
couped. Matthew White's seal is oval, |inch by finch, bearing a 
shield charged with, on a bend three crosses moline ; above a helmet 
and mantling ; for crest, a cross moline. Attestation clauses en- 
dorsed. Witnesses to the execution by Timothy Robson, Robert 
Bowes and John Bell; by Matthew White, Francis Suddick, and 
Tim. Thomson, notaries public. 

10. 1st May, 18 George II., 1745. Indenture between Thomas Heron 
Jate of the city of Durham, esq., and then an ensign in general 


'Handasyde's regiment of foot, and Elizabeth Heron of Offerton, in 
the county of Diirham, spinster (sister of the said Thomas Heron) of 
the one part, and Anthony Shepherd of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, baker 
and brewer, of the other part. Recital of agreement between the 
said Thomas Heron and Anthony Shepherd for the sale of the here- 
ditaments therein described for 950. In consideration of 400 paid 
by the said Anthony Shepherd to the said Thomas Heron, and of the 
sum of 550 secured as therein mentioned, and also of the sum of 5/- 
paid to the said Elizabeth Heron, the said Thomas Heron and Eliza- 
beth Heron granted, bargained, and sold to the said Anthony Shepherd, 
then in possession by an indenture of bargain and sale dated the 
day previous, All that great messuage, burgage or tenement, with the 
appurtenances formerly in the occupation of ffrancis Armorer, and all 
those three shops situate near the said messuage, two of them formerly 
in the occupation of Edward Colville, butcher, and of John Pace, 
and then in the several occupations of the said ffrancis Armorer, and 
of Barbara Trotter and John Brough, and all that messuage, burgage 
nnd tenement, with the appurtenances, formerly in the occupation of 
Mrs. Brown, widow, and then in the occupation of Mary Kent/and all 
that messuage, burgage or tenement, with the appurtenances then or 
late used for corn lofts, formerly in the occupation of Joseph Atkin- 
son, merchant, deceased, and late in the occupation of Lyonell Dixon 
and others, and then in the occupation of George Harrison, merchant, 
all situate in the Keyside, boundering on the Keyside towards the 
south two messuages or tenements, one of them lately belonging to 
Henry Dent, miller, and the other belonging to the said ffrancis 
Armorer towards the north, a lane, street, or chair, called Haworth's 
chair, otherwise Errington's chair, otherwise Pal lister's chair, other- 
wise Black Boy chair towards the west, and another lane, street, or 
chair called Elmer's chair, otherwise Shipman's chair, otherwise 
Chrome's chai^ towards the east, together with all houses, cellars, 
sollars, etc., to hold the same unto the said Anthony Shepheard for 
ever to the use of the said Timothy Heron, his executors, administra- 
tors, and assigns for the term of 1,000 years without impeachment of 
waste subject to the provisions therein mentioned, and from and after 
the expiration or sooner determination of the said term, and subject 
thereto to the use of the said x4.nthony Shepherd, his heirs, and 
assigns for ever. Covenant by the said Thomas Heron and Elizabeth 
Heron to levy a fine unto the said A. Shepherd before the end of 
Michaelmas term then next of all the said premises by the name of 
four messuages with the appurtenances in the chapelry of All Saints 
in Newcastle-upon-Tyne. Proviso for determination of the said 
term of 1,000 years on payment of the sum of 550 by the said 
Anthony Shepherd to the said Thomas Heron on the 1st day of 
November then next ensuing, with interest at 44% per annum, the 
said sum of 550 being further secured by the bond of the said 
Anthony Shepherd bearing even date in the sum of 1,100 conditioned 
on the payment of 550 and interest as aforesaid. Signed and sealed 
by all parties, the signatures having been cut off ; the seal of 
Anthony Shepherd lost, that of Heron, a shield quarterly, first a 

cross crosslet ; with mantling and helmet, and for crest 

Executed by the said Thomas Heron and Elizabeth Heron in the 
presence of Francis Myddleton and William Hewatson, Gray's Inn. 
Receipt endorsed, signed by Thomas Heron, and witnessed by same 
witnesses. Sealed and delivered by A. Shepherd in the presence 
of Arch, (or Arth. ) Kennedy and Richard Burdus. Two skins, each 
bearing three 6d. stamps. 


11. 1 3th May, 1 3 William III. ,1701. Indenture between Thomas Meg- 
gison of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, mariner, administrator of Lancelot 
Meggison late of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, tanner, deceased, of the one 
part, and Sir Ralph Carr of Cocken. in the county of Durham, knight, of 
the other part. Recital that Simon Robson late of Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne, cordwainer, and Jane, his wife, by indenture dated 4th Feb., 
33 Charles II., for the consideration therein mentioned granted, bar- 
gained, and sold unto Matthew Hanby of Newcastle, mariner, and 
Philip Stoddate of the same place, mason, their executors, adminis- 
trators, and assigns, All that waste or parcel of ground, with the 
appurtenances, then or late in the occupation of Mark Chaiter, 
cutler, situate within the said town of Newcastle, in a certain 
street there called the White Cross, boundering upon a messuage or 
tenement in the possession of John Stephenson towards the south 

part, a certain vennell called towards the west part, a messuage 

in the possession of Thomas Crooke towards the north part, and the 
King's Street there called White Cross Street towards the east part, to 
hold the same to the said Matthew Hanby to the end of 99 years at 
the yearly rent of one peppercorn at Pentecost if demanded. Recital 
that the said Matthew Hanby and Philip Stoddate by indenture of 
assignment, dated 20th Nov., 34 Car. II., for the consideration 
therein mentioned granted, bargained, and sold to Richard Fletcher 
of Newcastle-upon-Tyne aforesaid, the said waste or parcel of land, 
and all their right, title, etc., to hold the same unto the said 
Richard Fletcher. Recital that the said Richard Fletcherfor the 
consideration therein mentioned granted, bargained, and sold to 
Lancelot Meggison of Newcastle, tanner, and Ellinor, his wife, the 
said waste or parcel of land, and all their right, title, etc., to hold the 
ame to the said Lancelot Meggison. Recital that the said Lancelot 
Meggison survived the said Ellinor, his wife, and was then dead, and 
administration of his goods and chattels was granted to the said 
Thomas Meggison. The said Thomas Meggison in consideration of 
25 10s. 5d. paid by the said Sir Ralph Carr, assigned the said waste or 
parcel of ground and the remainder of the said term to the said 
Sir Ralph Carr in trust for Joseph Carr of Newcastle, aforesaid. 
Signed by Thomas Meggison. Sealed; oval seal f finch by |inch; 
a shield bearing five bezants in saltire, a chief ; for crest a demi-lion 
holding a garb (?) between its paws. Two 6d. stamps. Receipt 
endorsed, signed by Thomas Meggison and witnessed by Thomas 
Pattinson and John Byfield. Attestation endorsed, same witnesses. 

12. 3rd Aug., 13 George III., 1790. Indenture of four parts between 
Henry Utrick Reay of Blackwell, in the parish of Darlington, Durham, 
esq., of the first part, Elizabeth Harrison of Killingworth, in the 
parish of Longbenton, Northumberland, widow, of the second part ; 
Elizabeth Harrison of Killingworth, aforesaid, spinster, youngest 
daughter of the said Elizabeth Harrison, widow, of the third part, 
and Sir William Lorraine of Kirkharle, Northumberland, bart., Sir 
John Eden of Windleston in the county palatine of Durham, bart., 
Sir John Scott, knight, His Majesty's solicitor general, and John Ord 
of Lincoln's Inn Fields, in the county of Middlesex, esq., one of the 
masters of the High Court of Chancery, of the fourth part. Recital 
of the intended marriage between the said Henry Utrick Reay and 
Elizabeth Harrison, spinster. In consideration of the said intended 
marriage, and for the purpose of making a jointure for the said 
Elizabeth Harrison, spinster, the said Henry Utrick Reay covenanted 
to transfer to the trustees 12,000 3% Bank Consolidated Annuities. 


"Covenant by the said Elizabeth Harrison, widow, to transfer to the 
trustees 8,000 3% Bank Consolidated Annuities. Interest of whole 
20,000 to husband for life, then to wife for life in lieu of dower then 
in trust for the children as the said Henry Utrick Reay and Elizabeth 
Harrison should appoint by deed, and in default as the said Henry 
Utrick Reay, if surviving, should appoint by deed or will, and in 
default among the children equally. In default of issue or of issue 
attaining 21 for the said Henry Utrick Reay after the death of the 
said Elizabeth Harrison. Executed by all parties. Seals : of Henry 
Utrick Reay, a griffin's head as crest ; of Mrs. and Miss Harrison, a 
woman's head to sinister ; of Sir William Lorraine, sable and argent a 
cross quarterly counterchanged, in dexter chief the badge of Ulster ; 
-crest, on a mound a bay tree proper, hanging therefrom by a belt 
gules an escutcheon azure ; of Sir John Eden, the wolf suckling 
Bomulus and Remus ; of Sir John Scott, quarterly, 1st and 4th 
grand quarters, azure a bezant between 3 crescents, 2nd and 3rd grand 
quarters, qtiarterly, 1 and 4 on a fess gules 3 cross crosslets fitchee, 
2nd and 3rd gules on a bend three leopards heads affrontee, over 
all on a shield of pretence gules three demi-lions rampant. 
Seal of John Ord, sable three lucies hauriant. Witness to the 
execution by Henry Utrick Reay, Elizabeth Harrison, widow, and 
Elizabeth Harrison, spinster, George Colpitts and J. Davidson ; by 
Sir John Eden, John Drake Bainbridge ; by Sir William Lorraine, 
John Dawson ; by Sir John Scott, James Holdship, clerk to Sir John 
Scott ; by John Ord, George Colpitts and Nath. Watson. 3 skins, each 
stamped 2/6. 

13. 3rd Nov., 1820. Copy foot of fine made at Westminster on the 
morrow of All Souls, 1 George IV., before Robert Dallas, James 
Allan Park, James Burrough and John Richardson, J.J., between 
Thomas Wentworth Beaumont, esq., plaintiff, and Septimus Hodsoii, 
clerk, and Frances, his wife, defendants, of the honour of Bywell with 
the appurtenances, and the castle of Bywell with the appurtenances, 
and also the manors of Bywell and Stocksfield Hall with the appur- 
tenances, and also 30 messuages, 30 cottages, 20 tofts, 20 barns, 4 
water mills, 10 dovehouses, 30 gardens, 30 curtilages, 30 orchards, 
3,000 acres of land, 1,000 acres of meadow, 1,000 acres of pasture, 500 
acres of wood, 500 acres of furze and heath, 500 acres of moor, 500 
acres of land covered with water, 75 rent, common of pasture for all 
cattle, common of turbary, common of estovers, free warren, free 
fishery in the river Tyne, courts leet, courts baron, view of frank- 
pledge, goods and chattels, waifs, estrays, deodands, goods and 
chattels of felons and fugitives, felons of themselves outlaws and 
persons put in exigent, and all liberties and franchises with the 
appurtenances in Bywell St. Andrew, Bywell St. Peter, Ovingham 
and Slaley, and also the advowson of the church of Bywell St. 
Andrew, and also the advowson of the vicarage of the church of 
Slaley, at the price of 8,100. 



The following extracts, relating to Northumberland, are from the 
Calendar of Patent Rolls (continued from page 172 ! 

March 11, Westminster. Grant to the king's kinsman Henry Percy, 
earl of Northumberland, whom the king has retained as warden of the 
east and middle marches of England towards Scotland for seven years 
from the feast of St. Peter ad Vincula last, of 1000Z. yearly for the safe 
custody of the said marches in time of peace or truce, viz., 376J. 13s. 4d. 
from the issues of the customs, subsidies and petty custom in the port of 
Kyngeston on Hull, 273Z. 6s. 8d. from the like in the port of Newcastle 
on Tyne, 30Z. from the issues of the county of Northumberland, 200Z. 
from the issues of the lands late of Gerard Whytheryngton, knight, 
deceased, tenant in chief, in the county of Northumberland, and in the 
king's hands by reason of the minority of Ralph his son and heir, and 
100. from the issues of the manors and lordships of Tyndale, co. North- 
umberland. By K. 17 Edw. IV., Memb. 11. [p. 38] 

1483, July 24, Westminster. Appointment, from the feast of St. 
Peter ad Vincula for one year, of the king's kinsman Henry Percy, earl 
of Northumberland, as warden general of the marches of England 
towards Scotland, viz., in the parts of ' la estmarch ' and ' middilmarch,' 
and in the king's lordship of Scotland, with full powers specified and 
power to conclude truces with James, king of the Scots. By K. 
1 Rich. III., pt. 5, Memb. 5, [p. 462]. 

1483, Nov. 30, Westminster. Grant for life to the king's kinsman 
Henry, earl of Northumberland, of the office of great chamberlain of 
England, with the accustomed fees. Mutilated. By p.s. Ibid. pt. I, 
Memb. 3. [p. 367] 

1484, Feb. 24, Westminster. Grant to the king's kinsman Henry 
Percy, earl of Northumberland, for his good service in the attainment of 
the king's royal right and crown and in the defence of the realm towards 
Scotland, and Alan Percy his son and the heirs male of the latter of the 
manor or lordship of Holdernes with its members, co. York, late of 
Henry, late duke of Buckingham, and all lands, rents, possessions, fees, 
suits, services, advowsons, with bondmen, parks, stews, moors, woods, 
fisheries, meadows, pastures and other profits belonging to it. By p.s. 
Ibid, p. 3, Memb. 20. [p. 409] 

1478, March 11, Westminster. Grant to William Godereswyk, 
Henry Van Orel, Arnold Van Anne and Albert Millyng, merchats of 
Cologne, and Dederic Van Riswyk of the realm of England, goldsmith, 
of all mines bearing gold, silver, copper or lead in the counties of North- 
umberland, Cumberland, and Westmoreland, to hold from the Annunci- 
ation next for ten years, in lieu of a grant of certain mines to the said 
William and others by letters patent dated 23 March, 15 Edward IV., 
surrendered. They shall pay to the king a fifteenth part of the pure 
gold, silver and copper, and to the lords of the soil and the curate of the 
soil an amount to be agreed upon, and they shall have power to appoint 
a steward, born in the realm, to hold a court in the king:s name in the 
mines, and hear and determine all pleas except those of land, life and 
members. By K. 18 Edw. IV., pt. 2, memb. 30. [p. 116] 

1481, March 18, Westminster. Appointment, for half a year of John 
Bell of Cambridge, ' yoman,' John Buknell of Wyndesore, co. Berks, 
' yoman,' and William Bell of Sheles, co. Northumberland, ' yoman,' to 
take oxen, muttons, ' baconflykkes,' malt, barley, oats, beans, peas, sea 
fish, and fresh-water fish and other victuals for the expenses of the 
king's household and army towards the north, and carriage for the same. 
By bill of the treasurer. 21 Edw. IV., pt. 2, memb. 18d. [p. 288.] The 
like in memb. 15. [p. 249] 






3 SEB., VOL. I. 1904. No. 22. 

The second country meeting of the season was held on Friday, the 5th 
day of August, 1904, at 


Members and friends assembled at Berwick railway station at 11-14 
a.m. on the arrival there of the 9 '35 a.m. train from Newcastle, Two 
waggonettes were in waiting to convey them to 


where the first halt was made. 

George Mark, in his ' Survey of a Portion of Northumberland ' J in 1734, 
informs us that ' This chapelry belongs to Holy Island. It contains about 
eight villages and hamlets and near 220 families. The chapel is mean, and 
its steeple remarkable for its form, and being for some time the dwelling 
house of one of the curates, called Beuly, for life. It is repaired at the 
expense of the parishioners, except the chancel, which is repaired out of 
the corn tithes of the chapelry. The village is watered by a small brook 
that runs through it from the west to east, and runs by Haggerston to 

Brokmill, where it meets the tide The manor of Ancroft has from 

time immemorial belonged to the family of Grey, and at present to Henry 
Grey, of Kingsley in Berkshire. There are two villages in this chapelry, 
remarkable for the ruins of two old chapels, viz. Haggerston and 
Cheswick, at the latter of which they still bury some poor people, but 
the former is totally disused.' 

In 33 Edw. I. [1305] the prior of Durham charged certain servants 
of the bishop of Durham with seizing and carrying off his corn and 
lambs from the vill of Ancroft and other places. 2 

In 1539 a Scottish ship, with goods to the value of 2,400, was lost at 
Sotterborne mouth, a jury was impanelled, and it was found that the 
ship was wrecked and divers of her crew drowned, the goods driven 
partly to sea and partly ashore where the country people took some. 
Thomas Clavering seized all he could as wreck under the jurisdiction of 
Norham castle, the value of which did not amount to more than 44. 
Clavering and others were, however, in consequence, put into prison. 
The queen and council issued letters to a new commission to levy on 
Clavering, etc., 1, 2001. , which the queen had asked the merchants to 

1 Incditcd Contributions to the History of Northumberland, p. 72. 
2 Reg. Pal. Dun., iv, 63. 


take ' in lewo ' of their demands, and because of the lack of ability of 
Clavering, and his associates, to assess the whole county. The people 
would not admit to more than 44Z., and so 60 of them were imprisoned 
and their goods seized. As many of the people of the towns adjoining 
had not taken goods, they assessed only those who had. Of the towns 
concerned, Ancroft was assessed for 201., and Barmoor for Ql. 13s. 4d. 
But as it was found that this 'sessment' would hurt the county no 
further proceedings were taken. 3 

In a list of May, 1549, of gentlemen of Northumberland, Edward 
Reveley of Ancroft, in Islandshire, and Edward Muschamp of ' Barlmer,' 
are included. On the 24 th of the same month, it is stated that of the 
towns nearest to the enemy on the Scottish border, in and near North- 
umberland, at which the army was placed, there were 200 footmen at 
Ancroffc under Sir Thomas Talbot, and 100 at Barmoor and Bowsden 
under Marmaduke Thwaites. 4 

According to the rental of Robert Bennett, bursar of Durham, there 
were due, in 1539, from widow Cestor and Cuthbert Gardiner for tithes 
of Ancroft 106s. 8d. and from the heirs of Ralph Grey for the mill of 
Ancroft nothing, though the payment used to be 15s. ; of the tithes 
of lambs 10 were received from Ancroft. 5 In a ' Booke of Surveighe ' 
of 1580, there is the entry; ' Rector of Holy Island, George Revely, for 
tithes of corn of Ancroft, 51. 16s. 8d. a year.' 6 

At a muster of horsemen of 30 Sept. 1584, there were from Ancroft, 
' William Smith, Thomas Denyse, Henry Chaunler, Thomas Havery, 
Henry Stell, John Stell, John Pette, John Tomson, William Crosbey, 
Adame Roter, Raph Wraye, William Tayler, Adame Denis, Adame Bell, 
John Selbeye.' 7 

Amongst the debts owing to John Hymers of Holy Island, mentioned 
in the inventory to his will of 20 July, 1545, were, by ' Edward Reyfley 
for the burd [board] of John Reyfley, viijs. Robt. Reyfley for hys sones 
burd, vjs.' The testator appears to havejbeen the schoolmaster on Holy 
Island. The Reveleys were people of considerable property at Ancroft, 
etc. Sir Thomas Gray of Chillingham, by will of 20 Dec. 1589, left, with 
other oxen, &c., 20 draught oxen at Ancroft to his wife the lady Katherine; 
and to Roger Graye, his servant, ' xx boles of beare ' out of Ancroft, 
Mark Saltonstall of Berwick, by his will of 14 July, 1631, left, amongst 
other things, to his nephew Mark, his brother Stevin's son, his right in 
the mill of Ancroft. 8 


The original church, erected in Norman times, consisted of an aisleless 
nave and chancel. In the 13 th centiiry the strong barrel- vaulted tower, 
with its small pointed window openings, was erected on the west end of 
the church, the original Norman doorway on the south side being then 
probably blocked up. At the same time the largo buttress was built 
at the south east angle of the nave. Until 1869 the original chancel and 
chancel arch, and corbel table remained. In that year, however, the 
nave was unnecessarily lengthened, arid in the process both chancel and 
chancel arch were destroyed, and also the north transept erected in 
much later times. The north part of the tower basement is now walled 
off and used as a burial place for the Sibbit family. 

3 Cal. of Border Papers, II, p. 820. 

< Belvoir Papers, I (Hist. MSS. Connn. 12 Rep/Ap. IV), 39, 36 & 37. 
5 Fcodarivm (58 Surt. Hoc. publ.) 302, 303, 304. 
8 Durh. Hal-mole. Rolls (82 Surt. Soc. publ.), 213. 

7 Cal. of Border Papers, I, 159. 
8 Wills <fc Inv. I. (Suit. Soc. publ,), 114 & n ; II. 172, 174, 170n 


W ft 


H 8 
o 55, 


The tower was built for defensive purposes. There appears to be 
no original entrance to it except from the nave. The Survey of 1541 
states that ' At Ancrofte two myles from the said ryver of Twede there 
ys a lytle fortresse standinge nere unto the churche of the said towne 


before 'restoration.' 

(Enlarged from Wilson's Churches 

of Lindisfarne.) 



of thinhcrytaunce of Gray of Chillingham scarcely being in good repare ' ; 
while at the time of the Survey of 1561 ' In the same towne of Ancroft is 
ne pile, builded to the end of the church, and dyvers good howses 
beside.' 9 The seventeenth century font having the initials RMW and 
the date 1664 on it, was removed to Chillingham church at the time of 
the ' restoration ' of 1869, a new font having been presented to Ancroft. 
In Raine's time a portion of an older font ' was built up in a wall on the 
south side of the road near the head of the village.' In the grave-yard 
near the south door are some medieval carved stones. One has a 
hollow chamfered edge in which is the dog-tooth ornament. 

With other places Ancroft, as a chapel to Holy Island, was confirmed 
to Germanus [1163-1189] the prior, and the monks of Durham, by pope 

In a roll written in a hand of the 13 th century bearing the indorsement 
'Attestaciones testium juratorum de Ankcrofte,' etc., in a 15 th century 
hand, is a record of witnesses produced in a dispute between Richard, 
bishop of Durham, and the prior and convent about 1228. The chapel of 
Ancrofte is said to be situate within the limits of the parish church of Holy 
Island, which the monks had wholly for their own use, It was commonly 
called a ' capella,' and had a grave-yard where the dead of the two vills 

9 Arch. Ael. ('Border Holds') XIV, 37, 53. 
10 Hist. Dun. Scrip, tres (9 Surt. Soc. publ.), Ivil. 


of 'Anecrofte ' and 'Alredene ' were buried. That a certain Gal f rid, when 
parson, paid to the monks in name of a pension 15s. a year, and ren- 
dered obedience to the bishop and his official ; thus said William, ' dean ' 
of Northumberland. Other witnesses gave like evidence. One stated 
that the collation of Richard the chaplain to the chapel, was made by the 
bishop after Galfrid's death. Another that after Galfrid's death the 
monks entered but he did not know by what authority, or for how long 
they held it, he added also that about the feast of St. Martin he was 
with a certain clerk, by name Oger, on whom the bishop had conferred 
that church as he had heard at Ancroft, but that he could not enter 
either the church or the houses, so the deponent was sent with Oger, by 
authority of the bishop, to put him into possession, as the dean had 
deponed. Papedi 11 was said to have been the founder of the chapel, 
which had rights of burial and baptism, and that he himself went to 
Newcastle and there received the chrism from the hands of Henry the 
dean. Patrick de Chesewic agreed with Stephan, the chaplain, who said 
that he saw Papedi, the founder of Ancroft chapel, before whose time, 
as he had heard from his ancestors, the church of Holy Island held full 
parochial rights in the vills of Ancroft and Auredene. 

By ' le Convenit,' an agreement of 1229, between bishop Poore and 
prior Kerneth ' concerning the rights of the bishop and convent respec- 
tively, 12 Ancroft, with its appurtenances, which looked to the mother 
church of Holy Island, was confirmed to the prior and convent of Durham 
for their own uses in perpetuity. 13 

At the time of the visitation of 29 Jan. 1578, at Morpeth, by the Ven. 
Robert Swift, Ancroft chapel was served by Laurence Donkyn, an un- 
licensed curate, who attended, as did also John Reveley, the parish 
clerk. It is remarked that John Reveley was of old descent. At 
the general chapter of 30 July, 1578, held in Alnwick church, no 
account of the task (Gospel of S f Matthew) was given (amongst others) 
by Laurence Donkyn, curate of Ancroft ; it was respited till the March 
synod. In the time of bishop Barnes, Ancroft was served by a stipen- 
diary priest as it wanted an incumbent. u Mr. John Foreside was, in 
1662, ejected from the curacy of Ancroft for nonconformity. 15 

The following is from the ' Account of ye Deanry of Balmbrough by 
Mr. Drake, vicar of Norham, given at my request [Archdeacon] E. H. 
Sayer, 1725 ': 

' Ancroft is another Chapel append 1 upon the Island and has Duty 
is in it [sic] once every third Sunday only. As this Chapel is annext 
to that at Tweedmouth, and as Mr. Methuen the Curate of that, is so 
very aged & infirm, this is supplied by that unhappy man his son. 
The Chapel is but in a bad Condition, & the Chancel is in ruins. The 
Town consists of about 120 Families, very few of w eh if almost any but 
what are Dissenters of one kind or other. The Parish is large con- 
sisting of 3 other Towns. There are many Impropriators some under 

the Chap r and others not. Impro[priato]rs Mr. Smith The 

great & small Tyths of the Parish are worth 300Z. per an. S r Carnaby 
Haggerstons pays 101. & Surplice Fees may perhaps be worth about 
51. more.' 

11 For the armg of the family of Papedy see the new county History of Northumber- 
land, II. p. 283. 

12 Durham Account Rolls, II (100 Surt. Soc. publ.), 5C4n. 

is Hint. Dun. Scrip, tres (9 Surt. Soc. publ.), Ixxii. 

H Eccl. Proc. of Bishop liarnes (22 Surt. Soc. publ.) 41, 46, 77, 10, 

is Calaniy, Noneonf. Manual, 55. 

Proc. Soc. Antiq. Neivc. 3 sp,r. i. 

To face page 189. 

BARMOOR CASTLE. (See opposite page) 

FORD CASTLE. (See page 191) 

Both froru photographs by Mr. Joseph Oswald. 


Bishop Chandler made the following note of his visitation ' supposed 
in 1736 ' : ' C. Ancroft, Parishion rs , 250 ; of which Presb. 100, Papists 40. ' 

The church was left and the journey resumed, the next stage being 


which, with the estate, has been the property of the Sitwells for several 
generations, and now belongs to colonel William Sitwell. Members 
were most kindly received at the east gate by Mr. Thomas Hodgkin, one 
of the vice-presidents, who now occupies the house, and by Mrs. Hodgkin, 
and hospitably entertained to fruit, &c., on the lawn, after which different 
objects of interest, including a Roman amphora from Aquileia, 2 ft. 44 ins. 
long, were shown. 

Thanks were voted to Mr. and Mrs. Hodgkin by acclamation. 

The fine modern castellated building doubtless stands on the site of 
the ancient tower, of which mention is made in several early surveys. 
A licence was issued on 17 May, 1341, by Edward in, at Westminster, 
to Thomas de Muschamps for ' mansum suum de Bairmore.' In a list of 
1415, there appears ' turris de Barmor, Joh'es Preston.' In a return of 
1509, amongst the ' holdis,' etc., with their 'owners inabytaunttes or 
officers,' and the distance from ' Tevedale and the Mars,' is ' George 
Mostians own' & inab't, Barmer xxx & from Twede vj myle & from 
tevedale vij m.' At the time of the survey of 1541 'at Byermore beynge 
of lyke dystance [4m.] from the said ryver of Twede there ys a tower of 
thinherytaunce of Mr. Muschyens in extreme decaye & almoste ruynous 
for lacke of reparacions.' 1 ^ 

According to the rental of Robert Bennett, the bursar of Durham, in 
1539, he had received from Edward Muschauns for the tithes of Bar- 
mo ur, per annum 33*. 4d., though they used to be 40s. From George 
Muschans, for the mill of Barmour nothing, though the payment used 
to be 4s. a year. From Thomas Holbourne for the same nothing, 
though the payment used to be 4s. 1 By a ' Booke of Surveighe ' of 
1580, there was due from George Muschance for tithes of corn of 
Barmoor 40s. a year. 2 

King Henry i. conferred the barony of Wooler on Robert de Muschamp. 
Sir George Muschamp, 3 the last owner of Barmoor of the name, spent Jiis 
whole estate in the service of Charles I. Janet Muschamp, ' wydowe,' 
by will of 1 December 1549, directed her body to be buried in the parish 
church of Lowick, ' dedicate of Sainte John ;' she left 6s. Sd. to the 
curate of Ford. George Musty ance of Barmoor, and others, were ap- 
pointed under the will of 18 April, 1574, of Thomas Hebburn of 
Chillingham, to see his will fulfilled. 4 

At a muster of the East March on 10 March 1579-80, taken by John 
Selby, deputy warden, ' Barmor, a village of George Muschamps, 
gentleman, with 8 tenants, 4 horsed, no cause.' In the muster of the 
same, 1-3 Sep. 1584, of all horsemen and footmen between 16 and 60, 

16 Arch. Ael. (' Border Holds ') xiv, 9, 17, 23, 37. 

1 Feodarium (58 Surt. Soc. publ.), 302, 304, 305. 

2 Durham Halm. Rolls (82 Surt. Soc. publ.), 214. 

3 The pedigree of Muschamp of Barmoor, with some deeds, is printed in the Heralds' 
'Visitation of Northumberland,' ed. foster, pp. 90, 91. Sir George Muschamp left a 
daughter who married a kinsman, Edward Muschamp of Holy Island. She was living, 
a widow, on 20 May 1663. Her heir as to the lands was apparently a kinsman, William 
Muschamp of co. Dublin. He sold his reversionary interest in Barmoor, circa 1656, to 
Robert Gray. See Hodgson Hinde's MSS. in the Society's library. Ex inf. J. Crawford 

< Willt & Inv., I (2 Surt. Soc. publ.), 125 & n, 126, 404. 


taken by Lord Hunsdon, governor of Berwick, ' Barmur town and 
Gatherrick Stead,' had ' horse 4, foot 6, with spear only 30 ;' and on 30 
Sept. of the same year, at a muster of horse, Roger Williamson, John 
Williamson, George Tomsone, Thomas Whight, John Whight, Edward 
Williamson, George Strangwishe and Robert Muschamp attended from 
Barmoor. 8 

In September 1596, amongst other outrages by the Scots on the east 
march, 9 ' fatt ' oxen belonging to Mr. George Muschamp, were taken out 
of Barmoor wood. On the 8 Feb. 1596-7, he was before the commission 
as a witness respecting a theft of cattle from Mr. Walter Carre [Ker], 
a Scottish gentleman, of Littleden. On 20 Feb. of the same year, Euro 
writes, from Hexham, to Cecil, that he and Robert Delaval had taken 
George Muschamp's oath as sheriff of Northumberland, and in their 
presence his 'patten' was delivered to him. On 24 Sep. 1597, George 
Muschamp was one of the jurors at ' Newborne.' On 3 d November, of 
the same year, he set his hand (with others) to a letter written by William 
Selby, gentleman porter of Berwick, to Sir Robert Carey. He is also 
mentioned in a letter of Carey to Cecil. 6 

Thomas Selby, and Elizabeth his wife, Mary Bambarrow and William 
Mackrelle of Barmoor, are amongst Northumbrian recusants on 20 June, 

The following are Spearman's * notes ' to the History of Northumber- 
land relating to Barmoor, in the library at Broompark : 

' 1417, 5th Henry 5. The lords of the marches assembled here with 
10,000 against the Scots, lord Howard and his son lodged in Barmoor 
wood the night before the battle of Branxton. A younger branch of 
the family of Muschamp was seated at Barmoor castle, their pedigree 
is in the Herald's office. 

1272, 1st of Edw. I. Will, de Muschamp held the village of Bar- 
moor a fourth part of a knight's fee the old feoffment. George 
Muschamp held Barmoor the 10, 32, 42 of Eliz. Will. Muschamp, high 
sheriff, 20th of James 1st. It was lately in possession of Col. Bladen, 
translator of Caesar's Commentaries, uncle to Sir Edward Hawke, and 
about 1740 of a Mr. Cook, and is now the property of the Sitwell family. 
Of this family of Muschamp was Sir William, a worthy and very 
active justice of the peace for Northumberland during the reigns of 
James 1st & Charles 1st. I find the letter underwritten from him 
to Lord Clifford, with an account of the Spaniards having landed in 
Scotland : 

' August 17th, 1627, Barmoor, at 3 o'clock in the morning. 

Worthy Sir, I thought good to let you know I have received advertisement at 
this instant, from the Mayor of Berwick that the Spaniards have landed at Caith- 
ness in Scotland, where they have put all to the sword, that many of their ships are 
upon the coast, and have sunk many ships in their passage. It is expected they will 
put in at Berwick or the Holy Island presently. It were, therefore, good that you 
would prepare the small strength your part of the country affords towards the sea 
side that \ve may all join in resisting so po werf ull an enemy. In the meantime I shall 
use all diligence in these parts and have written to Sir Francis Brandling to do the 
like in Bambrough ward. So not doubting your care in a service of such consequence, 
with my best wishes I rest your assured loving cousin, Will Muschamp. 
Postcript. The Mayor of Berwick received notice of this invasion at 12 o'clock by 
post from the Earl of Hume.' ' 

Barmoor was left by the south gateway, and 

e Cal. of Border Papers, i, 15, 153, 156-158. 

6 Ibid.. II, 79, 215, 250, 265, 405, 441. 
7 Dep from York Castle (40 Surt. Soc. publ.), 206. 



the next place in the day's proceedings, duly reached. The ancient 
parish of Ford is about eight miles long, from E. to W., and 4| miles 
from N. to S., and includes the estates of Etal, Ford and Pallinsburn. 

The party walked down the village to the church, calling on the way 
at the schoolhouse on the north side of the street, where they saw, very 
hurriedly, on the walls, the cartoons representing Biblical subjects, by 
Louisa, marchioness of Waterford. 8 

At the church membars were met by the Rev cl H. M. Neville, the 
rector, who, as on former occasions, kindly acted as guide to the 
church. The living is a rectory, and the church is dedicated to St. 
Michael. For description of the church by Mr. Neville, see these 
Proceedings (in., 343), where also particulars of the communion plate 
are given (p. 346), and extracts from the parish books. See also Proc., i. 
p. 145, and v. 62, for notices of Ford. The only object of interest 
discovered since the visit of the members in 1891 is the fragment of a 
coped tegulated grave- cover found in the churchyard, curious on account 
of the ' tiles ' of the pattern being reversed, that is in having the curved 
portion upwards. 

From the church, under Mr. Neville's guidance, they went to the 
castle, situated at the west end of the village. A halt was made 
to enable Mr. Neville to point out the chief points of interest, in the 
magnificent view, westwards, of Flodden field. 9 He made frequent 
references to the account of the fight by the late Mr. C. J. Bates ( Arch. 
AeL xvi, 352) which, in his opinion, gave the best idea of the battle. 
The castle is at present let to Mr. J. Fletcher Mossop, who had given 
permission for the visit, and who met the party. King James's room 
in the castle, from which is a fine view of Flodden field, and its ancient 
stairway, the numerous Delaval and other portraits, and a great variety 
of articles of artistic interest, were duly seen and appreciated. The 
castle has been fully described in Arch. Ael., xiv. 39, 305, and in these 
Proceedings, by the late Mr. C. J. Bates, and to these descriptions, 
therefore, members are referred. 

In Mark's 'Survey' of 1734, 10 already referred to, there is this de- 
scription : ' This parish contains 269 families and about twenty-one 
villages, the principal of which is Ford. The chief town is pleasantly 
situated on the east side of the Till, which there makes from a northerly 
course a very remarkable turn, pointing directly toward the castle, and 
then turns again to the northward The town stands pretty high, and 

8 A few years ago at the time of the Exhibition in London when the cartoons 
from the Ford school were amongst the exhibits, there appeared in the Daily Graphic, 
signed ' Lucy Madox Rossetti," the following appreciation of Lady Waterford as an artist, 
' that it is possible that Lady Waterford might have carried her impressive picture-poems 
to a greater extent, but perhaps in these clays of high finish, of trivial thought, and im- 
pressions so wanting in interest, there is not much harm in having as much of the soul 
of a great woman as can be represented, even with less finish. In Lady Waterford's 
work there is no failure in representing noble subjects with appropriate beauty of com- 
position, drawing, expression, and colour. Here we have ' Moses on the Mount' 

and endless other grand ideas beautifully pictured. Truly I see no failure here. Lady 
Waterford, under different conditions in a different age might well have been a leader 
in a grand school of art. I have heard her work spoken of from childhood with great 
admiration by D. G. Rossetti and others of pur circle.' 

'J In the Account Kolls of Durham priory for 1513-14, there is an entry of 15li. ex- 
pended for arms and horses, &c., against the king of Scots, who, with a great army, 
it is said, of 100,000, had invaded the kingdom of England on ' Brankes Hill' ; the 
banner of St. Cuthbert was sent, under the charge of Sirs Robert Stroder, the bursar, 
Richard Heryngton, the sacrist, and Ralph Blaxton. the eellarer. 103 Surt. Soc. publ 

lo Inedited Contributions to the History of Northumberland, 77. 


has a good prospect to the west and south, especially to the west This 

village is remarkable for a stately old castle, yet standing entire and in 
very good order, and well built. The church is also in very good order 
and well built, and the steeple made to contain three bells, but is forced 
to content itself with two [now only one]. The manor of Ford was 
originally, by tradition, part of the Barony of the Herons [Ford was 
no part of the barony, but a manor within the barony of Muschamp], 
but afterwards came into the possession of the Carrs, whose coat of arms 
is still visible. After the Carrs it devolved on Sir Francis Blake. It 
belongs at present to Francis Blake Delaval, esq., of Seaton Delaval. 
The village is watered by one exceeding good spring, called the Rill 
Well at the east end, and by the Dean Burn.' 

In 1272 the manor belonged to Odinel de Ford, 1 being held by him 
of the Muschamp barony by one knight's service. His daughter and co- 
heiress married Sir William Heron of Hadston. On 16 July, 1338, a 
licence to crenellate was granted by Edward in, at Ipswich, to William 
Heron his descendant, for ' mansum suum apud manerium suum de 
Ford.' 2 He was sheriff of Northumberland for eleven years in succession. 
His son Sir William was summoned to parliament in 1371 ; he died in 
1404. In the list of 1415 there appears for the ' castrum de ffurde, 
Will'm's heroun, chlr.' Sir John Heron, who was sheriff of Northumber- 
land from 1441 to 1445, succeeded. In 1536 Sir William Heron of Ford 
died, and Elizabeth, his granddaughter the daughter o: his deceased 
son William thus became possessed of Ford and other estates. She 
married Thomas Carr of Etal, who held the castle until his death. In a 
skirmish under its walls, arising out of the quarrel relating to the Ford 
estates, Robert Barrow, mayor of Berwick, lost his life. The quarrel 
arose from the above-named marriage, which caused much commotion. 
The Herons of Chipchase, etc., pretending that the Ford estates were 
entailed upon male heirs, proceeded by open violence to eject Carr from 
possession. 3 Thomas Carr's co-heiress married Sir Francis Blake, and 
their daughter Mary married Edward Delaval. Of the family of Carrs 
* there were three sisters and a brother that remained. The brother 
was unfortunately killed at Alnwick, in the time of the Sessions, by one 
of the name and family of Ratcliff, his father-in-law, who was after- 
wards tried, condemned, and executed for the murder, tho' some say 
he persisted in the denial of the crime to the very last. Upon the 
death of this gentleman, the estate was divided among his three sisters, 
and afterwards Sir Francis Blake purchased of the other two, their parts, 
and so enjoyed the whole during his life, and at his death bequeathed 
it to Mr. Delaval.' So far Wallis. 4 From him it descended to lord 
Delaval, who almost rebuilt the castle in 1761 and following years, 
and who died in 1808. The estate then came into the possession of his 
widow, from whom, on her death in 1822, it passed to the Waterford 
family, who still own it. 

In 1541 the tenants of ' Croukhame ' 5 and of ' Eddersley,' 'in a 
troublous tyme or warre do resorte for their relefe to the castell of 
fforde standinge upon the east syde of the ryver of Tyll,' and these 

l Odinel de Forde [40 Hen. in] after he had obtained free warren in his manors, did 
not permit any to fish in the water of Till, or in any rivulet near ' Tuchehal ' neither 
with a net nor with hook. North. Assize Rolls (88 Surt. Soc. publ.), 126. He obtained 
also from the king the grant of a weekly market, and an annual fair at Ford, Hodgson, 
Northumberland (Beauties of England and Wales), 220. 

2 Arch. Ael. ('Border Holds') xiv, 9, 14. 3 Wills fr Inv. J, 138n. 

4 Inedited Contributions to the History of Northumberland, GO. 

5 Crookham is a village some 2 miles north west of Ford. 

fa^tlr crnaistn of Foitr- Ton-tfi *nf/> *-a 
cuul tnflfiinatke /uster Cent* i/ tfjf 

Castle M L* ffestern 

N tAe Door- L>f>(*iuiy fr-vni tAe fiv,er < 
rA* fardcnj RLS eA oitter Court T 

Cvtir* (*nft tttemy SoutA to,v<irri t/le C'A^^rcA. F & H f 
f/t4 JVfirru-A wA&rr tcrrt* trffs aft 


' towns * are ' of thinherytaunce of the heyro of Sir wylPm heron nowe 
beyng in warde to the king's mat ie .' 6 

In the time of Leland ' Foord castle in Glyndale upon the East Syd of 
Tille,' was ' metly stronge but in Decay.' 7 

Amongst ' Plans, Charts, etc., Henry vin to Elizabeth ' in the 
collection of the Marquis of Salisbury at Hatfield, is one of ' Fordo 
Castle, Northumberland, by Rowland Johnson.' 8 

On Sunday after feast of St. Denis [9 Oct.], 1348, Robert de Lisle 
de Chipchase, clerk, quit-claimed to Sir William Heron of Ford, knight, 
all his interest in the manor of Chipchase. 9 

According to the Assize Rolls of 40 Henry III [1256], Robert Spende- 
love of Ford, was slain by a certain unknown evil-doer in the field of 
Ford, Laeticia, his wife, was with him when he was slain. She imme- 
diately raised hue and cry [hutesium], and because the villagers of Ford 
did not follow they were amerced. Afterwards it is reported that John 
Stante [? Stanle] of Ford, was guilty of the death, which he denied. Be- 
cause the villagers of Crukum, Ford, and Hale [ ? Etal] did not follow on 
the hue and cry being raised when Gregory de Neweton was stabbed in the 
belly with a knife from which he died, they were amerced. As Robert 
Ayr who issued a writ against Robert son of John de Hagardeston, 
concerning a tenement in Ford, did not prosecute his suit, he himself 
and his pledges were amerced. Adam, son of Adam de Forde, Gilbert, 
his brother, and several others, were arrested on suspicion of theft and 
for receiving stolen goods ; some were declared not guilty, but others, 
including Adam and Gilbert, were found guilty of this and many other 
thefts. The goods of Adam, son of Adam, were worth 19s. 3d. 10 Richard 
de Ford gave a mark for licence of concord with William de Muschamp, 
de placeto assisae, on the death of his ancestor. 11 

By the will of Henry Percy, earl of Northumberland (who died in 
1489, and was interred at Beverley, where is his noble monument), he left 
' John Heron, son and heire of Roger Heron, late of Forde, knight, an 
annuyte of twenty powndes, as his fadir hadd, during ye lyve of ye said 
John, what tyme that he comes to th' age of xvj yeres.' 1 

In the list of gentlemen, of May, 1549, already referred to, Thomas Carr 
appears for the lordship of Ford. 2 At the muster of the East Marches 
on 10 Mar. 1579-80, already mentioned, ' Fourd, a village of William 
Carrs esquire, with 7 tenants, 4 horsed, no cause shown ;' and at another 
muster, ' of all horsemen and footmen,' on the 1-3 Sept. 1584, there 
appears ' Fourd township, horse 7, foot 2, with spear only 27 ;' and at 
the muster of horse of 30 Sep. of the same year, the names are George 
Care, George Care (sic), William Archbat, John Archbat, Robert Foster 
and George Gibson. 3 

On 31 Oct. 1594, Carey thus writes to Burghley, ' The cheif news here 
is the King being now in his journey, the Lord Hume upon the 21 st of 
this month, came to Fourd, with a dozen of his own men, thence to 
Etell, where he got two couple of hounds, and home the same night.' 4 

William Carre of Ford, was one of the supervisors of the will, dated 10 th 

6 Arch. Ael (' Border Holds ') XIV, 16, 34. 

7 Itin., VII. 60. 8 Hist. MSS. Comm. App. to 7 Rep. 192b. 

9 Mem. of Hexham, n. (46 Surt. Soc. publ.), 98n. 

10 88 Surt. Soc. publ., 110, 138, 120, 121. 

ll Ibid. 22. This 'Richard de Ford was uncle and heir of Isabella, daughter of 
Odinel de Forde, who married Cecilia, daughter of Robert de Muschamp.' Ibid. 22n. 
1 Test. Ebor. in (45 Surt. Soc. publ.), 308. 2 Belvoir Papers, i, 39. 

3 Cal. of Border Pavers, 1, 15, 153, 156-158. * Ibid, i, 549. 


July, 1578, of Henry Brandling of Newcastle, alderman. James Carr 
(born in ' Gigleswicke '), minister of Alnwick, by will of 17 April, 1593, 
amongst other bequests, gave Mr. Raphe Carre, of Forde, a gold ringe.' 
Mr. Raphe Carr, of Ford, owed him 31. , and Mr. Thomas Carr, rector 
of Ford, 7s. 5 

Of bills, English and Scottish, filed before the Commissioners at 
Berwick was : ' Mr. Ra. Carre's of Ford, foul, on the Laird of Mowe 
by his confession, and charges * deburst for the vower ' to the plaintiff's 
oath for 7 score ewes and wethers, price 42.' 6 

On 4 Aug. 1597, Sir R. Carey, in a letter from Berwick to Burghley, 
writes 'A better time to come up [to London] I could not have chosen, for 
this border is quiet as ' never les stelinge in.' I leave a 'very sufficient 
deputy, Mr. Rafe Ker of Fourd, and my brother will assist him for 
defence with horse and foot but I hope there will be no need.' On 24 
Sep. 1597, amongst the jurors for the East and Middle Marches at 
Newburn was Ra. Carr of Ford. 7 

On 18 Dec. 1601, there is a curious story of a dispute between Roger 
Muschampe and his master Thomas Carr of Ford. The former stated 
that while the king (of Scotland) was at Lord Roxburgh's house ' the 
Friars,' 3 miles from the march, Thomas Carr rode from his house of 
Ford, with James Nicholson, a Scotsman, both in blue caps and grey 
cloaks, and were taken privately by Lord Roxburgh to the king's 
chamber, conferring with him 2 hours, when Carr offered his services to 
the king, who accepted it, and drank to him in wine, offering to pleasure 
him with any ' adoes ' he had in Scotland. At Whit-Sunday, after he 
rode to Edinburgh with his brother, Mr. William Carr, his brother-in- 
law Captain John Selby, and others. 8 

At the end of his second term, in 1629, Sir Thomas Swinburne, sheriff 
of Northumberland, ' handed over the gaol with 21 persons, the doors, 
locks, keys, etc., to his successor, Thomas Carr, of Ford. 9 

A true bill was found against Thomas, James, and John Carr, of Ford, 
gentlemen, Matthew Carr alias Pearson, of Ford, gentleman, Jane Fen- 
wick, spinster, Jane and Margaret Carr of Ford, spinsters, and others, 
for setting fire on 17 Jan. 1671, to the house of Susan Carr, widow, 
of Bromerigg. Doubtless this was a family feud. 10 

In a letter of 25 March, 1701, Francis Blake thus writes to his son-in- 
law, Edward Delaval : ' The Act of Parliament causes the high rate upon 
silks. In order, therefore, not to disappoint you, my wife is willing to 
give you damask bed at Ford.' 11 

The following is a letter addressed on 28 May 1707, from Ford, to Sir 
Francis Blake, baronet ; 

' fforcl, May ye 28 1707. 
Hond. Sir, 

I am come to a quaint you, that her majesties interest is much neglected : 
because the Roman Catholicks meet in severall places within my parish of Keylo, with 
coaches & horses of a considerable value. I very much suspect that their publick 
meetings is against Her Majesties goverment. Wherfore I pray & beseech your honour 
in her Majesties name to grant me a warrant to seise upon their horses, & arms, or 
otherwise give your reason to the contrary, & you will much oblidge her majesties 
and particularly 

Sir, Your humble servt, 

.Ta. Robertson.' 

5 Wills <fc Inv., II, 224, 225, 234n. 6 Cal. of Border Papers, II, 346. 

7 Cal. of Border Papers, 11, 378, 405. 8 Ibid. 777-S. 

') Wei ford's Newc. and Gateshead in 17 Cent, 284. 

10 Depos., e.,/i-om York Castle (40 Surt. Soc. publ.), 134. 

n Hist. MSS. Comrn. 13 Kep. Ap. vi. p. 189. 


The few notes following, from different sources, chiefly from Kellawe's 
' Register,' relate to Ford church, its rectors, &c. 

In August, 1248, an agreement was entered into between Newminster 
*nd Holystone about an exchange of land, the witnesses having been 
examined before Walter Hayrun, rector of the church of Ford, and 
others. 1 He was on a commission held at Gateshead in May, 1260, 
relative to the vicarage of Felton. 2 

On the 16 October, 1313, the king's writ was issued against Robert 
Heyroun, parson of Ford, to appear before the barons of the Exchequer 
on the octave of St. Hilary [20 Jan.] at Westminster, to answer a 
claim by Edmund de Leche, who had paid 201. in duty to the parson, for 
10^ sacks of wool, which he owed to the late king, and under colour of 
his office, after such payment, he had taken and detained the said wool in 
the ship ' Thomas Martin de Jernemuth,' then at Berwick, to the no 
little injury of the said Edmund de Leche. As stated in the return, 
the parson of Ford was enjoined to attend on pain of greater excommuni- 
cation, and to that end all his ecclesiastical goods were sequestrated. 
On the 22 April, 1314, an order was issued for the payment by Robert, 
parson of Ford, of 4Z. 6s. 8d. for the church of Ford, being tithe ; for 
six years. 3 

On 16 June, 1314, the bishop, from Even wood, granted the custody of 
the sequestration of the church of Ford, to Sir Roger de Northburgh, 
clerk. On the same day a mandate wa ; issued to John de Pollowe, the 
sequestator, that the sequestration being relaxed, he was to permit Sir 
Roger to peacefully enjoy the fruits. On 4 July, 1314, a writ was issued, 
setting out that on the day lie died, Robert Heyrun, late parson of 
Ford, owed the king certain sums, as well while he was the king's 
chamberlain [contrarotulator camerariae] of Scotland, as ' custos ' of 
Berwick. It commanded that without delay all the goods ecclesiastical 
possessed by the defunct at the time of his death should be sequestrated, 
with power to release his executors, or his heirs if he had no executors. 
The return to this writ stated, that as it came much Ko late for the 
next sittings, it could not be executed. On 18 November, of the same 
year, a similar writ was issued. In the return it was stated that the 
church of Ford was situated in the March of Scotland, where no one 
dared to go after the receipt of the writ, or to exercise any jurisdiction 
on account of the Scots and unfriendly people who tarried in those 
parts. On the twenty-sixth of the same month the bishop granted 
the church of Ford, then vacant, in commendam for 6 months, to Roger 
de Northburgh, priest, rector of ' Bannes ' in Carlisle diocese, Roger de 
Hayrun being the true patron, with all its rights and belongings, and 
that provision should be made for divine offices, &c., at Ford church. 
This was followed on the same day by a letter to John de Pollowe, the 
sequestrator, ordering him to hand over the fruits of the living, from 
the death of the late rector until St. Andrew's day, to Roger de North- 
burgh, or to his proctor William de Langeley, for his quiet enjoyment. 4 

On the 27 November of the same year, from Stockton, Richard, bishop 
of Durham, directed his official, the archdeacon of Northumberland, to 
enquire into the defects of the houses, books, vestments, &c., of the 
church of Ford, at the time Sir Robert Heyrun received the said church, 
and any other, after admission to the same ; also what goods of his pre- 
decessor he had received for repairing the defects, &c. The archdeacon 
caused an inquisition to be made at Newcastle, and certified on 4 ides 

i Newm. Cart. (66 Surt. Soc. publ.), 143. 
*. Reg. Pal. Dun. i, 337. 3 Ibid., u, 983, 4 ; I, 520. 

4 Ibid., I, 563, 4 ; u, 1020, 1021, 1037, 1038 ; i, 646, 7. 


[10 th ] January, 1315, that of the goods of his predeessor received by 
Robert Heron for repairing the defects the commissioners were ignorant, 
but that Robert had received 61. from his predecessor for repairing the 
roof [cellura] of the choir ; that at the time of his death the entire manor 
of the church of Ford was burnt during a raid of the Scots, and that the 
damage could not be repaired for 2001., except three chambers, which the 
said rector, while he lived, repaired, being so enjoined on a visitation by 
the bishop, which chambers could not be re-built for 301. ; that two porti- 
foria 5 of the same church, worth 18s. 8d. had been taken away by Walter 
de Heyrun ; that the defects in the vestments amounted to 60s. ; that the 
roof of the choir was in decay, and could not be repaired for Cl. ; and 
that there were defects in the utensils to the extent of 60s. 6 

On the 29 March 1315, the king issued a writ, under his privy seal, to 
the bishop of Durham fmm ' Wyndsore,' on the petition of Roger de 
Northburgh, then parson of Ford, empowering him to apply the proceeds 
of the late parson's goods for the repair of the defects of the chancel, 
books, vestments, and other ornaments, and of the property of the 
church ; and if perchance anything should remain it had to be handed 
over to Sir John de Weston, the king's chamberlain for Scotland. On 
the 26 May following, another writ addressed to the bishop was i sued 
against the goods of the late parson of Ford to answer his defaults as 
controller, and as ' custos' of the customs at Berwick. The return stated 
that the goods were appraised at 48. 12s. 6d., and that by an indenture 
made between them, Sir Walter de Lisle had been released. On the 
6 June of the same year, the bishop, from Stockton, addressed a letter 
to Roger de Northburgh, ordering the fruits and profits of the church of 
Ford to be placed at his disposal. 7 In the same year the matter was 
brought before the Court at York, on appeal, by the proctor of Sir Walter 
de Lisle, as executor of the will of Walter de Heyrun, when a mandate 
was issued on the ides [the 1 3 th ] of September to the bishop of Durham, 
and received by him on the 15 kal. of Oct. [17 Sept.] respecting the 
defects in the houses, chancel, books, and other ornaments of the church 
after the death of Robert Heron, the last rector, the inquisition there- 
upon made by the bishop's official, and the subsequent order for seques- 
tration and sale and the payment of the proceeds into the bishop's hands; 
and the assertion of the official that he had certified to the bishop that 
Walter Heron had taken possession of the goods to the value of 481. 12s., 
in which sum, while he lived, he had been condemned, but that notwith- 
standing, after the death of Walter Heron, Sir Walter de Lisle and other 
executors of Walter Heron had likewise been condemned in the same 
sum. The proctor for the executors stated in his appeal, that the late 
rector, while he lived, had caused the manor of the rectory, of which 
mention was made in the inquisition, to be suitably built, and that 
whatever defects there were, were repaired at the time of the death of 
the late rector, so that all defects had been made good ; but that if at 
the time of the said inquisition such defects existed as stated in it, 
such defects had arisen, after the death of the late rector, by the war 
and fire of the Scots, which could not in any way be resisted : he there- 
fore asked the Court to revoke and break the mandate of the bishop, 
and declare it null. The Court thereupon firmly inhibited the bishop, 
and, through him, everybody else, from any further action, and cited 
them to appear to answer the appeal of Walter de Lisle, in the greater 
church of York, on the Friday before St. Luke's day [18 October], 

^ Portiforium, in English 'porthos' or 'portos,' a small portable breviary, from 
which music was omitted to save space. 103 Surt. 8oc. publ., 948. 

6 Reg. Pal. Dun. II, 7UU, 724. ? Ibid., 1068, 1081, 705. 


that justice might be done. On the 14 October, 1315, the bishop of 
Durham, from Stockton, certified to the Court that as ordered he had 
executed the mandate. 8 

On the 3 June 1316, the bishop, from ' Rychale,' issued c, mandate to 
Sir William de Quicham, his vicar general, to admit and canonically 
institute Roger de Nassington to the church of Ford, he having boon 
presented to it, or his proctor, it having been found by inquisition to 
have been vacan from St. John the Baptist's day [24 June], 1314. On 
20 August following, the bishop granted a licence to the same Roger de 
Nassington, rector of Ford, an acolyte, to attend the schools, on condi- 
tion that provision was made for obsequies and that the cure of souls 
was provided for. 9 

On 30 Nov. 1335, a William de Fordo received the first tonsure in St 
Edmund's chapel, Gateshead, from John, bishop of Carlisle. Stephan 
de Neuton was ordained deacon by Richard, bishop of Bisaccia, in 
Durham cathedral church, in 1344, to the title of the perpetual chantry 
of the chapel of Ford to which he had been presented by the prior and 
convent of Brinkburn. 10 On. 27 Feb. 1495-6, Lawrence Heron, rector of 
Ford, was ordained sub-deacon, by letters dimissory, he taking his title 
from his benefice. 11 

Before the battle of Flocklen in 1513, the Scots destroyed the little 
tower of the parson of Ford. In 1541, there was ' in the same towne a 
lytle tower which was the mansion of the parsonage of the same & a 
quarter thereof was casten downe by the last Kinge of the Scotts, before 
he was slayne at Flodden felde, and Sir Cuthbert Ogle parson of the 
churche there beganne to reedyfie the same againe & rased the wall 
thereof two houses highte and there so yt resteth and yt were muche 
requysite to be fynyshed for defence.' 12 This is the little tower which is 
still standing, now within the castle grounds ; a plan of it is given in 
these Proceedings (v. p. 64). 

In 3 Edw. vi, a cottage and a croft o ? land, then or la'e in the occu- 
pation of John Hogeson, and belonging to the late chantry of St. Mary 
of Ford, were granted to Sir Thomas Gargrave of North Elemesall, co. 
York, and William Adam, jr. 13 

On 3 December, 1501, there was a visitation by the official of the arch- 
deacon of Northumberland, in Bamburgh church, Ford church being 
one of the places visited. At the chancellor's visitation of 29 January, 
1578, held in Alnwick church, Thomas Clerke, the rector, appeared, but 
neither the licensed curate Robert Watson, nor William Carr, the parish 
clerk. It is noted that a prominent man of the parish is acting as 
parish clerk. At the i.eneral chapter of 30 July, 1578, also held at 
Alnwick, the task (The Gospel of St. Matthew) was duly performed by 
Robert Watson, curate of Ford. Mr. Thomas Clerke, the rector of Ford 
and vicar of Berwick, was excused. At this time there were no wardens 
at Ford. At the general chapter of 23 January, 1578-9, in Alnwick 
church, Mr. Thomas Clarke, rector of Ford, was the preacher ; there 
were still no churchwardens, At the chancellor's visitation, of 26 Jan. 
1581-2, Thomas Carr, rector of Ford, and his churchwardens, con- 
temptuously absented themselves.' 14 

In a document, dated 17 April 1592, from Berwick, it is said that 

8 Reg. Pal. Dun. n, 700-2, 741-4 9 Ibid., 788, 823. 10 Ibid., m, 166, 141. 

11 Test, Ebor. iv (53 Surt. Soc. publ.), 97n. 12 Arch. Ael. xiv, 25, 39. 

is Cal, of Pat, Rolls, part i. 

U Eccl Proc. of BitJtop Barnes, xi, 40, 45, 16, 76, 77, 78, 94, 99, At a later period 
the churchwardens of a neighbouring parish, upon being excommunicated for non- 
attendance at a visitation, informed the court, that when horses and money were sent 
to them, they would come to Durham for absolution \-lbid,, 99n, 


4 Upon Wednesday last, M r Carre, parson of Ford, having been at 
Alnwick at the great Commission, and coming home the same day, 
overtook near unto a town called Rimerton about a mile from Ford, 
Robert Roddam of Little Houghton and his man. And in his company 
a brave gentleman in a buff jerkin all laid with gold lace, satin doublet 

and velvet hose, and three men in with him. M r Carre 

demanded of Robert [Roddam] what gentleman that was with him, who 
told [him he] was a gentleman of Lincolnshire and his name Mr Sheffeild. 
He asked him whither he would carry him that night, who made answer 
he would carry him to Twisell. Then M r Carre told him he thought Sir 
John would hardly get home that night. The gentleman came to M r 
Carre and asked him what news was at Alnwick and what the Com- 
missioners had done there ; he told him that such as had appeared, 
order was taken for their appearance at a certain day again. And in the 
mean time there was preachers appointed to confer with them, and 
hoped that they would amend their conditions and become obedient and 
loyal subjects to Her Majesty. M r Carre kept company with them a 
quarter of a mile and so they parted from him. This day, being the 
xvijth of this instant, M r Carre came unto me in the afternoon of 
purpose only to inform me of this matter, and told me that Robert 
Roddam of Little Houghton and the gentleman went not to Twisell at 
all, but that night rode into Scotland to Sir John Carr of the Spielawe, 
and from thence to Littledon in Scotland : to Sir John Carre's father 
And upon Saturday last Roddam came forth of Scotland and left the 
gentleman remaining at Littledon. M r Carre suspects (meeting him 
on the way where he did) that he had come either from my Lady Grey 
or Ralph Selbye's, at Wetewood, but rather from Ralph Selbye's, 
because the way where he met him lay so straight from thence. The 
same day that Roddam and the gentleman rode into Scotland] George 
Selbye of Newcastle and his wife, came to Twisell where within half 
an hour after he was lighted there came a Scots man with a letter to 
him. Whereupon he presently took his horse and rode to Spielawe, and 
stayed there all that night. All which the parson saith he will justify.' u 

In July, 1846, the great Ford tithe case between the then rector, the 
Rev. Thomas Knight, and the Marquis of Waterford, concerning the 
tithes of Ford, came on for trial at the Northumberland Assizes before 
Mr. Justice Wightman, the Court of Exchequer having determined that 
the trial before baron Rolfe, some years previously, was a collusive one. 
The trial lasted four days and ended in a verdict for the rector, thus 
establishing his claim to the tithes which had been subtracted by the 
successive owners of the Ford estate. Notwithstanding the verdict there 
was a compromise, the rector receiving 10,000 for his past claim and 
a rent charge of 800 a year for himself and successors in the future. 

The value of the living is thus entered in the old taxation of one mark 
in forty : ' Decanus de Baumburgh, cxxxm. Rectoria del Ford, xliijs. 
iiijd.' While by the Clams Ecclesiastica of bishop Barnes it was. in his 
time, 'R. Foorde, xxiiijZ. [300J. alias 200Z.] Mr. Carre [or Mr. Jo. Heron]. 15 
Bacon, in his Liber Regis (p. 1270), gives it as ' A living remaining in 
charge; in the king's books, 247. Ford R. (St. Michael.) Prox. Episc. \l. 
The KING, 1680. Francis Blake, esq., 1677. Francis Blake Delaval, 
esq., 1723. Francis Blake Delaval. John Hussey Delaval, and Elisha 
Biscoe, esq., 1761. Yearly tenths 21 6s.' Bishop Chandler in notes of 

u Hatfitld Papers, iv (Hist. MSS. Comm.), 188. 
is Reg. Pal Dun. n, 97 ; Eccl. Proc, of Bishop Barnes, 10, 


his visitation 'supposed in 1736,' gives ' R. Foord, G. Marsh, Patr. Fr. 
Blake de la Val, value 18W. resident. Fam. 225, 2 thirds Presb., 
1 Quaker. A licensed meeting house, J. S. Wood, teacher. Number 
great. A school taught by Mr. Lithgo, a Presbyterian. Samt. 3. 27 at 
most come, regular catech.' 

Before leaving Ford castle, hearty votes of thanks were accorded by 
acclamation to M. Mossop, for his permission to visit the castle, and 
also to Mr. Neville, 1 for so kindly guiding the party during the visit. 

The drive was then resumed northwards, along the road skirting the 
east bank of the Till , to 


The members proceeded through the quaint little village, with its 
picturesque thatched cottages, direct to the main gateway of the castle, 
situate at the west end of the village, and between it and the river. This 
tower, the keep,* and a portion of the walls, are all that remain of this 
important stronghold. Here they were met by the Misses Laing, Colonel 
and Mrs. Alwyn Paget, Mr. G. Grey Butler of Ewart Park, and others. 
The different features of interest were pointed out, but as an able 
description of the whole by the late Mr. C. J. Bates, has already 
appeared in these Proceedings (in, 350) after a former visit in 1888, 
it need not be repeated here. See also plate facing p. 10 of Arch. AeL, 
xiv, for masons' marks on the castle. The opposite plate, contributed 
by the Duke of Rutland in 1884, shews the gateway from the inside. 
Both the village and the remains of the castle are ' stondinge on 
playne Grownde, hard on the Este syde of Tylle, longynge to the 
Erie of Rutland' (Leland, Itin. vn, 60). The Till is here a river 'up- 
wards of forty yards broad.' 2 In Leland's time (Itin. vn, 62) it was 
spanned by a ' Bridge of Stone,' which no longer exists, as it was swept 
away by a great flood about 1777. In the village is a presbyterian 
congregation, endowed in the seventeenth century ; the church was 
originally built before 1740, but rebuilt and enlarged in 1800. 

In 1272, Robert de Maners held Hothal, now Etal, of the Muscamp 
barony, at half a knight's fee. The castle is said to have been built by 
Robert de Maners in 1341, in which year, on 3 May, a licence was 
granted to him, by Edward in, to crenellate ' mansum suum de 
Ethale.' 3 In 1352, it was the residence of the deputy- warden of the 
East March. Robert de Maners was succeeded by his son and heir 
John, who, according to an inquisition taken at Felton, 40 Edw. in. 
[1375], was said to have been born at Etal on the vigiljof St. Michael, 
21 years before, and baptized in Ford church when Roger Heroun was 
rector, he being 1 year and 3 weeks old when his father Robert Maners 
died. 4 This John, witfrhis son John, was prosecuted for killing William 
Heron and Robert Atkinson, of Etal, for which he had to pay for 500 
masses for the repose of William Heron's soul, and to compensate his 

1 In 1895, an interesting book by the rector, Under a Border Tower, Sketches and 
Mementoes of Ford Castle, Northumberland, was published by Mawson, Swan, & 
Morgan, Mr. Neville has another book in preparation, dealing with the history of 
the parish. 

* See illustration of it facing page 186. 

2 In 7 Edward I [1278-9], Robert Grimbald fell from his horse into the water of Till 
and was drowned, and as no one was blamed, a verdict of misadventure was returned 
by the jury. The horse was worth 5*. As the villagers of Hedderslawe and Ethale did 
not attend the inquest they were amerced. Northd. Assize Rolls(8S Surt. Soc. publ.), 314. 

3 Arch. AeL xiv, 9. 
4 Proofs of Age of Heirs to Estates in Northumberland,' Arch. Art. 4to. ser., vol. iv, 328. 


widow and children with 200 marks. In a list of Castles,' &c. , in North- 
umberland in 1415, it is entered as the ' castrum de Ethalle, Roberti 
Maneres ; 5 he died in 1437. Another Robert Manners was a representa- 
tive in parliament for Northumberland, and sheriff of the county in 1464 ; 
he married Eleanor, daughter and coheiress of Thomas, lord Roos, 6 in 
1469. He is on the commission of the peace for Northumberland in May, 
June, and December, 1483. 7 Their son George married Anne, daughter of 
the duchess of Exeter, whose son Thomas, lord Roos, was created earl of 
Rutland in 1526. 8 Before the battle of Flodden, king James IV. took 
and ruined Etal. From the Manners family the property passed to the 
Carrs, it being in the possession of Thomas Carr, captain of Wark in 
1567. The heiress of Sir William Carr took it into the Errol family, 
she having married the earl of Errol in 1762, and it was carried by his 
sister, by marriage, to the earl of Glasgow at the beginning of last cen- 
tury. In July 1885, the estate was purchased by the late Sir James 
Laing, and it is now in the hands of Lady Laing, his widow. 

At the assizes of 7 Edw. I. [1279] certain people were accused of 
assault and robbery, and as the plaintiff did not attend he was arrested 
and his pledges to prosecute forfeited ; amongst those who pledged 
were William, son of Thomas de Ethale, and John, son of Adam de 
Ethale. 9 On 28 Nov. 1290, Edward I. addressed a letter to archbishop 
Romanus announcing the death of queen Eleanor on that day, and 
asking for prayers for her soul. The archbishop appears to have been 
at Etal at the time, as his reply of 7 June is dated thence. In the letter 
he names the number of masses and grants a forty days indulgence. 10 
On 22 August, 1488, administration of Cuthbert Manners, ' serv. dornini 
regis ad clavem,' was granted to Gilbert Manners of Etal. esq. 1 In a 
return of 1509 of ' Holdis,' etc., and ' owners, inabytaunttes, or officers,' 
' Raffe Candelyng, My Lorde Ross & inab't. John Colyngwod, * Etall c. 
& from the mars [Merse] & from tevedale [Teviotdale] iiijm.' Ac- 
cording to the survey of 1541, 'the castell of Etayle beinge of the Erie 
of Rutlands inherytavince standeth upon the Est syde of the said ryver 
of Tyll thre myles from the said ryver of Twede ys for lacke of reparacons 
in very great decaye & many necessary houses within the same 
become ruynous & fallen to the ground. Yt were muche necessary to 
be repared for the defence of those borders aswell in tyme of peace as 
for the receyvinge and lodginge of a garryson of an hundreth men or 
mo in tyme of warre for whiche purpose that place ys very convenient. 
There was also at Etayle a brigge over the said river of Tyll which is 
decayed & fallen down of late to the great trouble hurte & annoy- 
aunces of thinhabitants thereabouts whiche had allwais redy passage 

s Arch. Ael. XIV, 14. 

' On 13 June, 1469, a licence was issued to the vicar of Wressell to marry in the 
chapel or oratory within the manor-house of Wressell, Sir Robert Manners, knt., lord 
of Etal in Northumberland, and Eleanor Roos, domictlla of John earl of Westmorland. 
Reg. Geo. Neville, i, 112a.' Test. Ebor. ill (45 Surt. Soc. pribl.), 340. 

7 Cal. of Pat. Bolls, 1476-1485. In 18 Edw. iv [1478-9], there is a note of a suit be- 
tween Robert Maners, knight, sometime lieutenant of Norham, and William Parker, 
citizen and tailor of London, being a recovery by Parker on the death of John Nevill, 
late Marquis of Montacute, of an obligation, in which Maners was bound to Parker. 
Public Record Office, Lists and Indexes, xvi, Chancery Proc. n. 

rf Of him it is said that he was much elated by his elevation, and told Sir Thomas 
More that he verified the old proverb ' Honores mutant Mores': ' nay, my lord,' was 
the reply, ' the proverb does much better in English, ' Honours change Manners." 

9 Northd. Assize Rolls, 315. 
10 Leaves from Northern Regitters, 91, 92. 
1 Test. Ebor. IV (53 Surt. Soc. publ.), 97n. 

Thomas Haggerston of Haggerston, on 6 Dec. 1516, made a grant in fee of all his 
lands to this John Collyngwod to fulfil his last \Vi\l.-Wills tfc Inv. i, 104. 


over when the said river is waxen greate & past rydinge upon horse - 
backe & muche necessary yt were to have yt reedyfyed againe as well 
for the purpose aforesaid as for the convey inge of orden'nce & armyes 
into Scotland over the same.' In 1584 the castle needed repair, ' Etell 
Castle belonginge to her majestye standinge about thre myles east and 
by southe frome the towre of Lancton within sixe myles of the border of 
Scotland decaied for want of reparacion by longe contynuance. This 
castle or fortresse we thinck to be one of the chiefe places and at least 
chardges to be repaired the chardges of whiche reparacyon we esteeme 
to two hundrethe pounde, 200 U ;' and again in 1588 it was in bad repair. 3 

In a list of the gentlemen of Northumberland dated May, 1549, Oswald 
Collingwood appears as bailiff of Etal. According to a list of 24 May of 
the same year, of the towns nearest to the enemy at which the army 
was placed, there were 200 footmen under John Leeke, and 100 horse- 
men under Sir John Ellerker, at Etal. 4 At the before mentioned 
muster of the East March, on 10 March, 1579-80, 'NEW ETTAILL,- a 
village of her Majesty's, with 8 tenants, all unfurnished. Declare 3 
years' fine they paid to Sir William Drewry for a lease he had from her 
Majesty is the cause ;' and * OLD ETTAILL, a village of her Majesty's, 
with 12 tenants, 2 horsed. The others say their great fines paid 
to Mr. Haggarston, esquire, her Majesty's lessee, is the cause of decay.' 
In 1580 are given the names of places in the East March where the 
queen has any lands certified to be unfurnished of horse and armour. 
Amongst these are ' New Etall, 8 tenements each of 20s. rent, leased 
to Sir William Drury at 10Z. (23 May 13 Eliz). Her Majesty had 2 
years' rent for a fine, and a bond to find an able tenant, horse and 
armour for each;' and ' Old Etall, 13 tenements, 11 of 20*., 1 of 60s., 
and 1 of 40s. a year, 161. Mr. Haggreston's lease (26 May 13 Eliz.) is 
only of the last 2, which are furnished, the rest seem out of lease and 
no fines taken.' At the muster of the East March, 1-3 Sept. 1584, 
already mentioned, ' Old Ittaill ' had ' horse 3, foot 6, with spear only 
34 ;' while ' New Ittail ' had ' foot 7.' 6 

On leaving Etal castle, the neat little modern church was inspected 
in passing, and then members proceeded to Etal manor-house, situated at 
the east end of the village ; it was built of white freestone by Sir William 
Carr in 1748, and enlarged in 1767. Here they were most kindly 
received and entertained to tea, etc., by Lady Laing. At the conclusion 
of the repast the thanks of members were accorded by acclamation to 
Lady Laing for her kind hospitality, on the motion of Mr. Tomlinson. 

Members then left Etal for Berwick, passing on the way the remains of 


of which there are some notes by the late Mr. C. J. Bates, with an 
illustration, in Arch. Ael., xiv, p. 409 ; to this volume readers are 

According to the ' Rentale ' of Robert Bennett, bursar of Durham in 
1539, there were due from the captain of Norham 53s. 4d. a year for the 
tithes of Dodow, and from Robert Sandersone, proctor of Norham, 8d. a 
year for tithes of the mill.- By the ' Booke of Surveighe' of 1580, the 

3 Arch. Ael. XIV, 23, 38, 73. 

4 Belvoir Papers, I (Hist. MSS. Comm. 12 Rep. App. iv), 39, 37. 
5 New Etal consists now of a farm and 5 or 6 cottages, J mile west of Etal village. 
In 1541 ' The towneshippe of new Etayle conteyneth viij husband lands plenyshed wthout 
fortresse or barmekyn, and ys of thinherytaunce of the Erie of Rutland and the ten'nts 
thereof in tyme of nede resorte to his castell of Etayle standynge upon the Est syde of 
the said ryver of Tyll.' Arch. Ael. xiv, 35. 

c Cal. of Border Papers, I, 15, 16, 33, 153, 


sum due from the captain of Nor ham for Duddo was still 53s. 4d. a 
year. 8 

At the time of the ' Survey ' of 1541 'At Duddo there standeth a pece of 
a towre that was rased & casten down by the Kinge of Scotts in the 
said warre xl t{ yeres sence & more and yt is of the inherytaunce of .... 
Claveringe and twoo myles from the ryver of Twede.' Another survey, of 
1561, gives ' Duddoo, in the same is one pile, or tower, which is decayed 
by reason it was cast downe by the Scotts at Flodden-field [really in 1496] 
and ny ver repayred senths, and there standeth bot the halfe y r of, about 
the which is one barnekin.' 9 In the list of the gentlemen of Northum- 
berland of May, 1549, already referred to, Robert Clavering is given for 
the lordship of Duddo ; and in a list of 24 May, of the same year, of towns 
nearest the enemy at which the army was placed, 100 footmen were at 
Felkington and Duddo under Captain Townesend. 10 At the muster of the 
Middle March on 2 May, 1580, at the ' Mutelaw,' ' Duddoe in Morpeth 
lordship, the earl of ArundeFs,' had but one horseman. At the muster 
of the East March on 1-3 Sep. 1584, already mentioned, ' Duddow' had 
' horse none, foot 4, with spear only 4.' 11 

James Clavering (son of Robert Clavering of Callaly, who left him 
2QI. 13s. 4d.) left his 'maner and lordshippe of Dodoe,' and the cole- 
mynes ther,' to his son John and his ' hayres mail,' and in default as is 
set forth. William Claveringe, late of Duddoe, by will of ' the latter 
parte of November, anno 1586, or thereabouts,' left certain of his sheep 
to the poor of Duddo and Tilmouth. In the inventory of 10 July, 1587, 
a list of cattle, etc., at Duddo is given. 13 

On arriving at Berwick members drove direct to the Red Lion Hotel, 
where at 6-15 p.m. most of them dined together, and at 7 '44 they 
left Berwick for their respective destinations. 

Amongst those present were : Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Oswald, and 
Miss Oswald, of Newcastle ; Mr. and Mrs. W. W. Tomlinson of Whitley ; 
Mr. T. Williamson, and the Misses Williamson (2), of North Shields ; 
Mr. Oliver of Morpeth ; Mr. J. Crawford Hodgson of Alnwick ; Mr. 
H. H. E. Craster of All Souls College, Oxford ; Mr. J. M. Moore and Mr. 
R. Blair (one of the secretaries), of Harton. 


BAMBURGH CASTLE. (Seepage 167.) 

In 1894 Professor T. McKenny Hughes of Cambridge, contributed an 
article to the Daily Graphic (which was printed in the number of that 
paper for 31st August, 1894) on the discoveries made in that year at 
Bamburgh, of which no account has as yet appeared in the transactions 
of the society, and as they are worth a permanent record the notes are 
here reprinted : 

' In the course,of operations now being carried on by [the late] Lord 
Armstrong, under the advice of Mr. C. J. Ferguson, it has been thought 
desirable to remove some of the more modern masonry upon the south- 
west side of the castle, between the keep and the great hall. Here it was 
unexpectedly found that, within a few feet of the surface, the rock 
occurred, the intervals and inequalities in which contained pockets of 

7 Feodarium Prior. Dunel. (58 Surt. Soc. publ.), 303, 304n, 305. 
8 Durham Halmote Rolls (82 Surt. Soc. publ.), 213. 

9 Arch. Ael., xiv, 38, 53. 
10 Belvoir Papers (Hist. MSS. Comrn. App. 5 to 12 Rep.), 39, 37. 

n Cal. of Border Papers, i. 21, 153. 
la Wills <fe Inv., 11. (38 Surt. Soc. publ.), 58n, 151, 152, 


glacial drift over which rubbish had been thrown at various times ; and, 
in the process of levelling the area, the remains of food, charcoal, etc. 
had been mixed up with layers of clay and boulders. Over the surface 
a newer deposit containing a large quantity of charcoal covered the 
floor. In the lower deposit was found a Saxon styca of Eanred 
and the mint-master Monne. There were also found a stone-sinker, 
made of garnetiferous gneiss, and a spindle- whorl. The bones belonged 
to ox, sheep, pig, deer, and dog or wolf ; and there were many shells 
of oyster, mussel, limpet, and periwinkle. No cockles were found in 
this lower midden, and no coal, but both occur in the upper modern 
midden. No pottery was found in either. It would thus appear that 
in the lower deposit we have a relic of the life of the inhabitants of the 
rock in pre-Norman times. These constitute the principal discoveries 
within the precincts of the castle up to the present time. To deal with 
those outside. As we go south from the castle gate crossing the traces 
of a tremendous fosse with a barbican beyond, we see in front of us a 
straight path which in places can be seen to be a metalled road, although 
much obscured by blown sand. About 300 yards down this road we 
come to an open space on the left hand, which has long been known as 
' bowl-hole.' Tradition, accepted by the Ordnance Survey, has called 
this a Danish cemetery, but the spade tells us that it has a much longer 
history. There is one series of interments, at small depths below the 
present surface, in which the bodies are generally disposed at length in 
rough cists, formed by placing slabs edgewise in the form of a coffin, often 
with slabs at the bottom also. But it is not clear how they were covered, 
or even if they were covered at all. The difficulty of ascertaining the 
depth and mode of interment arise"s from the fact that the ground was 
covered by blown sand, and it was only after a severe storm of wind, 
which shifted the sand, that the graves were discovered in recent times. 
These shallower graves may belong to any part of the early medieval 
age. There are, however, other interments on the same site at a much 
greater depth, of which several examples have just been found. From 
this fact alone we should have been inclined to refer these deeper inter- 
ments to a different age. The bodies lay in the sandy, boulder clay, 
whereas the others were generally in the bottom of the blown sand. We 
therefore carefully examined the site for evidence of British burial, and 
soon noticed that the large boulders on the side next the sea were 
arranged so as to form part of a large circle enclosing the area within 
which the interments occurred, while others lay at the base of the steep 
slope, just where they might have been expected to fall if they had once 
formed part of the circle, but had been pushed from the slope by 
holiday-makers. The conjecture as to the British date of this cemetery 
is fully borne out by the position in which the bodies were interred. 
The skull of one of them w T as slightly turned to the left, and the hands 
extended along the sides ; the legs were doubled up, so that both femurs 
were almost at right angles to the general direction of the body, while 
the tibia and iibula returned at a small angle, bringing the feet into the 
line of the body. In a grave previously explored the body lay on the 
left side, with the skull resting on the hand, and the right hand also 
lifted to the head. As far as can be ascertained 110 traces of ornament 
or weapons have ever been discovered with these remains. The skulls 
belong to the brachycephalic type, and we may, therefore, refer these 
skeletons to some race, probably belonging to the bronze age, though 
possibly having even then a strong admixture of the hardy races of 
north-western Europe. In a shallow grave close by were the remains 
of an infant, whose little bones had so far perished that we could 
jform no opinion as to its relations to the other bodies.' 






3 SEB., VOL. I. 1904. No. 23. 

The tliird country meeting of the season was held, in conjunction 
with the Durham and Northumberland Archaeological Society, on 
Monday, the 8th day of August, 1904, at 

HOUSESTEADS (Borcovicus). 

About 70 members of both societies, and friends, were present at the 
camp. Most of them assembled at Hexham at 11 o'clock a.m. on the 
arrival of the 10*25 express from Newcastle, and drove thence by Four- 
stones to Tower Tye, and then followed the line of the Wall to the top of 
Limestone-bank, where the first halt was made. Mr. J. P. Gibson of 
Hexham, had kindly agreed to act as guide during the day. At Lime- 
stone-bank he stated that this was the most northerly point of the 
Roman Wall they would touch during the day ; it was 822 feet above 
the sea level, and formed an apex pointing towards Scotland. The top 
of the bank was of whinstone, and cutting through it for the fosses of 
Wall and vallum was the most difficult piece of work the Romans had 
had. The explanation of the Wall itself was a simple matter compared 
with that of the vallum which was the crux of the whole. 

The next halt was at the camp of 


which was visited, as was also the well of Coventina, a little to the west 
of the camp, where, in 1876, the great discovery of altars, coins, etc. 
was made. 1 

Seats in the carriages were again taken, and the drive resumed to 

which was duly reached about 2 o'clock in the afternoon. 

Here again Mr. Gibson gave a description of the camp, which does not 
differ in any material respect from the other camps on the line of the 
Wall. The southern, eastern, northern, and western gateways were 
examined, the peculiarities of their construction being pointed out, and 
their various uses explained. The great Wall, as it approaches the 
camp on the east and leaves it on the west, is in very fine condition, 
being some five or six feet high and about seven feet wide, though 
doubtless it would be much more imposing when it was in its complete 
state of 18 or 20 feet high, with towers at regular intervals. The 

i See Archaeologia Acliana, viii, 1. 

praetorium, in the centre of the camp, was then inspected and described, 
and this finished the day's proceedings. After partaking of tea at the 
shepherd's house, members walked [down to the military road, and, 
having resnmed their seats in the" carriages, were driven down to 
Bardon Mill station, for the train east at 5-19 p.m. 

While at the station, Mr. J. R. Hogg proposed a cordial vote of 
thanks to Mr. Gibson for his guidance of the visitors, which was heartily 
accorded. Mr. Gibson replied, thanking them. 

For a full description of the excavations conducted by the society at 
Housesteads, members are referred to the report by Mr. R. C. Bosanquet 
in Archaeologia Aeliana, vol. xxv. 

Amongst these present, in addition to Mr. J. P. Gibson, were the 
following members of this society and friends : Mr. and Mrs. J. G. 
Gradon of Durham ; Mr. and Mrs. R. C. Hedley of Corbridge ; Mr. 
and Mrs. C. C. Hodges of Hexham ; Mr. J. R. Hogg of North Shields ; 
Mr. George Irving and Mr. John Irving, of West Fell, Corbridge ; Mr. 
Joseph M. Moore of Harton ; the Revd. S. Liberty of Newcastle ; Mr. 
and Mrs. J. Oswald of Newcastle ; Miss Reynolds of Elwick Hall ; 
Mr. A. C. Rudd of Stockton and Middleton Low Hall ; Mr. J. G. Hodgson 
and Mr. Oswin J. Charlton of Newcastle ; Mr. George Waddilove of 
Brunton ; Mr. Robert Blair (one of the secretaries) of Harton, and 



Mr. Charles Cobham of Gravesend, writes thus to Notes and Queries 
(for 27 August, 1904, p. 170) : ' I remember about thirty years ago, 
while acting as clerk of the works at the restoration of the old church of 
St. Hilda, in the market place of South Shields, there was a disused font 
standing amongst the tombstones in the churchyard, which is there yet 
for anything I know to the contrary. Mr. Pollard, a benevolent old 
warden, during a round of inspection happening to bring it under 
observation, exclaimed, in his dear old North Country accent, ' Puir 
old thing, that all of us wee bit bairns were christened in ! give it a 
coat of paint.' And the poor old thing was solaced with an affectionate 
coat of paint accordingly.' The font is a small late seventeenth century 
oval bowl on a twisted stem, reputed to have been designed by Robert 
Trollop, the famous builder of the Newcastle Guildhall, whose epitaph : 
Here lies Robert Trollop 
Who caused these stones to roll up. 
was said to have been in Gateshead churchyard. 

The Rev. Canon Savage, now vicar of Halifax, and until lately vicar of 
St. Hild's, thus writes : ' An account of the old font was given in the 
St. Hilda's Parish Magazine for April, June, and July, 1897. It was 
removed into the church, to the position which it had occupied in the 
former church, in Canon Baily's time, at the instance of Mr. J. C. 
Pollard. It had been turned out into the churchyard in 1870 or 1871, 
to make room for the new font given by Mrs. Chester [the widow of a 
former vicar]. The replacement of Trollop's font was suggested by 
Mr. C. Hodgson Fowler. In 1884 the new font was liberally (!) painted. 
In a note, dated 2 February, 1897, Mr. Welford writes (about Trollop) : 
' The oft-quoted doggrel epitaph was never seen on his tomb in Gates- 
head churchyard, and was probably a local jeu d' esprit.' ' 





3 SER., VOL. I. 1904. No. 24. 

The ordinary monthly meeting of the society was held in the library 
of the Castle, Newcastle, on Wednesday, the 31st day of August, 1904, at 
seven o'clock in the evening, Mr. Thomas Hodgkin, D.C.L., F.S.A., a 
vice-president, being in the chair. 

Several accounts, recommended by the Council for payment, were 
ordered to be paid. 

The following ORDINARY MEMBER was proposed and declared duly 
elected : 

Hugh Laing of Thornhill, Sunderland. 

The following NEW BOOKS, &c., were placed upon the table : 
Presents, for which thanks were voted : 

From Sir John Evans, F.R.S., &c., the writer : A New Type of 
Carausius, (overprint from the Numismatic Chronicle], 8vo., pp. 8, 

From the Peabody Museum of Archaeology, Harvard University, 
U.S.A. : Memoirs, in : (i.) Archaeological Researches in Yucatan, 
by Edward H. Thompson, large 8vo. r (ii.) The Cahokia and 
Surrounding Mound Groups, by D. I Bushnell, jr., pp. 20; and 
(iii.) Exploration of Mounds, Coahoma County, Mississippi, by 
Charles P. Peabody, both 8vo., pp. 63. 

From the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, U.S.A. : (i) Guam 
and its People, by W. E. Safford ; (ii) The Wild Tribes of the 
Malay Peninsula, by W. W. Skeat, M. A. ; (iii) Oriental Elements 
of Culture in the Occident, by Dr. Georg Jacob ; (iv) The 
Pygmies of the Great Congo Forest, by Sir Harry H. Johnston, 
G.C.M.G. ; (v) Fossil Human Bones found near Landing, Kansas, 
by W. H. Holmes ; (vi) The Craniology of Man and Anthropoid 
Apes, by N. C. Mcnamara ; and (vii) The Baousse-Roussd 
Explorations : A Study of a New Human Type, by Albert Gaudry ; 
Washington, U.S.A., 1903, all 8vo. 

From the Publisher of the Ancestor : Indexes to vols. i-iv, and v-vn. 

From the Derbyshire Archaeological and Nat. Hist. Society : Their 
Journal, vols. xx. and xxv. , 8vo. 

From the Royal Irish Academy : (i) Proceedings, part 3, vol, xxiv, 
ser. 3 ; and (ii) Transactions, vol. xxxii. 


Exchanges : 

From the Royal Academy of History and Antiquities of Stockholm, 
Sweden '.Maenadsblad, 1898-9, and 1901-2 ; 8vo. 

From the Canadian Institute of Toronto : Transactions, No. 15, 
March, 1904 (vn. iii.) ; large 8vo. 

From the Royal Archaeological Institute: The Archaeological 
Journal, LXI, no. 241 (2 ser. xi. i.), 8vo. 

From the Numismatic Society of London : Tlie Numismatic Chron- 
icle, 1904, ii (4 ser. 14), 8vo. 

Purchases : Der Obergermanisch-Raetische Limes des Roemerreiches, 
lief, xxn Kastell Holzhausen, large 8vo. ; The Antiquary for 
August, 1904 ; Notes and Queries, 10 ser. 31-35, and Index ; The 
Ancestor for July, 1904 ; Index to vol. for 1892-3 of Berwick- 
shire Naturalists Club Transactions. 


Thanks were voted for the following : 

From Dr. Beddoe of Bradford-on-Avon : A quartzite * dagger ' used 
at the present time by the Dalleeburra tribe of Central Queens- 
land. The quartz point is roughly triangular in form, and is 
2ins. long and lin. wide, embedded in a substance like pitch (?). 
The whole is roughly leaf shape. The total length is 5in. 

By Colonel Arthur Gray (per J. C. Hodgson, F.S.A.) : A fine silver 
Monteith, 12 ins. in diameter and about 8 ins. high, with the 
usual loose rim. 

Mr. Hodgson thus describes it : ' This bowl, retaining intact the move- 
able rim which forms an essential and characteristic feature of the class of 
bowls, known as Monteiths or Menteiths, was made in London, between 
May, 1696, and the 25 March in the following year. The initials of the 
maker's name are somewhat doubtful. They may be those of Charles 
Jackson, who was doing work as late as 1720, or, as M r T. Taylor 
suggests, they may be those of Francis Garthorne, a well-known silver- 
smith of the period, some of whose Monteiths he has seen. The sides 
of the bowl are spaced so as to form eight compartments, or panels, two 
being occupied by the two hinged handles by which the vessel is carried. 
In the centre panel of one side there has been engraved a coat armorial 
quarterly, first, or, a fesse cheeky argent and azure, for Stewart ; second 
and third, a gyronny of eight or and sable, for Campbell ; fourth, argent, 
a lymphad or galley, her sails furled and oars in action sable, for Lome ; 
crest a boar's head couped or. Motto Ne oblivis casu. One panel on 
each side is occupied by the following inscription, which reads across 
them both : ' The gift of | John Campbell esq. | of No. Carolina | to his 
elder | brother George | in the year 1764.' On the three compartments 
or panels on the other side of the bowl are engraved the initials J. C., 
J. S. C., and G. C., respectively.' 

By Mr, Hardy of Newcastle, (per Mr. C. H. Blair) : A ' final concord ' 
of 23 May 1655, relating to lands, &c., at Stanton, Horsley, 
Netherwitton and Fenrother. The parchment is said to have 
been discovered in a crevice in the west walls of Newcastle about 
December, 1903. It bears the usual floriated heading of the 
period, with its ornate lettering, the flowers being chiefly con- 
ventional tulips. The great seal usually appended is missing. 

The following is the text of the document : 

OLIVER LOUD PROTECTOR of the Com[m]onwealth of England Scotland 


and Ireland & the Dominions therto belonging. To ALL to whom these 
p'sents shall come GREETING Knowe yee that amonge the z*ecords & feete 
of ffines with p'clamacons therevpon made before the Justices of the 
Com[m]on Bench at W'stm r according to the forme of the Statute in that 
case made & p'vided in Easter Terme in the yeare of our Lord one 
thousand six hundred & fifty five It is thus Conteyned NORTHUMB R 
This is the finall agreem* made in the Court of the Com[m]on Bench at 
Wstmr r From Easter day in five weeks the yeare of our Lord one 
thousand six hundred & fifty five before Oliver St. John Edward Atkyns 
Mathew Hale & Hugh Wyndham Justices & others then & there p'sent 
BETWEEN Roger Nevile & Edward Burdett gent, plfs AND Edward 
ffenwicke esq r & Sara his wife Roger ffenwicke esqre & ffrancis 
Nevile esqre def orceants of the Mannor of Stanton w th the appurtenn ces 
AND of tenn messuages three tofts tenn Cottages six barnes tenn gardens 
tenn orchards three hundred acres of Land three hundred acres of 
meadow three hundred acres of pasture one thousand acres of moore & 
five hundred acres of furze & heath w th the appurtenn ces in Stanton, 
Horsley, Netherwitton & ffenrother WHEKEVPON a plea of Covenant 
was summoned between them in the said Court THAT is TO SAY that 
the aforesaid Edwarde ffenwicke & Sara Roger ffenwicke & ffrancis 
haue acknowledged the aforesaid Manno r tenem ts w th the appur- 

tenn ces to be of him the said Roger Nevile THOSE w ch 

the said Roger & Edward Burdett haue of the guift of the aforesaid 
Edward ffenwicke & Sara Roger ffenwicke & ffrancis AND THOSE 
they haue remised & quitclaimed from them the said Edward ffenwicke 
& Sara Roger ffenwicke & ffrancis & their hei.res to the aforesaid Roger 

Nevile & Edward Burdett & the heires of the said AND 

MOREOVER the said Edward ffenwicke & Sara haue grannted for them & 

the heires of the said Edward will warrant to the aforesaid 

Roger Nevile & Edward Burdett & the heires of the said Roger the 
aforesaid Manno r [& tenem ts ] w th the appurtenn ces against them the 
said Edward ffenwicke & Sara & the heires of the said Edward for ever 
AND FURTHER the said Roger ffenwicke hath grannted for him & his 
heires that they will warrant to the aforesaid Roger Nevile & Edward 
Burdett & the heires of the said Roger the aforesaid Manno r & temen ts 
w th the appurtenn ces against him the said Roger ffenwicke & his 
heires for ever AND ALSOE the said ffrancis hath grannted for him & 
his heires that they will warrant to the aforesaid Roger Nevile & Edward 
Burdett & the heires of the said Roger the aforesaid Manno r & tenem ts 
w th the appurtenn ces against him the said ffrancis & his heires for ever 
AND FOR THIS acknowledgem 1 remise quiteclaim warranties fine & 
agreem 1 the said Roger Nevile & Edward Burdett haue given to the 
aforesaid Edward ffenwicke & Sara Roger ffenwicke & ffrancis eight 
hundred pounds sterlinge IN TESTIMONY whereof wee haue caused our 
seale deputed for the sealeing of writts in the Court aforesaid vnto 
these p'sents to be affixed, wittnes O. St. John at W'stm r xxiii th day 
of May in the yeare abouesaid.' Seal gone. 

By Mr. Ralph Nelson of Bishop Auckland (per Mr. R. Blair) : 
i. A letter of Mr. John Walker of Cliff House, Cullercoats, to the 
bishop of Durham, dated 15 Dec. 1839, in which the writer 
rejoices that it is intended to build a church at Coundon, and 
enclosing 10 towards it. It bears the post mark ' North Shields | 
De. 15 | 1839 ; and in addition ' Cullercoats | Penny Post.' 
Mr. Nelson asks 'how do you account for this (' Cullercoats Penny 
Post ') ? The Penny Post started 10 Jan. 1840. A letter from Coundon 
to Durham, 9 miles, was charged 4d., and Cullercoats would be at least 
three times the distance.' He would like an answer to his query. 


ii. An original ' Copy Dra* Grant of a Market and Fairs at South 
Shields ' [thus endorsed], from the Auckland Collection. It is 
here printed : 


' RICHARD by the Grace of God Bishop of Durham To ALL to whom 
our present Letters shall come Greeting WHEREAS by a certain Inquis- 
ition indented taken at the City of Durham in the full County of Drham 
the sixteenth Day of July now last past Before Sir Hedworth William- 
son Baronet Sheriff of the County of Durham by virtue of a certain Writ 
of our Lord the King of ad quod Damnum lately issued out of the Court 
of Chancery at Durham to him the said Sheriff directed and to the 
afores d Inquisition annexed by the Oath of good and lawful Men of the 
County aforesaid IT WAS FOUND that it would not be to the Damage 
or prejudice of our s d Lord the King, or of others, or to the Nusance 
[sic] of any Neighbouring Market or Fair If WE should grant to Spencer 
Cowper Dr. in Divinity Dean and the Chapter of Durham of the Cathe- 
dral Church of Christ and blessed Mary the Virgin and their Successors 
Lords of the Manor of Westoe in the C aforesaid That they and their 
successors might have and keep in the Town or reputed Town of South 
Shields within their said Manor One Market upon Wednesday in every 
Week for ever ; and also Two Fairs yearly (to wit) One of the said Fairs 
upon the twenty fourth Day of June and the other of the said Fairs 
upon the 1 st Day of September in every year to be held and continued 
for ever for the Buying and Selling of all and all manner of Beasts and 
Cattle Flesh Fishes Birds Grain Roots Herbs and other provisions and 
all and all manner of Goods Wares and Merchandizes commonly bought 
and sold in Markets and Fairs Together with all Tolls and profits 
from thence arising As by the sd. Writ and Inquisition remaining of 
Record upon the Files of the Court of Chancery aforesaid more fully 
may appear Now KNOW YE that We of our Special Grace and also of 
our certain knowledge and meer motion HAVE Given and Granted and 
by these Presents for us and our Successors DO Give and Grant to 
Spencer Cowper Doctor in Divinity Dean and the Chapter of Durham 
of the Cathedral Church of Christ and blessed Mary the Virgin and their 
Successors Lords of the aforesaid Manor of Westoe in the County afore- 
said That they and their successors may have and keep in the Town 
or reputed Town of South Shields aforesaid within their said Manor 
One Market upon Wednesday in every Week for ever and also Two 
Fairs yearly (to wit) One of the said Fairs upon the twenty fourth Day 
of June and the other of the said Fairs upon the first Day of September 
in every year to be held and continued for ever for the Buying and Sell- 
ing of all and all manner of Beasts and Cattle Flesh Fishes Birds Grain 
Roots Herbs and other Provisions and all and all manner of Goods 
Wares and Merchandizes commonly bought and sold in Markets and 
Fairs Together with all Tolls and Profits from Thence arising. To HAVE 
HOLD AND ENJOY the afores d Market and Fairs and other the Premisses 
above by these Presents granted or mentioned to be granted to the said 
Dean and the Chapter of Dnrham of the Cathedral Church of Christ and 
blessed Mary the Virgin and their Successors Lords of the said Manor of 
Westo [sic] in the County aforesaid To their own proper Use and 
behoof for ever Without any Accompt or other Thing to be rendred piad 
or done to us or our Successors for the same AND THEREFORE We Will 
and by these Presents for us and our Successors Do strictly enjoin and 
command That the aforesaid Dean and the Chapter of Durham of the 
Cathedral Church of Christ and Blessed Mary the Virgin and their 


Successors Lords of the aforesaid Manor of Westoe in the County 
aforesaid may have and keep the aforesaid Market upon Wednesday in 
every Week for ever and the aforesaid Two Fairs yearly for Ever 
together with all the other prem'es aforesaid according to the Tenor and 
true Meaning of these our Letters patent without the Molestation 
Disturbance oppression or contradiction of us or our Successors or of any 
Sheriffs Escheators Bailiffs Officers or Ministers whatsoever of us or our 
Successors and without any other Warrant Writ or process in this respect 
from Us or our Successors to be procured or obtained MOREOVER We 
will and by these presents for Us and our Successors Do grant to the 
aforesaid Dean and the Chapter of Durham of the Cathedral Church of 
Christ and blessed Mary the Virgin and their Successors That these our 
Letters patent or the Inrolment or exemplification thereof are and shall 
be in all things good firm valid sufficient and effectual in the Law to 
them and their Successors according to the true meaning of the same 
IN TESTIMONY whereof we have caused these our Letters to be made 
Patent WITNESS Sir Joseph Yates Knight our Chancellor of Durham 
at Durham the Day of in the 5th year of the 

Reign of our Sovereign Lord George the third by the Grace of God of 
Great Britain ffrance and Ireland King Defender of the Faith and so 
forth And in the year of our Consecration and in the 

year of our Translation.' 

Thanks were voted for these exhibits. 


Mr. R. O. Heslop (one of the secretaries) read an interesting paper by 
Mr. F. W. Dendy, V.P., on purchases at Corbridge Fair in 1289. 

Mr. J. C. Hodgson mentioned that there were some peculiar and un- 
explained features connected with Stagshaw-bank fair. The fair 
belonging to, and regulated by, the Duke of Northumberland, as lord 
of the manor of Corbridge, is held in an adjacent parish within the 
limits of the ancient regality of Hexham, with which the lords of the 
manor of Corbridge have had no connection. Nor is the fair held on 
St. Andrew's day the feast of the dedication of Corbridge parish 
church as might have been expected, but on St. John Baptist's day 
(old style), under whose invocation is the parochial chapel of St. John 
Lee, in which chapelry or parish Stagshaw is situated. He said also 
that a notice of Horse Races to be run on Stagshaw-bank on May 5 1724, 
may be found in the Newcastle Courantof 28 March 1724. 

The thanks of members were voted to Mr. Dendy by acclamation. 

The paper will probably be printed in Archaeologia Aeliana. 


1 Another simple game they played was with hard-boiled eggs. A 
man would enter the osteria crying, ' Ecce uova tosta.' Then some of 
those great big men would purchase, trying each egg against their teeth, 
to see whether the shell was all filled. One then held his egg in his fist, 
exposing only the smallest portion of the top, and the other would gently 
knock it with the end of his egg. Whichever broke first was the 
property of the other.' ' An Artist's Life in Italy,' by Val. C. Prinsep, 
R.A., in The Magazine of Art for July, 1904, p. 418. This being a 
description answering exactly to the ' jarping ' of eggs on Tyneside at 
Easter, it has been thought worthy of record here as shewing a corres- 
pondence between our northern counties and sunny Italy. 


The following local extracts, from the Calendar of Patent^Rolls, are 
continued from p. 184: 

1477, June 11, Westminster. General pardon to Thomas Heron, alias 
Herun, alias Herrun, late of Meldoii, co. Northumberland, ' gentilman,' 
alias Thomas Tateheyre late of Conhath, of all offences committed by 
him before 22 May. By p.s. 17 Edw. IV, pt. 1, memb. 8. [p. 41] 

1479, May 28, Woburn. General pardon to Jasper Bradford late of 
North Medylton, co. Northumberland, ' gentilman,' alias Jasper Bred- 
ford late of Bradforth, co. Northumberland, alias Jasper Bradeford late 
of North Middylton, of all offences committed by him before 5 February 
last. By p.s. 

The like to George Bradford late of Bamburgh, co. Northumberland, 
' gentilman,' alias George Bradforth late of Bradforth, co. Northumber- 
land, alias George Brodforth late of Bameburgh. By p.s. 

May 30, Woburn. General pardon to George Eryiigton of Nuburgh, 
Tyndale, co. Northumberland, ' gentilman,' alias of Haughton in 
Tyndale, co. Northumberland. By p.s. 

The like to Thomas Eryngton of Whityngton, co. Northumberland, 
' gentilman,' alias Thomas Erryngton of the county of Northumberland, 
alias Thomas Heryngton of Byngfeld, co. Northumberland. By p.s. 
19 Edw. IV, memb. 25. [p. 156] 

1481, May 9, Westminster. General pardon to William Shetton alias 
Shotton late of Dodyngton, co. Northumberland, ' yoman,' alias of 
Heton, co. Northumberland, of all offences committed by him before 
29 April last. By p.s. 21 Edw. IV, pt. 2, memb. 14. [p. 274] 

1483, Feb. 25, Westminster. Pardon, at the request of the king's 
brother Richard, duke of Gloucester, to the king's subjects of York, 
Cumberland, Northumberland, and Westmoreland, and the city of York, 
and the precinct of the same, and the town of Kyngeston on Hull, of 
the whole fifteenth and tenth granted to the king by the commons of 
the realm in Parliament at Westminster, 20 January, 22 Edward IV., 
in consideration of their expenses in warring against the king's enemies 
of Scotland. By K. 22 Edw. IV, pt. 2, memb. 11. [p. 339] 
s. 1482, March 2, Westminster. Licence for the dean and canons of the 
king's free chapel of St. George within the castle of Wyndesore to grant 
the advowson or patronage of the parish church of Symondesburn, in 
the diocese of Durham, to the king's brother Richard, duke of Gloucester, 
and Anne his wife, and their heirs. By K. Ibid., memb. 4. [p. 260] 

1483, Aug. 1. Commission to John Lylborn the elder, John Cartyng- 
ton, John Agerston and John Swynburn, in the county of Northumber- 
land, to assess certain subsidies granted to the late king by the commons 
of the realm in the last Parliament at Westminster [Rolls of Parliament, 
VI, 197] from aliens, with the exception of the nations and merchants 
of Spain and Brittany and the merchants of Almain who have a house in 
the city of London called Gildhall Theutonicorum, and to send their 
inquisitions to the treasurer and barons of the exchequer, and to appoint 
collectors so that the sums shall be answered for at Michaelmas. 
Rich. III., pt. 2, memb. 22d. [p. 396] 


Page 160, line 39, for ' Carliol ' read ' Carliol Croft/ 

Page 165, line 15, for 'Kev. C. Williams' read 'Eev. E. Williams.' 





3 SEB., VOL. I. 1904. No. 25. 

A country meeting of the Society was held, in conjunction with the 
Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society, 
on Thursday and Friday, the 8th and 9th September, 1904, at 


The arrangements for the excursion were in the hands of a local com- 
mittee consisting of Mr. T. H. Hodgson, F.S.A. (chairman), his Honour 
Judge St savenson, Mr. J. Proctor Watson, Mr. H. Penfold, and the two 
hon. secretaries of the Cumberland Society. 



The weather was threatening, but, fortunately, rain did not interfere 
with the pleasure of the party. Amongst the members of the Newcastle 
Society and friends present there were Mr. T. H. Hodgson (chairman 
of council of the Cumberland society) and Mrs. Hodgson, of Newby 
Grange, Carlisle ; the Hon. and Rev. W. Ellis, rector of Bothal, North- 
umberland ; Mr. George Irving of West Fell, Corbridge ; Mr. W. J. 
Armstrong of Hexham ; Mr. M. Mackey and Mrs. Mackey, Mr. Maudlen, 
and Mr. John Gibson (warden of the castle), of Newcastle ; Mr. 
S. S. Car:: of Tynemouth ; and Mr. R. Blair (one of the secretaries) of 
Harton. Amongst others present were the bishop of Barrow (president 
of the Cumberland society) ; Mr. Harvey Goodwin of Orton Hall ; Mr. 
H. Penfold of Brampton ; Mr. W. G. Collingwood of Coniston ; Mr. W. 
L. Fletcher of Workington; Mr. and Mrs. J. Rawlinson Ford of Leeds ; 
the Rev. W. F. Gilbanks of Great Orton ; Dr. Barnes, Canon Bower, 
and Major Spencer Ferguson, of Carlisle ; the Rev. W. Lowthian of 
Troutbeck ; Mr. T. Wilson (one of the secretaries of the Cumberland 
Society) and Miss Wilson of Kendal ; and many others. 

The Newcastle contingent left Newcastle by the 10-25 a.m. train, and 
that from Carlisle by the train at 12-15, and assembling at Brampton 
junction about one o'clock they found carriages awaiting them, in 
which they drove to the ' mote ' at 


They ascended the eminence by the old carriage drive at the back, 
and on reaching the summit saw the splendid panoramic view of the 
great plain of Cumberland spread out at their feet. 


Standing on the base of the Howard monument Mr. Collingwood read 
an interesting paper, in which he called in question the theory that this 
was a Danish ' mot ' or hill for the dispensing of justice ; rather did he 
favour the idea that this hill and other mote hills or k burhs ' in the 
county were the residence of the local lords or chiefs. He further 
remarked that he could still call these hills ' burhs,' for had we not the 
name attaching to the mote at Burton in Lonsdale ? 

Descending by the front of the moat the party resumed their seats in 
the conveyances and were driven to the old church, where they were 
met and welcomed by the vicar. 

A paper by Mr. Penfold, on the building, was read in the church. 
He thought that the existing building was not a chancel only but a 
complete church. There were various surmises by different members, 
some inclining to the belief that, at the lengthening of the building, the 
chancel of the ancient church was included and built out into its present 
condition. Most probably, however, in Norman times it was merely a 
small chantry chapel, subsequently enlarged to about twice its original 
size, as the break in the masonry of both north and south walls clearly 
shows. There are one or two interesting medieval floriated grave- 
covers in the churchyard, besides several gravestones of ' statesmen,' 
bearing canting coats of arms which it would be difficult to describe 
in the usual heraldic language. The paper also contained an account 
of the restoration of the church, which took place in 1891. 

A vote of thanks to the vicar and to Mr. Penfold brought the pro- 
ceedings here to a close. 

The party afterwards walked across the meadows by a footpath and 
over the river to Irthington, and on the summit of the mound, Mr. 
T. H. Hodgson pointed out that this ' burh ' was in almost every respect 
similar to Brampton mote. The party was received at Irthington 
church by the vicar, and Canon Bower pointed out many of the inter- 
esting features of the edifice, including the graceful character of the 
capitals, the lowside window, some medieval grave covers, and the 
communion plate, which includes a hammered silver chalice of 1601 
and a pewter tankard and paten of 1730. 

The conveyances were again taken and a start made with the eight 
mile drive to Castle Carrock. On arrival members, under Judge 
Steavenson's guidance, ascended the fell, and after admiring the 
features of the wide landscape, listened to a very instructive address 
by the judge, who, standing on the edge of a circular hollow, said that 
several of these holes had been dug out, of which there were hundreds 
on the fells ; some people were of opinion that they were pit dwellings, 
others simply ' swallow holes ' as it was a limestone country. He, how- 
ever, thought many of them were ancient pit dwellings, and gave his 
reasons for so thinking. That chosen to illustrate his remarks was well 
defined, circular in form, and with a strong rampart around. Speaking of 
Castle Carrock the judge said that in 1805 the wastes in the parish were 
awarded. The people who settled there in Saxon times were a co-opera- 
tive community ; joining together they worked the land amongst them , 
one supplied the irons, another wood, a third the gear for the plough ; and 
the same co-operation applied in regard to the animals which were used 
in the cultivation of the land. This, of course, was previous to the 
division of the land into the Norman manors. At the Conquest the feudal 
system came in with its system cf lords and tenants. The boundaries of 
the manor were well defined, and within its borders had been traced ter- 
races, and stone cists and other evidences of an ancient occupation had 
been found. 


Descending from the fell the members were entertained to tea at 
Gelt hall by Judge and Mrs. Steavenson ; and then, after thanking 
their host and hostess, they drove to How Mill where the train was 
taken at 0-55 p.m., for Carlisle. 

Between thirty and forty members of the two societies dined together 
in the eveiiing at the Great Central hotel. After dinner there was a 
meeting for the reading of papers and the transaction of the general 
business of the Cumberland society, presided over by the bishop of 
Barrow, the president. 

Amongst the papers read was one, by Mr. Bailey, on the Roman altars 
at Rokeby in Yorkshire, from Cumberland. (For note of them see 
these Proc. x, 326; also Lapid. Sept., nos. 354, 35(>, 372; and G. I. L. 
vn, 275, 807, 813, 827) Three of them had been removed from Naworth 
by Sir Thomas Robinson, to whom they were given by his brother-in-law, 
the earl of Carlisle, and the probability is that the other two making 
five in all were removed at the same time. In the Lapidarium these 
two altars are said to be lost. Mr. Bailey suggested new readings of 
some of the inscriptions. ' 



In addition to the members of the Newcastle society present on the 
previous day, were the following : Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Oswald of 
Newcastle ; Mr. J. P. and Miss Gibson of Hexham ; and Mr. John A. 
Irving of West Fell, Corb ridge. 

Again, as on. the previous day, the party assembled at Brampton 
junction, but at 10 a.m. Them were about one hundred members and 
friends in the societies' carriages and a number also in private convey- 

ices and on cycles. The morning opened delightfully fine, though a 
trifle windy. In the afternoon, however, the pleasure of the party was 
somewhat marred by heavy showers of rain accompanied by a cold wind. 

Members arrived at, 


well up to time. Taking up a somewhat sheltered position they listened to 
an interesting description of the ancient stronghold, written by the late 
Chmicellor Ferguson of Carlisle, and read by his son, Major Spencer Fer- 
guson. He said that Askerton castle was built in the early Tvidor poriod, 
1500 to 1525 ; its builder was Thomas, second baron Dacre of Gilsland, 
as the initials T.D. on the outside of the northern tower show. It was 
used as the residence of the land sergeant of Gilsland, who commanded 
a few men at arms to protect the barony from the incursions of the moss- 
troopers and to warn the inhabitants of Naworth of the approach of the 
Scots. Mr. T. H. Hodgson then referred to a duel between one. of the 
Carletons, who were land sergeants for several generations, and Thomas 
Musgrave, captain of Bewcastle. 

The castle is now used as a farmhouse. Its plan is rather curiou^, 
being an oblong with two tcwers, about the same size, narrower than 
the central building, at each end ; that on the east being on a lino with 
the main building, and that on the west being a little back from it, as 
is shewn on this rough plan: 





In the angles a and b are the openings of latrine shafts. The stabling, 
which had apartments over, as evidenced by the fireplace and mullioned 
windows, is on the north, and between it and the castle is a small 
courtyard with a curtain wall on the east. There are small openings 
to the south, high up in the central building, and in each tower, for 
light and air. In the present kitchen is a large fireplace, on which is 
the inscription THOMAS CARLETON IUNIOR 1576 Several of the visitors 
ascended the tower at the south-east angle, and also that at the south- 
west angle, the latter tower being at present under repair. On the 
leads of the first mentioned tower the following contemporary inscrip- 
tion has been incised : ' Geo Tay lr 9 No vb 1745 | the Day that the 
Rebels | came to the Border.' 

The following are a few extracts, chiefiy from the Calendar of Border 
Papers, relating to Askerton : 

In a letter of 29 December, 1569, Edmund Turner informs the Duke 
of Norfolk that Edward Dacre, brother to Leonard Dacre, ' whom they 
named to be lord Dacre,' and a number with him, ' in warlike manner 
with ladders nad scaled the walls of Graystock Castle, with like force the 
Bells and Milburnes of Gillesland did climb over the walls to Naward 
Castle, and pull out the servants of Thomas Carleton who had the keeping 

of it The Dacres had burned beacons in the night for the assembly 

of men to withstand the re-entry of the Lord Warden that the 

Dacres had entered the Castle of Askerton, Denton Tower, and Cumcatch, 
co. Cumberland, three of the wards houses. Some of Dacre' s servants 

had entered the college of Kirk Oswald and had removed the 

goods to Naward. 1 

In 1580, according to a survey of that year, Askerton Castle, another 
small fortress within the barony of Gilsland, is reported as being 
' partly decayed, the repairinge whereof, with the help of the woods 
belonginge to the Lord and owner of the same, is esteamed to xxfo'.'~ 

Amongst those who appeared at a muster of Eskdale ward men of 
8 and 9 February, 1580-1, were many inhabitants of Askerton lordship 
(their names are given), 21 of them having jacks, 37 steel caps, 48 spears 
and lances, one a bow, and one a gun.' From ' Lannercoste ' also, a 
large number mustered, 10 had jacks, 29 steel caps, 30 spears or lances, 
and 4 bows ; and from Brampton likewise, 9 had jacks, 37 steel caps, 46 
spears and lances, and 9 bows. In ' Rules for defence of the Borders,' 
of June, 1538, it is stated that proper order cannot be maintained, 

' excepte there be placede at Askerton, a true and able man to rule 

and governe the people of the vale of Gilleslande, wherin is manie 
good, true and suftycient men, if they weare well entreatede, ruled and 
governede, as some saie now they are not ; and those to keepe likewise 

their watches, make their cries, better then of late by reason of 

the variance betwene the Carletons and Musgraves, which hathe bene 
a greate overthrowe and hindrance of bothe those places of Beaucastle 
dale and Gilleslande.' In an information of April, 1585, against 
Thomas Carlton, and others, it is stated that on the previous Easter 
Tuesday, at a horse race in Liddesdale, Thomas Carlton talked secretly 
with the Lairds of Mangerton, and Whithawghe, and Will of Kinmoth 
.... Carlton came that night home to Askerton, and next day ' ranne 
the bell of the Wainerigge.' Will of Kinmoth, his brother Robbe, and 
other Scotsmen, came with him to Naworth, for the 'night and on 
leaving, Kinmoth got ' Gray Carver,' a horse of Lancelot Carlton's, and 

i Cecil Papers, I, 455, 6. 
a The Household Books of Lord William Howard (68 Surt. Soc. publ.), xxxv. 

Proc. Soc. Antiq. Newc. 3 ser. i. 

To face page 

From a photograph by Mr. Joseph Oswald. 

From a photograph by Mr. W. L. Fletcher of Workington. 


has him yet. Thomas Carlton sent a man to take assurance between 
Richies Will and them of ...thejMoote saying, if they did, he should 
have gold and land; butjie refused, since he heard of lord Arundel's 
apprehension he suspected Carlton meant them to join the conspiracy. 

In 1592 the barony of Gilsland was ' under the government of a 
steward, who ought to ly att Askerton cast'e. In his charge is all the 
safetie of the barronrie, without either help of warden or other, for that 

yt lyeth some what farre off This countrie since the rebellion is 

sore spoyled, and ever since worse governed.' 3 

In 1594 Henry Leigh, steward of the barony of Burgh, gives his 
' Reasons to move her Majesty to relieve her poor servant,' as he had 
spent his patrimony in her majesty's service on the border, and has 
' neither land nor lease in the world to maintain himself nor relieve his 
wife and 5 children except the Stewardship of the Barony of Burgh, with 
only 51. fee, out of which he has to make certain payments ; while the 
captain of Bewcastle (Sir Symond Musgrave and his son Thomas) hath 
the demesnes of Bewcastle, with a mill, and rents of all the tenants, 
with their tithes, perquisites of court, &c., amounting to near 400 
marks yearly, beside 140Z. fee ;' and ' The land sergeant of G-illesland and 
his brother (Mr. Thomas Carleton and his brother Launcelot Carleton, 
500Z.) have all the parks and demesnes of the late Lord Dacres,' amongst 
them being Askerton, yearly value 100 marks ; and the demesnes of 
Naward and the park, value 100J. On 8 November, 1595, Alexander 
King sends to Sir Robert Cecil a ' statement of all lands come to the 
possession of the queen by the attainders of Leonard Dacre and the 
Earl of Arundell within his office. Amongst the castles of the Dacres 
with their keepers -he gives, ' Naworth House or Castle, Launcelot 
Carleton,' and ' Askerton Tower or Castle, Thomas Carleton.' 4 

In 1595 or 1596, Lord William Howard 'your pore distressed suppliant,' 
petitioned queen Elizabeth for the lands in her hands of ' The Baronies, 
Manors, landes, etc., alloted to me in partition in the right of my 
wyffe as sister and coheire of George late Lord Dacre deceased, and 
latelie seased to hir Majestie's use.' They included in ' Com. Cumbr. 
The Baronye of Gillesland in which is conteyned twoe Castles, viz., 
N award and Askerton .... the commaundement of the men within 
that Baronie under the office of the land sergeant to be placed by the 
Lord therof, per annum, ccvij 1 '.' 5 

On 4 June, 1596, of the lands in Cumberland in the barony of G-lsland 
late the possessions of Leonard Dacro attainted, whereof the Graimes 
are tenants, 12 acres of arable and 2 acres of meadow were in the manor 
of Askerton, held at the lord's will after the custom of the manor, by 
Richard Graime, for which he paid 13s. 4d. ; and 12 acres of arable and 
12 of meadow were similarly held by Fergus Gra : me, for which he paid 
10s. 2d. On 19 June of the same year, lord Scrope in a letter informed 
Burghley that William Grame of the Mote had spoiled John Taylier, a 
queen's tenant about the Ry dings, had cut down the queen's wood there 
and kept as servants one William Lanbe and Davie Richeson, common 
and notorious spoilers of the queen's subjects ; he (' Willie of the Mott ') 
was at the ' herishipp ' of one Richeson of Burnehurst upon King- water, 
whom he murdered, Davie Richeson and others being with him ; that 
night they lay at Askerton, Thomas Carleton' s house. Three days 
before (16th), this same William Grame had answered the charge by 

3 Cal. of Border Papers, i, 39 & 40. 102, 180, 392. 

* Cecil Papers, V, 65-66, 443. 
5 Howard Household Books, 409. 


stating that Da vie Richeson was a queen's tenant and was his 'neighbor,' 
not his servant, and that he could not answer for Richeson' s death, but 
confessed he was at Askerton for three days before and three days after, 
and that on the fray coming on he and others did their best to take the 
offenders. On 21 June, 1596, Richard Grame, gentleman, baiff of the 
manor of Askerton, sent in his account shewing a total debt of 281. Is. 
for the moiety of the rent of the manor due at Whitsuntide then last 
past, it was made up chiefly of the past issues of the office, for fines, 
'grassums,' etc. On 9 February, 1596-7, lord Scrope, in a letter to 
Burghley, informs him that he had in no way dealt with the Carletons 
but according to law and justice, and had impanelled a jury in his war- 
denry, ' som, yea most of them eyther of consanguynitie or at least of 
affinitie.' Guy Carleton was indicted by the jury of march treason, and 
afterwards by another jury found guilty of horse stealing, the penalty 
of march law being death, which he deserved, as he was one of the 
' baddest members ' in the wardenry. Thomas and Anthony Carleton 
were indicted by the same jury for the same offence, Thomas having 
kept George Sibsen, a Scotsman, and a march thief, at his house at 
Askerton, for several days, and ' one Wattie Harden,' a chief officer 
under ' Buckleugh,' who made a fray ' into Gilsland within Thomas 
Carle on' s office, none of the places harried ' moch above a mile ' from 
Askerton ; and carried away 300 oxen, etc. Thomas Carleton was not 
outlawed, as Mr. Richard Lowther promised he would come in, but 
' Carleton himself in most contemptuous manner keeps ' Thurllway 
Castle,' in lord Eure's wardenry, but he intended to outlaw him, first 
giving him 20 days respite. He requested that captain Yaxley should 
be sent with 50 ' to be dooing for Gilsland, it being so impoverished by 
the treachery of Thomas Carleton, the land sergeant.' On 10 July, 
1597, Richard Graimes, the bailiff, was in arrears to the amount of 
551. 18s. On 9 August following Scrope, in a letter to the priw council, 
stated that Thomas Armstrong had heard of the murder of his brother 
Rinion near Askerton castle, that Thomas Carleton, and the other 
Carletons, were the chief occasion of all the Scottish spoils last summer 
in Gilsland barony, and that the Carletons and Grames were not 
charged with any offence but of conspiring to break into Carlisle castle 
and release Kinmont. 

On 16 August, 1598, there is a certificate of auditor King as to Gilsland 
barony that it was the fee of Thomas Carleton, deceased, late land 
sergeant, granted by the late earl of Arundel and others, the rent being 
61. 13*. 4d. a year, that the office of land sergeant was a ' marshall ' 
government of all the queen's tenants in the barony of 14 or 15 manors, 
and as many bailiffs and tenants, all bound to rise to fray at his com- 
mand. He had to reside in the barony, to rise at every fray, to pro- 
secute murders by Scots, to be ready at the lord warden's command, and 
to see to the tenants being f urnished for service. He had to find sureties 
and was to have the goods of felons. The yearly fee of Richard Grame, 
the bailiff of Askerton, was 26s. Sd. which he had had since the barony 
came into the queen's hands. It was a question whether he should be 
displaced and the office be at the disposal of him to be appointed the 
new land sergeant. 6 

At a muster taken at Brampton on 5 September, 1598, before Jolm 
Musgrave, land sergeant of Gilsland, Richard Grame als Longtowne came 
not, all the rest of the tenants of Askerton are ' heryed ' and gone. The 
Carletons have all the queen's houses of strength in Gilsland, and had 

* Cal. of Border Papers, n. 


placed divers Scots in them. Thomas Carleton had Askerton house, 
demesne, and mill and other places, Lancelot Carleton had Naworth 
castle, demesne and park, etc. The several fees in the land sergeantship 
are stated to be the house, demesne and mill of Askerton, the land 
sergeant lias also the appointment of the bailiff of Askerton. In a 
letter of 20th of the same month Scrope writes to Cecil that according 
to the queen's warrant for placing John Musgrave of Plump ton into the 
office of land sergeant, he showed Thomas Carleton her letters signify- 
ing her pleasure, but he refused to give peaceable possession either of the 
house, desmesne or mills of Askerton, till he heard further of the queen's 
pleasure, saying he had a lease of them, and that the queen had promised 
his enjoyment of the full term. He asked for directions as while the 
matter thus stood disorders could not be reformed, as certain Scotsmen 
Carleton' s ' kinred,' inhabit there, always doing mischief. On the 11 
October Scrope wrote to Cecil that the Carletons still refused possession. 
and that their Scottish kindred had recently made a 'road' . On the 20th , 
in another letter, he said that John Musgrave had obtained the house of 
Ednill, the best house of the Musgraves of a younger brother, Carleton, 
who was land sergeant, ' had not an equal livinge of his own, and dwelt 
further from Gilsland than Musgrave, but after getting the office they 
always removed to Askerton which belongs to it, and dwelt on their 
charge.' On 6 November, Alexander King wrote to secretary Cecil that 
he was to be fully satisfied touching the land sergeantship, and of ' the 
scite and demesnes of Askerton heretofore gn Minted unto Thomas Carle- 
ton, gentleman, deceased,' that he had a copy of the grant whereby it 
appeared that Carleton lie Id the office for his life, but had a lease for 21 
years of the site and demesne of Askerton. He knew that ' Askerton 
house and castle is a house of good strength and defence, and the only 
house in Gilsland fit for the land sergeant to dwell in.' On 1 August, 
1601, Scrope in a letter to Cecil asks for the land sergeant's warrant for 
the house of Askerton, when he will be answerable for the qiieen's rents 
there.' 7 

In 1618 Lord William Howard received 191. for rents of the manor 
of Askerton ; in 1620, 111. 12s. ; in 1624, 161. 16s. 4d. In 1621 Thomas 
Lytell was ' bayly ' of Askerton. Lord William Howard kept up a 
small establishment at Askerton; in 1640, wages were paid to four 
men and five women. Frequent payments to servants are mentioned 
in the accounts. In 1611 there appears 20Z. 3s. 3d.; in 1625, 251. 9s 
lOd. ; in 1626, 22Z. 6s. 8d. ; in 1629, 24Z. 16s. 7d. 8 

Leaving Askerton the party reached 


prompt to time (12-50). 

At Bewcastle the churchyard, the Roman camp, the early cross, and 
the ancient castle all came in for inspection. Aiter a short interval 
allowed for this purpose, the party assembled in the church, where 
the following interesting account of Bewcastle was read by Mr. W. G. 
Collingwood : 

' Bewcastle as a site of interest, takes us back to Roman, and 
perhaps pre-Roman times. The church stands in a camp, which 
was hexagonal, with \mequal sides, and as the normal Roman camp 
was square, this was supposed to have been a British fort, taken and 
occupied by the Romans. It covered about six acres, from the 

"i Cal. of Border Papers, 11. 
8 Howard Household Boohs, 67, 118, 175n, 211, 221, 233, 254, 415, 155. 


deep brink of the Kirkbeck, including the present rectory build- 
ings and gardens, and the 1 churchyard, up (to the castle. Mr. 
Maughan, a former vicar, said that 'almost every grave dug in the 

churchyard cut through founda- 
tion 1= walls, and that thei*e were 
traces of flagging and pavements, 
pieces of coal, Roman coins, rings, 
urns, pottery, tiles, bricks, iron, 
glass, beads, querns, carved and 
inscribed stones found at various 
times. His account is given at 
length in Whellan. In 1893 was 
found an altar to Cocidius, 9 sup- 
posed to be of the first half of the 
third contury. The altar is now 
at Tullie House. There is a Ro- 
man road hence to Birdoswald. 
Mr. Maughan called it the Maiden 
Way, and thought he traced it 
northward from Bewcastle ; but 
this is now discredited. 

The next step in the history of 
Bewcastle takes us to the cross. I 
call it a cross, and not an obelisk or 
pinnacle, because we know that it 
once had a cross-head. As it now 
stands, it is a square pillar of grey 
freestone from the moors above the 
valley; 14^ feet in height above 
the pedestal, 21 by 22 inches 
thick at the base, tapering to 13 
by 14 inches at the top. But a 
written note in a copy of Camden's 
' Britannia N'in the Bodleian, records that a cross-head from ' Bucastle ' 
was sent ;to the writer from Lord William (i.e., Howard), the antiquarian 
owner of Na worth castle, so that the head has been missing only since the 
days of Queen Elizabeth. With it the cross would have been about 21 
feet high from the base of the pedestal, a block weighing about six tons, 
into which the cross was anciently fixed with lead. In 1891 some repairs 
were done to the pedestal ; otherwise the cross is unrestored. It is said 
that damage has been done at different times to the carving and the in- 
scription, but the stone is extremely hard and the design is nearly perfect. 
I fancy in olden days people would have gone round the cross with the 
sun ; and taking the inscriptions in that order they seem to form the 
best sequence. The east face would overlook the grave, on which the 
visitor would have to tread if he was to read the writing, consequently it 
has no inscription, but one continuous vine-scroll, with animals in the 
branches the ' fox that spoils the vines/ two squirrels, and two doves. 
The south face has three symmetrical inter lacings and two panels of 
foliage, the upper one having a dial worked into the design. This dial 
is a semi- circle with hole for the gnomon now lost, and rays marking 
twelve divisions between sunrise and sunset. It is certainly a part of the 
original monument, and such dials at Kirkdale in east Yorkshire and 

9 For description of this (see woodcut of it above), and of other Roman inscriptions 
discovered at Bewcastle, some of which have been lost, see Lapid. Sept., pp. 378-380. 


Proc. Soc. Antiq. Neivc. 3 ser. I. 

To face page 220. 

. ; 


1. The South Side ; from a photograph by Mr. J. P. Gibson of Hexham. 

2. The West Side ; from a photograph by Mr. W. 8. Corder of North Shields 


elsewhere are proved to be Anglo-Saxon by their inscriptions ; there is 
no reason to suppose that people in the seventh century were ignorant 
of this ancient contrivance for marking time. 

There are Anglian Runes (i.e., the early forms of Runes, before the 
Scandinavian period) on separate lines between the ornamental panels ; 
they have been read 
(? LICE..) 

ECGFRiThu Of Ecgfrith 

RICES Th^ES of this realm 

CYNINGES king (brother of Alcfrith, ) 

+ FRUMAN GEAR + in the first year. 

On the head now lost there seem to have been the words 

RICHES DRYHTN^ES Of the mighty king, 

which may have stood at the head of this inscription on the south face. 
On the west face are three panels with figures ; at the top St. John the 
Baptist carrying the Lamb of God ; in the middle Christ standing on the 
heads of swine, a fine figure in long robes, carrying in His left hand a 
scroll, the Book of Remembrance, and raising His right hand in blessing ; 
His head is youthful and slightly bearded, unlike the ordinary medieval 
type of the suffering Redeemer. Below is the figure of a man in a tunic 
and hood, carrying a stick or spear and lifting a hawk from its perch. It 
is a naturalistic figure, evidently meant for a portrait of some contem- 
porary, probably the person to whom the monument was set up, who is 
said in the inscription to have been king Alchfrith. It cannot represent 
St. John the Evangelist with the eagle, who would have been dressed in 
flowing robes and posed in some such dignified way as St. John the- 
Baptist above. The theory that only Scriptural or symbolic subjects 
were represented on these monuments is disproved by many stones, and 
the custom of portraiture on Christian tombs was common in all ages. 
On the west side, over the figure of Christ, one can easily read 
+ GESSUS Jesus 


On the panel below the figure of Christ is a long inscription. The 
reading, as made out by Maughan, is 

+ This SIG-BECN This victory-column 

ThuN SETTON H- tall set up 

WJETRED woTh- Hwaetred, Woth- 

GAR OLWFWOL- gar, Olwfwol- 

Thu AFT ALCFRI- thu, for Alcfrith 

Thu BAN CYNING late king 

EAC OSWIUNG and son of Oswiu 

+ GEBID HE- Pray for (? the high 

o SIN(N)A SOWHULA sin of ?) his soul. 

Wilhelm Vietor of Marburg, a recent German authority who has studied 
this subject, thinks that the name Hwaetred, part of the Wothgar and 
the word for king are distinctly readable ; while he is inclined to accept 
the name of Alcfrith and the word for son of Oswiu. In the last two 
lines he sees a version of the usual formula, Pray for his soul. 'Nothing,' 
he says, ' seems to prevent our seeing in the Cyniburug, which is certain, 
and in the Alcfrithu, which is probable, the daughter of Penda of Mercia 
and her husband, son of Oswiu of Northumbria.' On the north face are 
two panels of symmetrical interlacing ; two of foliage and fruits, the 
conventional vine-scroll ; and a central panel of chequers, which, 
though they have been taken as indicating a late date, are seen also in 
slightly different pattern on the cross at Irton and other pre-Norman 


monuments. The Runes are on separate lines between the ornamenta 1 
panels : 

+ GESSTJS -f Jesus. 

WULFHERE Wulfhere, 

MYRCNACYNG King of the Mercians. 

CYNESwrrhA Cyneswitha (his sister). 

CYNIBURUG Cyneburg (their sister), wife of Alcfrith. 

Now, is this a genuine monument of the year 671, the first year of 
king Ecgfrith ? Are these runes the oldest dated writing of our English 
language ? Can we take these carvings to be the very earliest efforts of 
English art ? Irish antiquaries have claimed that our old interlacing 
ornament was taught us by the Irish ; continental critics hold that we 
got the scroll-patterns from Charlemagne's empire ; both parties trying 
to assign a late date to this cross, on the pre- conception that England is 
a Nazareth out of which no good thing can come. Herr Victor is a 
philologist, and bases his criticism on the wording and spelling of the 
Runes ; but he has looked into the matter from all sides ; and his book 
published in 1895 on the Runic stones of Northumbria must carry 
weight. I translate the conclusion to that book as follows : The 
question remains, to what period do the Runic stones of Northumbria 
belong ? The only monument which can be dated by the external 
evidence of its inscription is the pillar of Bewcastle. Alcfrithu (Alhfrid) 
king of Deira, the son of Oswiu of Northumbria and husband of Cyni- 
burug (Cyneburg) of Mercia, friend of Wilfrid, bishop of York, dis- 
appeared out of history in 664 or 665. Stephens and others think, 
therefore, that his monument must have been erected towards 670 or, at 
any rate, not much later. The language of the inscription is in accord 
with this supposition ; especially the ' i ' of Cyni and the form ' frithu ' 
as second member of a compound name : there is nothing actually 
occurring in the forms that would contradict the supposition. With 
regard to the sculpture a point I mention with all the diffidence of a 
layman it is not the Irish 10 interlacing that has aroused doubts, but the 
foliage of the north, south, and especially east sides, the latter with 
animals inserted. Sophus Muller (Aarb. /. Nord. Oldk. og Hist. 1880, 
p. 338 et seq.) saw in it a reference to the Carlovingian ornament of the 
tenth and eleventh centuries ; and the patterns in Westwood's Fac- 
similes of Anglo-Saxon and Irish Miniatures, which agree best with these 
of the east side are from MSS. attributed to the tenth century, the so- 
called Lambeth Aldhelm and the great Boulogne Psalter. n But there 
are analogies to it not only in the Vespasian or St. Augustine's Psalter 
(eighth and 9th century) the Codex Aureus (eighth century) and 
especially in the so-called Biblia Gregoriana (eighth century) but also in 
the ivory carving of the episcopal throne of Maximian in San Vitale, 
Ravenna (middle of the sixth century), which connects with Byzantine 
art in Italy. Benedict Biscop and Wilfrid are well known to have 
travelled forth and back between Northumbria and Rome from 650 
onwards. It is a fact that Benedict in 675 or 676 had to bring masons 

10 The word 'Irish' begs the question. My view is that the Irish interlacing was 
copied from the English, not vice versa. 

il These miniatures are not quite fairly compared with the Cross. The plate from the 
Lambeth Aldhelm, referred to, differs from the Bewcastle scroll in having conventional 
terminations to the stalks, treated quite differently and certainly later in art-develop- 
ment. The Boulogne Psalter scroll and animal work also has no leaves or fruit ; it is a 
long stage towards decadence from the Bewcastle ornament. Other motives in the 
Boulogne Psalter, such as the big ribbed leaf ending in a scroll, are absent at Bewcastle. 
The Boulogne figures are grotesque and disproportioned, compared with the Bewcastle 
figures : the plait work less symmetrical and more interrupted. 


(ccementarios) from France to build his Romanesque stone church, 
while he obtained the church plate and draperies from Rome (Bede, 
Vita S. Bened. 5). From Rome, on his fifth journey to Italy in 678, he 
brought not only a countless quantity of books of all sorts and other 
things, but also pictures of the Madonna, the Twelve Apostles, the 
Gospel history, and the book of Revelation (Ibid. 6). . 

He then discusses the Ruthwell inscription and Mr. Albert Cook's 
views as to its late date ; concluding that nothing in the language makes 
it later than 750, while its obvious resemblance to the Bewcastle cross 
points to a similar origin, though not perhaps quite the same period. 
He suggests that it might have been created by Aldfrid the Learned 
(685-725) in memory of Ecgfrid. He assigns to the eighth century 
the Falstone hogback, Lancaster Cynibalth cross, shafts at Thornhill 
and Collingham and Monkwearmcuth, and the Hartlepool slabs, and 


other Northumbrian stones with Anglian Runes. 

You see, then, that a recent authority, with full knowledge of modern 
doubts, gives his vote for the early date. To this I should like to add 
one or two remarks based on the closer study of our pre-Norman 
sculptures. If this cross was carved in the tenth century, it was carved 
at a time when all this country was in the hands of Norse and Danish 
settlers. There are places where the earlier Anglian motives of orna- 
ment no doubt survived or were copied from fine monuments of a 
previous age still admired by the newcomers. But these are always 
inferior in execution. There is a good example at Pickhill in Yorkshire, 
where you can see the motive of an earlier cross imitated in one obviously 
of Viking-age date, rudely executed like the work we find with figure- 
subjects and ornaments which we can certainly assign to the tenth and 
eleventh centuries. The Halton cross, too, is a palpable imitation of 
this at Bewcastle, or some such model ; but its reliefs and ornaments 
make us certain that it is late, perhaps of the middle of the eleventh 


century. Such survivals and imitations harking back to earlier styles 
are common in the history of art ; but they do not affect the general 
course of artistic developments. 

Now in the Viking age (tenth and earlier eleventh centuries) the 
Celticised Norse and Danes had their own style, and the best and 
richest monuments are distinctly Irish Scandinavian. The Gosforth 
cross, with its Edda subjects and fierce dragonesque ornament, is a 
good type. A patron of the year 1000 in Cumberland would have asked 
the sculptor to produce something like the Gosforth cross ; these vine 
tendrils and flowing draperies would have been insipid to him ; he 
would have wanted snakes, writhing and biting with the strong action 
which was characteristic of the period. All the art of this Bewcastle 
cross speaks of the dignity and high ideal which is reflected in Bede and 
the history of Anglian Christianity in its brightest age. It is impossible 
to* believe that the North Cumberland people of the tenth century, as we 
know them, carved this cross. 

Is it, then, Carlovingian, and of the ninth century ? There are 
motives in it which recall Carlovingian ornament, but where did that 
ornament originate ? Is it proved that it arose in the rough Franks and 
Germans of Charlemagne's empire, for whose education the great 
emperor sent to England, to Northumbria, for teachers ? Alcuin was 
an Angle, and with Alcuin there went to Charlemagne's court the 
culture that produced Carlovingian art. I think it is more probable 
that Northumbria taught these patterns to the Carlovingian artists 
than that they first introduced them here. Is it Irish ? In what Irish 
work can one find figures drawn, proportioned and draped like these ? 
or floral ornament at all resembling this ? Any Irish-taught workman 
of the ninth century would have produced short thick-set grotesques for 
his saints and dragons instead of grape-clusters. I cannot at present 
see that we can refer this cross to any age except that of St. Wilfrid or 
to any other artists but Englishmen. The idea that Italian carvers may 
have designed or wrought the work is untenable. Any Italian would 
have known how to draw a vine-leaf ; but the Bewcastle carvers did not 
though we see that they tried to represent the vine patterns which they 
had heard of and perhaps had seen in sketches, as the proper subject 
for a Christian tomb. It is our oldest English writing, our oldest 
English art, and the parent of all the Irish, Scottish, Scandinavian and 
Carlovingian styles, which in my way of thinking derive from it. 

But still, how could the English of the seventh century make so great 
a work ? It seems tD me very simple. Great art is produced when there 
is great mental stimulus ; when fresh ideas work strongly in receptive 
minds. That the English of Cuthbert's and Bede's time were receptive 
and active needs no proof ; that they had strong stimulus from abroad 
we know there was a Renaissance only comparable to that of the 
fifteen century, or to the sudden burst of energy in modern Japan ; 
anything was possible to them. To pick up a hint from Italy, to add 
another from old tradition, to evolve a new style, was just what we 
should expect. To sink gradually from that burst of nascent power 
into the slow decline of the minor monuments of Northern England is 
precisely what we should infer from the analogy of all art, and from the 
history of the long peace of Northumbria. But the later failings of the 
Anglo-Saxon age ought not to blind us to the brilliance of its meridian, 
or to make us assume that because, centuries later, the Northmen and 
Normans conquered, these newly Christianised English were not in their 
prime the finest race under the sun, and capable of being, in art, as they 
were in letters, the teachers of the world. 


I said that the people of these parts in the tenth and eleventh cen- 
turies were Irish-Scandinavians, i.e. descendants of Vikings who had 
settled in Ireland and Scotland, and got much of their culture from 
Celtic sources. When they emerge into definite history we see this in 
their names, in close analogy to others of the same stock in Cumberland, 
Scotland, and Iceland. The name of Bewcastle comes from Bueth, 
Gaelic Buidh, modern Boyd, i.e. ' yellow-haired.' One Bueth was a 
great landholder hereabouts at the end of the eleventh and the opening 
of the twelfth century. The Lanercost Register mentions two places in 
Gilsland, Buetholme and Buethby, the latter obviously Bueth' s home- 
stead, with a Norse termination. That is where he probably lived as a 
farmer and chieftain. His son Gilles (Giolla-iosa, 'servant of Jesus' in 
Gaelic) was lord of Gilsland, and seems to have given his name to his 
estate. The Normans called him Gilbert us f. Boet, and he is otherwise 
known as Gilles Bueth (i.e. Buethson). His name appears as a witness 
to an inquisition as to lands of Glasgow church in 1120-21. His son, as 
I take it, was Bueth-barn (i.e. ' childe,' junior) who gave land in Bew- 
castle to Wetherhal priory, a grant confirmed by his son Robert about 
1177-8. It is he who is first connected with Bewcastle, and he probably 
built the original fortress which was called by his name. It could not 
have been built much earlier than his period, or it would not have been 
called ' castle ' but ' burg.' If the cross had been erected about the 
year 1000 we should expect traces of a church and inhabited site there 
in the place names, but, on the contrary, the evidence tends to show 
that this spot was of no importance during the tenth and eleventh 
centuries. In the middle of the twelfth it became Bewcastle, or 
Buchastre and Buchcastre (error for Buthcastre), as it is spelt hi the late 
copy of the deed of 1177. Robert of Bewcastle joined William the Lion 
(1173-4) and was fined (in 1177) one mark for this act of rebellion. He 
had two sisters, Eda and Sigrid (the latter a distinctly Norse name), one 
of whom married Robert, son of Asketill (another Norse name, showing 
the Gallgael character of the family). The two Roberts joined in a grant 
to Lanercost, and Robert of Bewcastle is said by Dr. Todd to have given 
the church of Bewcastle to Carlisle priory about 1200 ; this is doubtful. 
It is probable that there was a church adjoining the castle by this time ; 
though neither were the structures we now see. 

Chancellor Ferguson's suggestion that William Rufus built this castle 
as a pendant to Carlisle castle is hardly convincing. Bueth's original 
fortress was just the stockaded stronghold of a chieftain. Maughan 
described the present ruins as about 87 feet square, partly constructed 
from the stones of the Roman camp, and surrounded by a great ditch. 
The S. W. walls are nearly of their original height, about 42 feet. In the 
S. side are two windows, two fire-places near the top, and joist holes, 
showing the floors of the lean-to rooms. The entrance has been on the 
west side through a small square tower, supposed to be a late addition ; 
it had two doors with the usual bar-holes, and a portcullis to the inner 
door. The outer door was also protected by a gallery in the wall, 
reached by a narrow staircase, with two loopholes on the side of the 
tower opposite the entrance. All this suggests a quite late building, 
meant merely as a border fortress, not as a great lord's residence ; and, 
indeed, it was never a place of high importance. In 1279 John Swin- 
burne the owner (after some generations of Multons, who seemed to 
have obtained the place by inheritance from the family of Bueth) 
obtained permission for a market and a fair, and in 1291-2 the church- 
living was valued at 19Z. But any rising population must have been 
swept away soon after by the great invasion of 1298 and subsequent 
raids ; so that in 1318 there was no income to support a chaplain. 


Throughout the fourteenth century there were rectors, probably non- 
resident ; but the Early English east window of the church shows that 
the Scots had not entirely obliterated the building of the 
in Bewcastle's short prosperity, though for 200 years (1380-1580) there 
were no rectors, and Camden found the church ' almost quite ruinated.' 

Meanwhile the castle was built, and under Henry VI LT. and Elizabeth 
held by Jack Musgrave, governor of Bewcastle, called ' Knight ' on the 
tombstone of his daughter at Hojrne Cultram. In 1582 and 1586 
Thomas Musgrave was deputy- warden of Bewcastle. Camden speaks 
of it as a castle of the king's and defended by a small garrison. James I. 
gave it to Francis earl of Cumberland for a 40 years' term, and Sir 
Richard Graham held it of the crown under Charles I. It was finally 
ruined in 1 641 by the parliamentary forces and the garrison of 100 men 
removed to Carlisle. The local st^ry is that Oliver Cromwell planted 
his caiuv.n en the farther bank of the beck, and smashed both the 
castle and the cross ; as he is said to have smashed Calder abbey from 
the earthworks at Infell. Before this, however, the church was testo^ed. 
In 1546 the living was worth 21. in pea( e, bu- nothing in war-time. The 
rectors re-commence with Thomas Aglionby, who died in 1580 ; the 
chalice and paten are dated 1631-2. 12 In 1665 the registers (at Carlisle) 
begin. Bishop Nicolson in 1703 found a very poor little church, but a 
new parsonage, and in 1704 he described the living as worth 60Z. In 1792 
the long low church was shortened by six yards, and a tower built, 
galleries erected inside, and the old windows cut down. The walls and 
buttresses, the credence table in the north wall, and the piscina and 
aumbry near the east wall, and two sculptured heads on either side of 
the east window were left. A hundred years later the fabric was greatly 
out of repair, damp and unsightly. There was no vestry and the 
heating was insufficient. I climbed into the roof with Mr. Walker, and 
we found the deal timbers so rotten that it was a wonder they had not 
fallen. In spite of a strong desire to preserve the quaintness of the 
place, it was obvious that the roof must come off, and the three-decker 
must come down. Mr. Curwen, one of the secretaries of the Cumber- 
land society, was asked to act as architect to the restoration ; it was 
no easy task, but he gave much time and pains freely. Mr. Walker and 
the churchwardens succeeded in raising the necessary funds. Looking 
round on these desolate moors and scattered farms, you may well wonder 
how they did it. But in three years the work was accomplished, and 
the present church was opened on Sunday, November 3, 1901. I 
suppose that cross has watched all these transitory doings for nearly 
1234 years.' 

The Rev. Canon Rawnsley, vicar of Crosthwaite, in proposing a vote 
of thanks to Mr. Collingwood, called attention to the fact that on the 
cross the birds and beasts were at rest. It was not till a later period 
that the man with the bow and ar**ow was introduced, having war in 
his heart against the tender creatures that were carved upon the Crosses 
as giving praise to the Lord. He said that apart from the fact that this 
cross of Bewcastle gave us the earliest known beginning of Anglian 

12 The communion cup, which is 7^ feet high and 3 feet diameter at mouth, bears 
three hall-marks, one of them a fleur-de-lis and a leopard's head dimidiated, for York : 
on its side is the inscription ' Bewcastle, 1030.' There was formerly at Bewcastle a 
little chapel dedicated to the Virgin ; the present church bears the name of St. Cuthbert. 
The church of Bewcastle, with other churches, by a verdict of a jury of the West March, 
on 3<)th April 1597, was presented as having ' been decayed by the space of three score 
yeares & more,' but they ' certainly knowe not the patrons of the sayd churches, neither 
who ought to buyld the same, and the church of Lanerdcost ys nowe also in decaye, & 
haith so bene for the space of two or three years past, but by whome the same ought to 
be repaired we knowe not.' Cal- of Border Papers, n. 

i I 


w I 
" ^ 
p < 

5 I 
o I 


literature, the fact of the men it commemorated being the heroes of the 
stormy times in which Northumbrian Christianity was born, made it 
incumbent on all who cared for national history to see that this beacon 
sign was preserved. He had had talks with the keeper of the art 
treasures at South Kensington who had assured him that the authorities 
there were anxious to have a cast made of this great Bewcastle cross, 
and had been assured that by a process of gelatine moulding a cast could 
be made without the chance of a:iy harm to tbe cross. He believed 
that if the joint societies o* Newcastle and Cumberland and Westmor- 
land favoured the idea it might, with proper sanction of local authorities, 
be carried out, and replicas obtained for both Carlisle and Newcastle 

The vote of thanks was carried by acclamation. 

On the north wall of the church, within the altar rails, is the follow- 
inscription; Here Lies | Intered the Body | of y e Rev m r Matthew | 
Soulby, who was Rect r of | Bewcastle 24 years : ho died | the 28 Doy 
of Septemb r | 1737 Aged 85 years I Also y e Body of Margaret | his 
Wife who Died 23 day | of Aprile 1718. Aged 54 years. 


(5 feet and 3 feet long respectively.) 

Leaning against the west side of the tower are one or two medieval 
grave covers. Two of them are shown in the above illustrations. 


The following are a few extracts, chiefly from the Calendar of Bordet 
Papers, relating to Bewcastle : 

On 29 July, 1549, John Musgrave in a letter from Bewcastle informed 
the earl of Rutland that he had sent all the men under his rule who were 
in Thomas Carell's garrison save one, who lay sick whom he delivered to 
the lord warden (lord Dacre) in Carlisle. 2 

On 28 May, 1580, 40 light horsemen from Bewcastle, furnished with 
horse, ' steil coit or jack, speare and steil capp, fit for service uppon the 
Borders,' attended the muster, while in 1585 only four attended. 

In 1580 among the castles and fortresses upon the borders needing 
repair, were ' Beaucastle, 3 miles from Scotland, a place of great 
strength,' and Askerton tower and Na worth castle. 

At the muster of Eskdale ward, on 8 and 9 February, 1580-1, the 
inhabitants within Bewcastle, though warned to attend, did not come, 
and so were not mustered. In a letter of 2 August, 1581, of Scrope to 
Burghley, he gives a list of ' thattemplates comytted by the Lyddes- 
daills Scotishemen within thoffice of Bewcastle,' etc., since the previous 
Easter. Amongst them * thArmstranges of the Calfhills and Kynmont 
sonnes with their complices,' 60 in all, took ' xij old oxen, x old kye, and 
all thinsight of his howse ' from Jeffraie Sowrebie, on 28 March of that 
year; and 'thEllotes and their complices' 100 men and above, took 
' xl tle old kye, xx tie old oxen,' from ' Sir Symond Musgrave knight, 
capten of Bewcastle,' ' and the taking of Thomas Rowtledg of Tod- 
holles Englisheman prisoner, and his horse.' At the muster of light 
horsemen furnished with horses and ' jackes, steilcappes, swordes and 
speare,' on 25 April, 1583. ' Beaucastell, belonginge to her Majestie, 
and under the chardge of Sir Symonde Musgrave knight, constable 
their, were mustred by John Musgrave and Marmaduke Staveley, and 
by them informed to the Lorde Scroppe for to kepe fowreskore and twolf 
light horsemen. Wherof , at this present are furnished xxxvj , and xxvij 
decayed by reason of the foodes, great hardshippes, and spoiles that they 
have susteyned by the Lyddisdails, and the resydewe being in nombre 
xxviij unfurnished, withowt having any cawse to alledg for their decaie 

the tenantes for the most part are so ympoverished as they are 

not hable to bye horses and furnyture, by reason of their manyfold 
hereshippes. ' 

In ' Rules ' of June, 1583, for the defence of the borders, Beaucastle is 
mentioned as the third place of defence next unto the Mote which hath 
been and should be the chief and only defence of that borders ; ' but 
that yt is now allmoste broughte to ruyn,' by reason that the chiefest 
and ablest borderers and tenants have been harried and slam by the 
Scottish thieves of Liddesdale. It is suggested that 100 or more of Her 
Majesty's soldiers from Berwick should lie there. 

In a letter of 20 June, 1583, Scrope writes to Walsingham that he 
had received letters by Rowland Routledge and others of Bewcastle, 
from the privy council concerning their complaint against the Scotch, 
for redress, and had written to Mr. Bowes, her Majesty's ' agent ' in 
Scotland, for help to these poor oppressed men. He had arranged a 
meeting for July next, when he hoped for some remedy. In July, 1583, 
Lord Scrope desired to know if he might apprehend some of the Liddes- 
dales and Kinmont, his sons and complices, notorious offenders. In a 
letter of 3 July, 1583, of Scrope to Walsingham, he said that he had 
had a meeting with Cesford, and had demanded of him redress for the 
' body lie hurtes, woundes, and mutulacion of hir Majesties subjectes ' 

2 Riitland Papery, I, 41. 


of Bewcastle, Gilsland, etc. This Cesford would not agree to except 
for goods and gear so they parted for the day ' he to the Armitadge in 
Scotlande, and I to Bewcastle.' In September, 1583, it was stated that 
it was necessary to place 50 horsemen and 50 footmen at Bewcastle for 
the strengthening of the march. On the 28 September, Scrope in a 
letter to Walsingham informed him that there were nightly raids in 
Bewcastle. On I December, 1583, the borderers dwelling in Bewcastle 
petitioned Walsingham for some consideration for them their 'wyf , barnes 
and neigbours ' who were ' beggered and utterly cast awaie,' as 150 
Scots had 'rade a forrowe,' and had driven awayjfoure score hede of 
cattell, and lulled Allan Routlage our poore brother.' 

About the end of 1583, 'a very remarkable document was drawn up, 
expressly for Burghley's information, by Thomas Musgrave, deputy- 
captain of Bewcastle. He gives an account of the origin of the Grames 
of Esk, and their alliances, and also remarks on the evil consequences 
of the ii ter- marriages between the English and Scottish marchmer, 
their deadly feuds, and the difficulty in bringing thorn to justice, for 
fear of bloody revenge.' 3 

In October, 1585, there were several raids on the West Marches by 
Liddesdale men, many cattle being taken from Bewcastledale and men 
seriously injured. In a letter of about the end of 1583 Thomas Mus- 
grave gives Burghley a list of Border riders, including those in Bew- 
castle, of whom the Fosters inhabit uttermost, the Rutliges next them, 
and the Nixons next them, and next the howse of Bewcastell the 
Nobles and others.' At muster3 of the Borders there were in Bewcastle 
in 1580, 40 horsemen ; in 1583, 36 ; and in 1584, 50. On 2 May, 
1586, Scrope informed Walsingham that ' having written earnestly 
to Sir Symon Musgrave, to appoint a fit deputy at Beucastell,' he 
had assigned that office for a time to his son Richard Musgrave ' of 
whose good discretion and sufficiency ' he was satisfied, and since he 
entered that place the district was in very good order. On 5 June he 
stated he had received Walsingham' s letter of the 30 May, and 
promised to write more fully 'as to Thomas Musgrave and stay of 
entrance to the office of Bewcastell.' On the 12th he writes that before 
Walsingham' s letter reached him to stay Thomas Musgrave' s appoint- 
ment his father had placed him there and his brother had departed. 
On the 16th Sir Simon Musgrave wrote to the Council that he had 
stayed his ' son Thomas Musgrave from executing the office of Beaw- 
castle till your farther pleasure,' he begs to be informed with convenient 
speed ' for the often alteracion and chaunge of officers makes the 
people, beinge rude by nature, to be very untowarde and out of pro- 
vision of suche furniture as they are* bounde by the tenor of their 
laundes to have in redines.' He then complains that his charges had 
been more than his revenue, mentions an agreement with the Graymes, 
and continues ' Butt for my sonne Thomas, yf yt will please your 
lordships to accepte of hym as officer there, 1 will pawne botli my 
credytt and livinge for hym, that he shall serve that place as sufficiently 
. . . .and be as diligentt. . . .as any officer ther this many yeares. . . .1 
have bene officer ther this xxx li yeares .... No we lam olde and woulde 
be at som staye.' 

On 27 November, 1588, a complaint is made that in October, 1587, 
the laird of Buccleugh ' ran a day foray and reft from the captain of 
Bewcastle,' and others, 200 kye and oxen, 300 sheep and ' gait '; and on 
the date of the complaint, Buccleugh, and others, to the number of 120 
horsemen, k arrayed with jackes, steilcapps, speares, gunis, lancestalfes, 

3 Cal. of Border Papers, i, 24, 32, 42, 6'J, ?0, 99 t 100, 102-4, 107, 110, 117, 8, xl, 120-7. 



and'dagges, swordes and daggers,' took 40 kye and oxen, besides ' horse 
and meares,' from captain Steven Ellies, and others, and slew Mr. 
Rowden and others. 

The charge of the captain of Bewcastle, in March, 1592, was ' onlie 
the safetie within him self, neither is he troubled to follow fraye with 
others, except the fraye come to him, not to defend any, but that none 
enter'through his charge out of Liddesdale.' At the same time, Fosters, 
Crosers, and Nixsons were the surnames in Bewcastle, ' but sore decaied.' 
Sir Symon Musgrave and his son Thomas are given as ' Captaine of 
Bewcastle.' 4 

On 17 November, 1595, Sir William Bowes, in a letter to Burghley, 
conceiving by his speech that the queen piarposed to employ another in 
Bewcastle, if she by his means please ' to grace mee with this note of 
hir favour ' by placing him there with the good opinion of the lord 
wardens, and his experience, might produce effects to her majesty's 
liking, and to the benefit of both countries. 

In 1596 in ' a note of such slauchteris, stouthis, refis and oppin 
oppressionis as have been committed be England upown the Wast 
Merch and Mi dill Merche,' many raids are recorded, amongst them 
being that of the captain of Bewcastle with 500 men of the Middle and 
West Wardenry, who came 6 or 7 miles within Scots ground and carried 
off 300 kye and oxen and 24 score sheep. 5 

On 6 March of the same year the Musgraves, by the command of lord 
Scrope, the lord warden of the West Marches, gave a report of their 
taking of Kinmont Willie, who was sheltering in the house of Peter of 
the Harlaw, who made use of the cry ' a Harlaw, a Harlaw.' They 
say that Blacklock was ' taken away out of the office of Bewcastle.' 6 
On 9 September of the same year, Thomas Musgrave wrote to the 
Privy Council, that upon the return of the poormen of Bewcastle from 
the Council he had received his letter that if no justice could be had 
otherwise he might recover the worth of their goods as he could, whereon, 
with his kinsmen and friends, he took from John Armstrong of the 
Hollers ' the leder of ther incurcions, somme vj or vij scor of cattill,' 
and made restitution to the poor men. 

In West March bills against Scotland of 28 April, 1597, is one of the 
captain of Bewcastle against John of Langham, Will Kynmont. and 
others, for 24 horses and mares, himself prisoner and ransomed to 200?. 
and 16 other prisoners and slaughter. ' Foule by confession,' and 
referred to the commissioners for ' tryall of the trodd,' 4001. 

In 1597 the bishop of Durham writes that the Carletons, especially 
Thomas and Anthony ' are entered into a deepe and dangerous course,' 
if the reports to lord Scrope are true. The Grahams are a great sur- 
name of half broken men ' not so able to serve us as they have been,' 
yet not to be lost if they can be kept in reasonable terms till the frontier 
is revived and better settled. It were dangerous if this ' 
but wanted their help, more dangerous if they joined the enemy against 
Gilsland and Bewcastle. 

In answer to enquiries as to what gentlemen were fit for the land 
sergeantry of Gilsland and what belongs to keeping Bewcastle, Alex- 
ander King, on 10 October, 1598, writes that for Bewcastle her Majesty 
granted to Sir Simon Musgrave knight, and Thomas his son, for the term 
of their lives, Plumpton Park, etc., and also as * belonging to the office of 
captain of Bewcastle, all the rentes demesne lands, and tithes of Bew- 
castle,' worth more than 100Z. a year. 7 

i Cal. of Border Papers, i, 224, 226, 7, 334, 393-5. 5 Ibid., II. 

6 Cecil Papers, vi, 84. 7 Cal. of Border Papers, n. 


r On 13 May, 1599, there was a fray at Bewcastle, of which the following 
is the interesting account : Upon Sunday, 13 May, M r Rydley and 
his friends, hearing that certain Scotsmen to the number of 12, were 
to come to a tryst in the West March of England, he having had 
friends ' murdered do\vne bye the sayd Scotesmen,' took his friends 
and men with him to the number of 40, and thought to apprehend 
them on English ground. But the Scots, having intelligence of his 
design, came 200 strong and more, 3 or 4 miles into England, ' and 
ther did most ere welly murder M r William Rydley of Willimontswyk, 
with two other of his frendes, and wounding John Whitfeild, hir 
Majestes officer soe grevously, which we think it unpossable he should 
leave ; and did tayk to the nomber of xxvj men and xxxij horsses 
with all their spoyle and furniter. And we, whose names ar under- 
writen, being of the feld, will witness this to be a troth, as is her 
sartified.' Signed: John Whitfeild, Frauncis Whitfeild, 8 James Rydlie 
of the Waltoune, Uswalde Rydlie of the same, H^w Rydlie of 
Plenmeller, Nicholas Rydley of the Hardridinge, Christofer Rydlev of 
Unthanke, Thomas Rydley of Milkredge, John Rydley of Henshaughe, 
Nicholas Snawdon of Plenmeller, Marmaduke Rydley sonne the foresayd 
William Rydley. ' Whilst the chase lasted and the Scottes taking 
prisoners on every hand, there came rydinge upp unto me one Quinton 
Whytehede servant to the capten of Bewcastle, and bad me be taken 
with him and he should save my lyfe, so as I yealded unto him ; which 
so sone as he had me oute of the company, would nedes have spoyled 
me of horse and sutch furniture as I had about me for savinge wherof 
I must eyther promisse to pay him a ransome, or ells be carryed away 
into Scotland ; but having no lyking of Scotland, I agreed to pay him 
xxxxs. upon Midsomer eve next cominge, which I must eyther do 
though comand to the contrary by the authority, or otherwyse be sure 
of ane evell turn to my utter undoing, and this is the treuth of my 
takinge.' Signed : John Kell, his mark. On the eighteenth of the same 
month, Henry Woodrington gives the following account of the same 
to Sir R. Carey : In my last letter I wrote what I knew of Mr. 
Rydley's death, but this now is the truth as follows. Mr. Rydley, 
knowing the continual haunt and recept the great thievis & arch 
murderers of Scotland, especially them of Whythaugh had with 
the captain of Bewcastle, went about by some means to catch 
them in English ground, to avoid offence by entering Scotland, 
& hearing that there was a football playing & after that a 
drynkyng hard at Bewcastle house,' betwixt 6 of those Armstrongs 
and 6 of Bewcastle, he assembled his friends and lay in wait for 
them. But the Scots having secret intelligence, suddenly came on 
them, and have cut M r Rydley and M r Nychol Witton's throats, 
slain one Robson tenant of her Majesty's, and taken 30 prisoners, mostly 
her tenants, except Francis Whytfield and many sore hurt, especially 
John Whytfield, ' wose bowilis came out, but are sowed up agayne & 
is thought shall hardly escape, but as yet liveth.' The surname and 
friends of Elwood and Armstrong that were pledges af York were all in 
this action, where they had no cause of quarrel but only wantonnese. 
I leave further consideration to your Lordship, and desire to hear her 
Majesty's pleasure for redress of this outrageous murder, which tho' not 
done within your march, as the gentlemen slain and taken were under 
your charge, it may please her to impose hearing on you. Your lordship 
commanded me to muster this country, but such is the overthrow of 

8 The remainder sign by their marks 


South Tyne by this affair, they have neither men nor horse, the men no 
daring while their friends are prisoners, and the horse which were out, 
wholly lost to the number of 50. I hope you will let Thomas Musgrave's 
services be known, his son-in-law dwelling in the house with him, being 
the only slayer of Mr. Rydley, this fact done in his office, his daily 
conversation and inclination to those people, and himself made the 
match with Robyn Elwood, and some which escaped the Scots, taken 
and ransomed by his men.' 9 

Lord William Howard, in 1615, thought that Bewcastle and other 
places might be ' governed by Justices as well as the inner partes, yf 
officers do their duties, and be annswerable for the Landholders under 
their charge, and the Landholders for their under-tennants, hindes and 
servaunts.' In February, 1617-8, stolen cattle were traced to the house 
of John Routledg of Crookeburne, bailiff of Bewcastle, ' a comon drover 
of catell into the sowth.' At the same time, Patrick Story and Peele of 
the hill, were charged for ' stealing, receiting and owt putting, surpassing 
all the theevesof Bewcastle.' In 1618 Edward Musgrave of the Trough 
was banished into Ireland. ' Hee is suspected by the Parson of Bew- 
castle to be one of those that brake his howse, and is also hardly 
thought of by diverse of his neighbours.' On 15 October, 1640, there was 
' receaved of James Jenninges for jeast cattle upon the waistes [of Bew- 
castle] this last summer xlvfo'. xis. viijd.' 10 




On leaving Bewcastle, the party was driven across the wild moors of 
Wintershields and Askerton, in ajstorm of blinding rain to Lanercost, 

9 Cal. of Border Papers, ir. 
10 Howard Household Books, 419, 438, 440, 443, 348. 


where they were met and welcomed by the vicar, who gave a short and 
interesting account of the priory, pointing out the progression in the 
architecture from the plainness of the eastern end to the finished beauty 
and proportion of the western front. The plan of the church is given 
on page 233. 

The fine tomb of Humphrey Dacre and Mabel Parr, on the north 
side of the choir, and that of Thomas, 'ord Dacre, K.G., and Elizabeth 
de Greystock, on the south side of the choir, were pointed out. The 
vault under the latter tomb, which formerly contained ' the Great Lord 
Warden of the Marches,' appears to have been rifled about 1775, 
judging from the following advertisement in the Newcastle papers : 
' Whereas, some evil disposed person did, sometime this spring, enter 
into the ruinous part of Lanercost Church or Priory, and did feloniously 
take awav from out of a vault in the said Church, a lead coffin, which 
contained the remains of Lord William [sic] Dacre, Knight of the Garter 
A reward of Ten Guineas on conviction of the offenders. Naworth 
Castle, 9th May, 1775.' In 1773-4 there were several bodies entire in 
the vault. In 1879 there were no coffins, but only a few bones. 

Mr. Nicholas Roscarrock, in a ^tter to Camden ; wrote ' I also sende you 
heere an inscription which my Lord [William Howard] founde out in a 
Crosse in a greene before the Abbey-church of Lanner-coaste ; which 
though yt be since the Conquest, yeat yt is (for the rarenesse) not to be 
contemned.' 1 The base of the cross and a email part of the shaft are 
still on the ' greene before the Abbey-church,' but the main portion of 
the shaft was taken possession of by some one in the seventeenth cen- 
tury and after the upper portion of the ancient inscription had been 
cut away, was made use of in a second-hand way, by a substituted 
inscription to commemorate the burial of another person. It is now in 
a recess in the north wall of the nave. 

The rain having by this time somewhat aba, ted, the party was con- 
veyed to Naworth, where members and friends were entertained to tea 
in the great hall by the kind invitation of the Earl of Carlisle. 

In the absence of Lord Carlisle, his daughter, Lady Dorothv Howard, 
in welcoming the visitors, said it was a great regret to her father and 
mother that they could not be present in person. She, however, in their 
name, bade the party make free of the house, and invited them to 
wander at will through the historic rooms. She also, in a few words, 
gave the history of the castle, tracing it from the border pele, which 
is the foundation of the Dacre tower, down through the large additions 
made by tha Dacres and Lord William Howard, to its present beautiful 
state that of one of the most picturesque of England's great houses, 
not the least important work being the harmonious blending of old 
and new, in the addition of the Stanley tower in 1891 by Mr. C. J. 

A cordial vote of thanks was passed to Lord Carlisle and to Lady 
Dorothy Howard, on the motion of Mr. T. H. Hodgson (chairman of 
council of the Cumberland society), seconded by the Hon. and Rev. 
W. Ellis, rector of Bothal, (a member of the Newcastle society), and 
supported by the acclamation of the members of the two societies. 

The party then proceeded to make a perambulation of the castle, 
visiting the ancient tower of ' Belted Will.' the gallery, the library, music 
room, and drawing room, and also the dungeon and the Dacre tower. 

In the great hall are several suits of armour, amongst them 

I Howard Household Books, 506. 



(x ^? 




that reputed to have belonged to lord William Howard. ^There 
are also in the hall four heraldic beasts, rampant, holding banners, 
the red bull and the griffin of the Dacres, and the dolphin of 
the Greystokes; the family to which to assign the fourth has 
not been made out. The arms of Howard impaling Dacre are on a 
corbel in the oratory. 2 In the same room is a chest ornamented 
with the cross crosslets fitchy of the Howards, and the scallops of the 

Dacres, both on a red ground ; on 
its end is the Howard badge a white 
lion charged with a mullet for the 
third son, ' clearly indicating Lord 
William Howard as its first owner.' 
The modern panelling of the room is 
decorated with the Dacre badge of a 
silver cord twined round an escallop 
and a ragged staff, which commemorates 
the marriage of Thomas de Dacre with 
Philippa, daughter of Ralph Neville, 
earl of Westmorland. This badge has 
been copied from one of those on the 
ancient panelling in one of the window 
recesses in the room. The illustration 
here given has been reproduced from a 
drawing by the earl of Carlisle (see 
these Proceedings, v, 30). The Dacre 
escallops and the Greystoke rose-chap- 
lets are on bosses in the recess in the 
room, and on many of the bosses are 
other badges, such as the griffin of 
Dacre. 3 

Naworth Castle is described in 1580 as be.'ng in a dilapidated con- 
dition. In a survey made in that year by order of the queen the account 
of Naworth is : ' This Castle is one other of the chefe and principal! 
mansion-houses belonginge to the heires of the sayd late Lord Dacre. . . . 
partly decayed, the repairinge whereof, with help of the woods there, 
belonging to the Lord and owner of the same, is e .teamed to c u if the 
same be repaired before any greater decay happen.' 4 

George Selwyn, in a letter, of 18 August, 1790, to lady Carlisle, writes 

there is my letter to con over in an old castle [Naworth], which, 

respectable as it is, has un air fort sombre, and wants to be enlivened by 

some news from the south Give my compliments to as many 

Dacres as now exist *S"^ en reste un rejetton de cette ancienne maison je le 
respecterai comme un aristocrate.~> 

There is an old prophecy that ' When a Bull shall toll Lanercost Bell, 
and a Hare bring forth on Naworth's hearth-stone, Lanercost shall fall, 
Naworth be burned down, and Dalstone Churche be washed away.' 

2 Fee description of some early alabaster carvings, and an early painting in the 
oratovy, iu the Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Society ; vol. iv. 513, 
t seq. See The Household Books of Lord William Howard (68 Surt. Soc. publ.); also 
' The Heraldry of Naworth and Lanercost,' by the late Chancellor Ferguson, in the same 
Transactions, p. 496. See same volume, p. 486, for account of Naworth .Castle, by 
Mr. C. J. Ferguson. 

3 For notices of Lanercost and Naworth, see Arch, Ael,, N.S., iv, pp. 145-152 : and 
Proceedings II, 219 and 228, where a description of the fragment of the cross shaft now 
in the church, with its interesting inscription, is given by Prof. E, C. Clark. 

* Hoioard Household Books, xxxiv. 
5 Carlisle Papers, 685. 

' A bull,' it is said, ' did toll the bell of Lanercost, and a hare has brought 
forth on Na worth hearth-stone ; so the prophecy, which is still remem- 
bered, has been "fulfilled/ for Lanercost is a ruin and Na worth Castle 
has been destroyed by fire. ..' Dalston Church, however, still stands.' 


At six o'clock the party left for Na worth station well satisfied with the 
delightful and instructive nature of the outing, the success of which 
was ^chiefly due to Mr. Collingwood and Mr. T. H. Hodgson, members 
of the Cumberland society going westwards, and those of the Newcastle 
society eastwards. 

G_Denham Tracts, I, 183 






3 SEB., VOL. I. 1904. No. 26. 

An afternoon meeting of the society was held on Thursday the 15th 
September, 1904, at 


Members assembled at the Tynemouth railway station at 3-30 o'clock 
and proceeded thence to Marine House, the residence of Mr. R. Coltman 
Clephan, F.S.A., a vice-president of the society, on his kind invitation. 
At four o'clock they partook of tea provided by Mr. and Mrs. Clephan. 
There were about forty members and friends present, amongst them 
being Mr. and Mrs. Turnbull of Rothbury ; Miss Lamb of Newton 
Cottage, Chathill ; Mr. and Mrs. W. J. Gibson of Bedlington ; Mr. 
Charles Hopper of Croft ; the Revd. C. E. Adamson of Westoe ; Mr. 
E. A. and Miss Hedley, Mr. R. O. Heslop (one of the secretaries), Mr. 
O. J. Charlton, Mr. and Mrs. C. H. Blair, all of Newcastle ; Messrs. T. 
Matheson and J. Dowson of Morpeth ; Revd. E. J. Taylor, F.S.A., vicar 
of Pelton ; Mr. T. and Miss Williamson, and Mr. and Mrs. J. R. Hogg, of 
North Shields ; Mr. J. A. Irving of West Fell, Corbridge ; Mr. J. M. 
Moore and Mr. R. Blair (one of the secretaries), and Misses Constance and 
Gladys Blair, of Harton ; Miss Spence and the Rev. H. S. Hicks of Tyne- 
mouth, &c. 

After tea the party proceeded to the armoury where Mr. Clephan 
read the following notes, illustrating his remarks by pointing out the 
different pieces and their peculiarities : 

' I will endeavour to illustrate the armour period, from the middle of 
the fifteenth century to the time when all but the helmet and cuirass 
had ceased to be worn, as far as I can by the suits before you. There is 
very little plate armour in existence, beyond helmets and fragments, up 
to the date when the earliest of these suits was made ; but to give you 
some idea of the fashion prevailing in our own island for a few centuries 
before that time, I will preface my remarks on the armour here by a 
short account of chain-mail ; and then briefly describe the evolution to 
a complete covering of the body by steel plates. 

' The subject of offensive weapons is one far too vast to be more than 
touched upon this afternoon ; and I can do little more than briefly 
point out the examples. It is at least doubtful if there was any chain- 
mail worn in early medieval Europe, that is of rings interlinked, much 
before the tenth century ; and space on this occasion will not admit of 


even a summary of the arguments, for and against this probability. 
Real chain-mail may be described as having every ring interlinked with 
four surrounding rings. The size of the mesh varies greatly ; and the 
links were soldered, welded, or butted together in the earlier times ; 
later, as a rule, they were riveted. Chain armour certainly did not 
become common before the twelfth century, when at its commence- 
ment it is said that wire-drawing was invented at Nuremberg ; up to 
that time it was probably worn only by the richer men-at-arms. It is 
difficult to determine the character of ringed armour from early drawings 
of any kind, for, besides being always conventional they are all more or 
less fanciful and inaccurate in character. Probably, most of the body 
armour up to the date of the Conquest, and even somewhat later, 
consisted of iron rings sewn on to cloth of some kind ; besides other 
substances or fabrics, such as cuir-bouilli (boiled leather) or quilted 
stuffs without rings or scales ; all which defences were quite capable 
of resisting an ordinary sword stroke. An effigy of the twelfth century, 
that of Geoffrey de Mandeville, early in the reign of king Stephen, shows 
the warrior armed completely in mail. Our sources cf information as 
to armour generally, up to the reign of Stephen (1135-1154), consist 
mainly of representations on tapestry, miniatures and seals ; but it is 
first when effigies and brasses begin that we have the armour in detail 
spread out before us. Many of the effigies, more especially of the 
thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, are cross-legged ; and there is a 
popular belief that the persons they represent had been either knights 
templar or crusaders, but this is not the case. Inventories, wills and 
illuminated MSS. have proved of great assistance in furnishing us with 
the nomenclature for the various pieces, which were successively 
devised as defences against improvements in offensive weapons or new 
modes of attack. The fashion and cut of all body armour was always 
greatly regulated by that of civil dress ; and a comparison between 
them is a sure guide in the determination of the approximate date of 
existing armour ; in fact, the form c f the doublet is followed throughout 
with extreme fidelity, more especially so in the case of hoasting harness, 
as armour for the field was called ; but this was not so observeable with 
armour made for the tiltyard, which was designed to repel more 
definite forms cf attack, subjected to strict rules and regulations, as well 
as limitations. This fact is tempered somewhat in the armament of 
different nationalities, as changes, which at that time usually had their 
birth in Italy, took time to travel to countries less advanced in fashion 
and refinement. Plate armour, in iron or cuir-bouitti, began to be 
worn in Italy and Germany long before it appeared in Britain. 
There if no mention >f it in England before tne reign of Henry III. 
(1216-1272), oeyond the heaume and the plastron defer, the latter a 
breast-plate of iron sometimes worn under the gambeson, but usually 
between it and the hauberk. A. plastron ae fer is recorded as having 
baen worn by kino; Richard I., when earl of Poitou, in a joust at the tilt 
with William de Barres. Soon afterwards what is termed ' mixed 
armour " began with plates of iron or cuir-bouilli ; these reinforce- 
ments, supplying additional protection, were first applied to the knees 
and elbows ; and the pieces were strapped on over the chain-mail. 
Coudes for the elbows are seen, but rarely in the thirteenth century, 
but knee-guards begin to appear towards the middle. Examples of 
both pieces may be seen in Stothard. These plates, or pieces of boiled 
leather, were simply roundels in the early stages. Greaves are not seen 
in England before the end of the century. Soon, other protecting plates 


followed for the shoulders and thighs ; and a combination of mail and 
plate armour was in general use in England during the reign of Edward 
il. (1307-1327), the stage of complete armour being reached in the first 
quarter of the fifteenth century. The style, in Germany called ' Gothic,' 
a term somewhat unsatisfactory, may be said to begin soon after. This is 
by far the most shapely of all, and the armour was made to fit the body 
closely ; and it is light, flexible, and impenetrable. The steel is of excel- 
lent quality, and looks as if there is some admixture of silver. The form 
is an adaptation from the Florentine costume of the period, the flirtings 
in the metal representing the folds and creases of the dress. You see this 
class of armour at its best in the monument to Sir Richard Beauchamp, 
earl of Warwick, in St. Mary's church, Warwick ; the design for 
which, I am convinced, came from Milan ; and almost certainly from 
the hand of the celebrated armoursmith Antonio da Missaglia. The 
earl died in 1439, but the contracts for the monument were not given 
out before 1454 ; just about the time one would expect from the details 
of the armour. Up to the commencement of the reign of Maximilian I., 
most of the fine armours were made at Milan; but, under the patronage 
and actual superintendence of the emperor, Germany soon became a 
formidable rival to Italy, and eventually turned out a larger quantity 
than that country. The great majority of the fine suits handed down 
to us, came from the great armour- making centres, such as Augsburg, 
Nuremberg and Innsbruck, and in fact numbers of the suits preserved in 
collections, classed as Italian until comparatively recently, have since 
been proved to be of German make ; and this remark applies to enriched 
suits as well as pialn. Gothic armour is greatly distinguished by its curved 
flutings on a plain ground and scollopeded gings ; but many suits are 
severely plain, and these are by no means the least beautiful. The helmet 
is the salade ; and, instead of the later gorget proper, there is a chin 
piece or mentonniere, the upper part of which later became incorpor- 
ated in the armet. The cuirass is decorative, and there is usually a 
placcate or second plate over the abdomen, sometimes two plates. 
The tile-formed tuilles protect the thighs ; and the sollerets are usually, 
though not invariably, acutely pointed, a la poulaine. 


This suit is a fine representation of the style. The salade is shapely, 
and of the true German form. It is worn at an angle, with a view to 
protecting the back part of the neck ; and in order to bring the holes 
cut for vision into line with the eyes, when the visor is down. The 
crown-piece, formed like a bowl, is surmounted by a flat comb with 
curved flutings on either side and ornamented with a narrow bordering, 
sunk and inlaid. On each side are four holes, garnished with rosette 
mounts of latten (a kind of fine brass) for hearing, and near the top 
of the crown on either side, is a pair of similar holes, for passing 
strings through for fastening the cap or lining inside the head-piece, 
while a line of brass-headed rivets secures it along the bottom. The 
visor moves on pins, with heads of four petals, secured by nuts on either 
side, and when down it fastens with a spring catch. The tail piece is 
in four laminated plates retreating to a point ; the first three being 
narrow, and the lowest much deeper, all moving freely on brass-headed 
rivets ; six flutings, converging at the tail-point, run from the base of 
the crown-piece, while other flutings join them from the sides. Running 
down the centre of the tail plates are three ornamental figures, formed 


like pairs of horns. Traces of the original lining are still present inside 
and a thin piping runs along the bottom of the helmet, \\eight, 7- 
pounds. The chin-piece or mentonniere is a restoration made lor the 
purpose of this meeting, it is far from being a successful piece of work, 
and affords an apt illustration of the difficulty of Imdmg any Jiingush 
workman now-a-days competent to do such a piece of worn:, one so yasy 
of accomplishment in the fifteenth century. 

The breast-plate is ornamented with broad curved flutings i the gently 
ridged placcate, hammered in curved outlines both along the top ana 
bottom, is riveted to the breast plate, and rises to a point above its 
centre. The back-plate is freely nuted and strengthened by two extra 
plates ; while the garde-de-reins, over the kidneys and buttocks, is in 
three broad plates, the tops of which are cut in curves corresponding 
with the flutings on the piece. Roundels, of six segments, guard the weaK 
places under the arms. There are two broad taces, and to the lower 
are attached, by straps and buckles, the large obtusely-pointed tuilles, 
ornamented with triangular flutings. The shoulder guards are in seven 
laminated plates ; the coudes, rounded over the elbow-joints, have 
large fluted, fan-shaped wings, and the whole arm coverings are freely 
and handsomely fluted. The gauntlets have long, shapely, pointed 
cuffs, with a bordering of three flutings, running parallel with the 
margin, along which is a row of rivets. Nearly perpendicular flutings 
adorn the remaining surface of the cuff plates ; four fluted lames protect 
the backs of the hands, the lowest being hammered out for the knuckles ; 
as also are the four plates beyond, for the fingers. The leg armour is 
very complete, the cuissades have a fluted laminated plate at the top, 
the knee movement extending above and below the joints in five mobile 
plates, and the fan-shaped wings, similar in form to those of the tuilles, 
are fluted like them. The greaves, attached to the knee-guards- by 
sneck-headed turning rivets, have four narrow laminations above the 
ankles. The sollerets are not forged in the extreme fashion d la poulaine. 
Being in possession of a pair of original tips I have attached them 
temporarily as giving the effect presented by the majority of the 
sollerets of the period. I may say that such tips were usually, though 
not invariably, detachable. When I acquired the suit the salade and 
mentonniere had been lost, the former has now been replaced by the 
beautiful original helmet at present with the suit. The mentonniere is 
placed in position temporarily for educational effect. The suit is 
characterized by extreme mobility and elegance, the workmanship is 
German, and the probable date about the end of the third quarter of the 
fifteenth century. The so-called ' Gothic ' armour was followed to- 
wards the end of the century by fluted armour, that is with the whole 
siu'face, excepting as a rule the greaves, covered with narrow 
regular flutings, in contradistinction to ' Gothic ' armour, with its 
broad curved lines. The new fashion had its origin in Italy, in imitation 
of the civil dress ; and the change in form was of a radical character. 
It was probably introduced into Germany by the emperor elect, Maxi- 
milian I. This class of armour is known to connoisseurs as ' Maxi- 
milian.' Suit No. 2, though plain is of the same style and period as 
fluted armour. 


* This suit was acquired from the Chateau de Heeswijk in Brabant, 
and you may observe that it has been subjected to some restoration. 
The bearing of the figure is dignified, and it is of imposing proportions. 

The harness may be said to date from the early years of the sixteenth 
century, and though plain, it presents most of the characteristics of 
* Maximilian ' armour. The helmet is the armet, and you will notice 
that the ' Gothic ' mentonniere has now given place to the gorget 
proper, and there are laminated tassets instead of tuilles, and broad- 
toed shoes instead of pointed. The breast-plate is globose, a thick 
roping standing well out at the top, and there is a lance rest. The taces 
are in five plates, and the tassets consist of the same number. The 
lowest tace is rounded in the centre for a brayette. The cuissades are 
laminated at the tops with margins of roping, the lower rim much thicker 
than the one above. The knee-guards have heart-shaped wings, and 
the sollerets are ' bearpaw,' that is very broad, especially at the toes, 
in strong contrast to the ' Gothic ' form a la poulaine. The hinged 
greaves are fastened by round-headed rivets and are held together by 
tension. The pauldrons are attached to the gorget by pegs of steel, and 
they are a pair. The coudes are of the butterfly type, and the mitten 
gauntlets have pointed cuffs, five plates across the backs of the hands, a 
thick roping over the knuckles, while seven nearly flat plates cover 
the fingers. 


' This is a tonlet armour (A tonne), that is with a deep skirt of hoops, 
called j ambers or bases. These j ambers are usually called lamboys, 
but this, Viscount Dillon informs me, is an old misreading. The hoops 
move upwards and downwards like a Venetian blind. This fashion in 
steel lasted only about four or at most five decades. Bases were the 
skirts of the doublet of the period, and were made of cloth, velvet or 
richly embroidered stuff. They were worn during the reigns of Henry 
VII and Henry VIII, and an inventory of the wardrobe of the last 
named sovereign schedules ' coats with bases.' This fashion, like the 
others, came from Italy, for we find bases on an effigy at Corneto, 
showing perpendicular pleats or folds. The fashion represented by the 
breast of this effigy furnished a model for a breast-plate of steel, one of 
the most shapely. As shown by the fine suit with j ambers in the tower 
of London, by Conrad Seusenhofer, the style as applied to armour was 
in vogue during the later years of Maximilian, but it became more 
de rigueur in steel in the reign of his successor. There is an early 
English example, with a skirt of steel hoops, on the brass of John 
Gaynsford, at Crowhurst, Surrey, who died in 1450, which is some 
40 years before the accession of the emperor elect, Maximilian I. 
The armet is fluted and in three plates. The visor moves on rosettes, 
and projects sharply forward to a point, as on suit No. 2 ; the front 
consisting of four deeply indented sections, with two broad lights above 
for vision, and two smaller slits for air, it closes with a spring catch, and 
the bevor fastens to the crown-piece by a similar snap. The helmet, 
which weighs five pounds, has a collar behind of three plates. The 
breast-plate has a salient projection considerably below the middle, and 
the same form is observable on an enriched suit with jambers in the 
Vienna collection, made by M. Mathaus Frauenpeis of Augsburg in 
1550 ; though at that time the projection or tapul was usually nearer 
the middle of the breast. The jambers of No. 3 consist of nine hoops, 
the lowest much broader than the others ; it is studded with a line of 
rivets and terminates with a string-like piping. This skirt, in two parts 
back and front, is attached to the lower rim of the cuirass by sneck- 
headed pegs working in slots, and the two sides of the skirt are connected 


in a similar manner. The pauldrons are comprehensive, of equal size 
both back and front, and the coverings for the upper arms are freely 
laminated. The coudes are^ cup-formed^with^ heart-shaped wings. 
The pauldrons are bound by a thin piping, as also are the squared cuffs 
of the mitten gauntlets, and the piping is repeated at the base of the 
bottom finger plates. Over the knuckles is a bold twisted roping, and 
the laminated plates over the backs of the hands number five above the 
ridge, while those below are of the same number. The gauntlets are of 
a type generally prevailing about 1540. The cuissades and greaves 
have a ridge running down to the^feet, while the plates over the knees 
are ornamented with a double groove down the centres. The attach- 
ments are by sneck-headed rivets which slip into holes and turn in 
slots. The sollerets are shaped to the form of the feet. 


Up to about the middle of the fifteenth century armour was usually 
plain, but soon after that time chasing and engraving began. The 
amount of artistic skill of the very highest order lavished on the orna- 
mentation of armour in later medieval times and during the renascence 
was a remarkable feature of those periods, and artists of the greatest 
renown, such as Donatello, Leonardo da Vinci, Michael Angelo, Albrecht 
Diirer, Benvenuto Cellini and Lucio Piccinino were employed in design- 
ing for this purpose. Harness was finely and delicately chased, engraved, 
russeted and enriched with gold, damascened, appliqued and decorated 
with repousse work. This harness, no. 4, is freely enriched in repousse 
work, with bold foliations and arabesques on a dark ground studded 
over with white points. It is banded in the Italian style, and the 
general scheme of ornamentation is intersperced with human heads, 
some of them grotesque, and a series of armed figures. The helmet is a 
casque of great beauty, forged in one piece, and it weighs seven pounds ; 
the ornamentation on it is banded, like the rest of the armour ; the comb 
is very high, fluted over the crest and richly ornamented with bold 
foliations, and the head of a satyr occupies the centre on each side. 
There are the remains of a leathern lining, fastened all round outside 
with gilt-headed rivets, the socket at the back has two holes for the 
adjustment of a plume of feathers, and there is another hole in the 
comb for firmly securing it. The ear-flaps are provided with six holes 
on one side and three on the other for hearing, and each flap has a 
fluted projecting eye, presumably for keeping the flaps up when not 
required, or for fastening them across the throat. The peaks, front and 
rear, are overlapping plates, with fluted borders. The gorget is in two 
plates, with an ornamental piping. The breast-plate has a low ridge 
running down the centre, and although not ' peascod ' formed, it is 
similar but with a paunch not so pronounced. There is a bold ridge 
along the top and five nearly perpendicular bands of ornamentation, 
that in the centre is surmounted on each side of the ridge by finely etched 
human heads of great beauty, enclosed in medallions. The single tace 
or broad rim at the bottom of the breast-plate is enriched by a nearly 
horizontal band of ornamentation. The back-plate is banded in the 
same manner as the breast-plate. The suit is without a garde-de-reins. 
The tassets are in six plates. The left pauldron is the larger, both have 
free laminations. The coudes are cup-formed with oval wings, the fingers 
of the gauntlets articulated, and the leg armour is complete and hand- 
some, the wings of the knee pieces small and butterfly shaped. A 
sharp ridge runs down the front of the leg armour, and the knee pieces 


are attached to the greaves by sneck-headed rivets. The greaves, 
which are hinged, have three lames above the ankles, and the sollerets 
are ' bearpaw.' All the pieces are held together by rivets with gilded 
heads. The suit "was probably made about the end of the third quarter 
of the sixteenth century, or perhaps well into the last quarter. The 
stand on which the harness is hung is also old, and probably stood in the 
armoury of the castle of Beauraing for centuries, and the face is possibly 
a portrait of Don Pedro Fellez de Giron, prince d'Osuna, and due 
d'Infantado, knight of the Black Eagle order, etc., viceroy of Sicily and 
later of Naples. The harness was saved from the fire at the old de 
Giron family seat, the castle of Beauraing, in the province of Namur, 
not far from Dinant. The place was burnt down on the 3rd December, 
1890, when the suit was saved from the flames. It is free from restora- 
tion of any kind. 


This perfect little harness doubtless served as a model in the workshop 
of some great armoursmith, probably Italian ; and the style and finish 
leave nothing to be desired. The shield bears a heraldic inscription. 


This armour furnishes an example of the elbow-gauntlet. The gorget 
and shoulder plates are riveted together, and the fingers of the gauntlets 
are articulated ; it is from the collection of the late Mr. T. B. Johnston, 
D.L., H.M. Geographer for Scotland. 


This interesting armour dates from about the middle of the sixteenth 
century, or rather later, and is of the description worn by leaders of light 
cavalry, such as German Reiters ; and. it has been forged with a special 
view to lightness. The armour, banded throughout, is in strips of bright 
steel on a black enamelled ground, and is hung on a characteristic figure of 
the period. The open burgonet has a flapped umbril over the eyes, and 
has ear-flaps pierced with holes for hearing. The gorget is in three 
plates, and bears armourer's marks and the Nuremberg guild stamp, 
but the latter is indistinct, it is riveted together with the shoulder 
plates, which are in seven lames, beyond these there is no defence for 
the arms, but the hands and wrists are protected by long-sleeved 
gauntlets with pointed cuffs, the finger and thumb plates being articu- 
lated. Pegs stand up diagonally on each side of the gorget for keeping 
the strap, which supports the cuirass, in position. The breast-plate, 
which is gusseted round the armholes, has a tapul or salient projection 
just over the navel, a feature of the armour period from say 1530 to 
beyond the middle of the century. This fashion, like the others 
mentioned, had its origin in the form of the civil doublet of the day. 
The breast-plate bears the Nuremberg stamp. The taces are three in 
number the highest riveted to the lowest tace plate, which is holed in 
the centre for the attachment of a brayette or cod-piece. The back 
plate is banded like the breast-plate. A sword and small battle-axe, 
original like the harness, hang from the sword belt. The sword is de- 
scribed later. The armour has been forged with a view to it being 
quickly donned or doffed, it is a model of lightness and strength. It 
is from the Von Berthold Collection. 


F This breast-plate and tassets formed part of a russet armour, an effect 


produced by a process of oxidization or firing to a russet colour. This 
surface is more easily kept clean than that of white armour. The 
helmet, though nearly of the same period, does not belong to the suit, 
and the "gorget is a restoration. The breast-plate is the ' peascod ' of 
the true Elizabethan form, and the tassets, consisting of five plates each, 
swell out over the hips like the dress of that period, they fasten on to 
the broad rim of the breast-plate by straps and buckles. The rim, or tace, 
is in two plates welded together. Each piece is margined with brass- 
headed rivets. This breast-plate and tassets remind one of the work of 
Jacobe, the master armourer at Greenwich during part of the reign of 
queen Elizabeth. The remnant was picked up from a Paris dealer. 


This figure stands with the pike at order, The arms and armour are 
original. The helmet is a cabasset, and the gorget and shoulder plates 
riveted together. The cuirass is that prevailing about the middle of 
the seventeenth century, and the tassets are in nine plates. The sword 
will be described under another heading. It is from the Gimbel Col- 


The helmet has a pointed umbril, standing out diagonally, hinged 
cheek-pieces with ear holes, a collar in one plate, a high comb rising 
from nearly the middle of the crown piece and going round the back of 
the head. The gorget and espaliers are attached together. A slight 
ridge runs down the centre of the breast plate, terminating rather like 
the ' peascod,' but it is much natter than the earlier form of doublet. 
The tassets are in five broad lames. 


Armour of plate has run its course of more than two centuries and a half 
and now all that is left of it is the ' pair of plates ' and the helmet. The 
causes for the change are many and various. As early as the first half 
of the sixteenth century light troops began to wear half armour, and 
towards the close of the century the use of cap-a-pie suits began to be 
greatly restricted to leaders and persons of distinction. The necessity 
for more mobility in action, the decay of archery, the steady improve- 
ment of firearms, and indeed perhaps more than all the making of ill- 
fitting herness, resulting in sores on the person, so that we sometimes 
read of armour being thrown away on the march and even in battle, 
ordinances to the contrary notwithstanding, all these causes contributed 
to its discredit and subsequent disuse. During later medieval times and 
the course of the renascence, the forging and enrichment of armour was 
a fine art, but after a time all beauty of outline disappeared and orna- 
mentation became lost in a mass of unmeaning and undigested details, 
combined with inferiority of workmanship. The bason-shaped helmet 
is of the style called the ' Pappenheimer.' The crown piece, which is 
of hammered iron, is divided into segments by five headings running 
down from the top ; in the centre of the crown is a small circular plate, 
out of which springs a ring, presumably for hanging up the helmet. A 
nearly horizontal umbril is riveted en in front to protect the eyes, in 
the centre of which runs an adjustable nose-guanl, a flat bolt of iron 
heart-shaped on the tcp and with a projecting steel -headed rivet at the 
bottom to prevent the piece from slipping right through the staple and 


getting lost, the staple is placed on the crown piece just above the 
umbril. Movement upwards and downwards, or rather arresting the 
nasal when the piece has been adjusted, is regulated by a turn of a 
heart-shaped headed screw. The ear-flaps are holed for breathing, and 
the lobster-tail neckguard is in four broad plates, reaching well down 
over the nape of the neck. The breast plate has a ridge down the 
centre, and its attachment with the back-plate is secured by iron-plated 
straps, with adjustable holes in the ends for passing over brass-headed 
rivets placed well down the breast-plate. In front is a bullet indenta- 
tion, doubtless a test mark. This characteristic figure holds a flintlock 
pistol in the right hand, a powder flask and bullet-bag hang from 
the belt ; on the left side hangs the sword. The arms and armour are 
original. From the Gimbel Collection. 

I am frequently asked to account for the smallness of stature and 
thinness of the legs of so much of the armour passed down to us ; the 
prevailing idea being that the fighting men of the fifteenth and sixteenth 
centuries must have been inferior in size to those of the present time. 
There is no difference in stature, and as to the calves of the legs, the 
thinness is accounted for by reason of the men-at-arms spending so 
much of their time on horseback, they are like the horsey men of today. 
The reason for the small stature of the majority of suits in collections is 
beefy we the bulk of those handed down to us were made for men of Italy, 
South Gernmnv, France and Spain, who as a rule, were smaller than 
in Englftnd, North Germany, and Scandinavia. 

No. 12. Oriental suit of chain-mail with trousers. The mail is 
covered with crimson silk, the garment is gold-braided and buttons 
silvered. From the Dalhousie Collection. 

No. 13. Oriental arm-guards of steel, lined with crimson silk. The 
chain- mail open erauntlets, wadded with cotton, are riveted on to the 
arm-guards, which are damascened and enriched with raised and 
richlv gilded figures. The guards for the outer arm, reaching over 
the elbow, 13 inches long, are enriched with a gilded bordering, and 
ornamented in gold, figures down the centres and across the wrists, as 
also is the portion for the inner arm. The two parts are held together 
bv thickly srilded hinges, perhaps entirely of gold. The chain-mail 
gloves are damascened and have a square pattern of gilt rings running 
through them. From the Dalhousie Collection. 

No. 15. Oriental Shield. Circular and convex, ornamented in 
bronze over papier mache, a conventional figure of the sun in the centre, 
surrounded by four bosses. The circumference is studded with large- 
headed hemispherical rivets, while the body of the shield is decorated 
with peacock-tail figures, and hemispherical studs. From Beluchistan. 

Kb. 16. A beautiful ' Gothic ' Gauntlet of an early date, and very 
fine workmanship. 

No. 17. A pa^r of ' Gothic ' Solleret tips d la poulaine (now with suit 
No. 1). Kuppelmavr Collection. 

No. 18. An earlv ' Gothic ' Coude, for strapping on. 
No. 19. A * Gothic ' Kneeguard. 

No. 20. An enriched Cantle Plate decorated with male figures 
enr^osed in medallions in banded repousse work. 

No. 22. A breast-plate of fine form and workmanship dating well 
within the first half of the sixteenth centurv. The tapul rises a little 
below the centre, and a broad rim extends along the top of the breast- 
plate and round the gussetings at the armpits. The taces are in three 


plates, the lowest being holed and rounded in the centre for fixing on a 
brayette. Just below the middle of the roping along the top of the 
breast plate are two holes for the attachment of a reinforcing plate, and 
on the right side is the armourer's mark, and on the left the Nuremberg 
guild badge. Stamped in the depression for fixing on the brayette is a 
shield with quarterings, which has been rubbed beyond decipherment ; 
and it requires some imagination to see in it the coat-of-arms of the 
Worms family, a representation of which is preserved in the German- 
ische National Museum at Nuremberg, which has a stag proper courant 
in two of the quarterings. On the right of the lowest tace the 
armourer's mark is to be seen. In form the breast-plate closely 
resembles an enriched specimen at Dresden, attributed to Wilhelm von 
Worms of Nuremberg, on which the date of make, 1539, is inscribed. 

No. 24. Model of a typical German Salade without moveable visor. 

No. 25. Close Helmet, second half of sixteenth century (at prccent 
with suit No. 8 ), roped comb, the crown piece adorned with six bread 
rounded ridgings on either side going over it. The visor, in two plates, 
moving on fluted pivots, converges to a point. Holes for vision are in 
the upper plate, which is moved up and down by a projecting handle- 
bar, while the lower plate is attached to the bevor by a catch. The bevor, 
moving on the same pivots as the visor, fastens to the crown-piece by 
hooks and eyes, and there is a collar behind. The helmet is enriched 
by a bold design in repousse work. It is in bad condition, and dates 
towards the end of the century. 

No. 26 and 29. Pappenheimer Helmets. Umbril over eyes, nose- 
guard, ear-flaps and long lobster- tail neckguard. 

No. 27. A Helmet, probably English, 1630-45. 

No. 28. A Bascinet, fourteenth century. 

No. 30. Visor and Buffe of Grotesque Helmet, seventeenth century. 

No. 31. Visor and Buffe of Grotesque Helmet, end of sixteenth 

No. 32. A Helmet with six large figures of the letter S over the eyes 
and small central hole below. It has a narrow collar and is of late date. 

No. 33 and 34. Cabassets. 

No. 35. A Helmet shaped like a jockey cap with slot for noseguard, 
late date. 


was a weapon of Greece and Rome, and also used by the Roman 
Gauls. A MS of the tenth century in the National Library at Paris, 
gives a representation of the weapon, and so do Anglo-Saxon MSS. of the 
eleventh, and it appears in some frescoes in the cathedral at Brunswick, 
of twelfth century date. The crossbow was in use by the armies of 
England and France during the second crusade, and we find a certain 
Peter the Saracen making crossbows in England in 1205 for king John 
with wages at 9d. a day. Guillaume Guiart, writing contemporaneously, 
tells us that it was among the weapons at the battle of Haringues in 
1297. The Genoese made a speciality of it as early as the twelfth 
century, and we all know that the French king had a large bodv of 
crossbowmen in his pav at Cregy and Agincourt, which were of little 
avail against the missiles from the longbow, for the English archer 
could shoot 10 to 12 arrows in the time that the crossbowman could only 
manage 2"or 3, for the winding up process was so slow. The crossbow 
has the advantage of a lower trajectory over its long confrere, but the 
latter is lighter and more portable. It was a better weapon for fortress 
work, for it was more~easily aimed through loopholes. 


No. 36. An Arbalest or Windlass Crossbow. This example is of the 
type employed by the Genoese crossbowman on the field of Agincourt, 
that in use at Cre9y was probably an earlier form, the bow of which was 
bent by means of a hook attached to the bowman's belt. A crossbow 
like No. 36 was used in the low countries all through the seventeenth 
century, and this specimen was probably made at Malines. The bow 
of steel is bent by a small windlass worked on a system of pullies, the 
bowman thrusting his foot through the stirrup placed at the end of the 
stock, and when the string had been brought into position a movement 
of the trigger liberated the catch and sped the quarrel. The point-blank 
range was probably about 70 yards, but with the bow held at 45 the 
range probably extended to 300 yards ; the effective range was not, 
however, much, if anything, over 200 yards. 

No. 37. A Similar Crossbow, but of older date. 

No. 38. A German Crossbow, where the bow is bent by a ratchet and 
long handle. 

No. 39. A Prodd (Arbalete a jalet). This bow shoots pebbles, and 
even bullets ; it is light, and no mechanical contrivance is required for 
bending it. This variety was much used in the chase, and queen 
Elizabeth shot game with such a one at Cowdray. The name comes 
from the two upright pins of iron placed at the top of the stock, and 
across the heads of these pins a thread is drawn with a bead in the 
centre ; the thread requires to be brought into line with the notch 
observable on the top of the adjustable movement placed over the trigger 
for sighting purposes. The cord is double, and it is kept taut by beads 
placed for the purpose of leaving a cavity or resting place in which to 
place the pebble or bullet for discharge. The arrangement for straining 
the cord into position is combined with the lock for its release. This 
type was employed as late as the middle of the last century for shooting 


is from 12 to 15 feet in extreme length, first of uniform girth, but later, 
thicker at the base, gradually tapering towards the head ; the swell at 
the grip does not occur before the fourteenth century. The lance 
differs in. form and bulk for the various kinds of jousting. The vam- 
plate or roundel of steel, besides being a protection for the arm and 
body, assists in keeping the lance in position. Gimbel Collection. 

No. 40. A Lance, of about the end of the fifteenth century, with 
coronal and vamplate. The shaft is a restoration, but the coronal and 
vamplate are original. The latter has still its original leather lining, a 
feature extremely rare. 

No. 41. An early sixteenth century Lance with sharp head. This 
example is finely preserved, the shaft, grooved on the lower part, bears 
the stamp of the city of Vienna. The sharp tip is quadrangular, with 
a strong socket for the shaft. The extreme length is 14 feet, and it is 
9 inches in girth above the vamplate, and 9 inches immediately below 
it. The vamplate is nearly 13 inches in diameter. This completely 
original lance is a great rarity, and was also acquired from the Gimbel 

No. 42. A Mace of early sixteenth century date. Blackened eight- 
flanged head, 3 inches long. Blackened wooden grip, nearly 6 inches 
long ; remainder of the shaft, which is round, and of bright steel, 
measures 11 inches. Total length of weapon, 21 1 inches. 

No. 43. A Steel Mace, seventeenth century. Persian type. Damas- 


coned in gold, round shaft, long narrow six-flanged head. Total length, 
29| inches. 

No. 44. Oriental Mace with globular head of steel, 3 inches in 
diameter ; enriched with gold damascenings, and surmounted by a 
quadrangular arrow-head of steel ; steel shaft gilt. Deccan. 

No. 45. Oriental Battle Axe with crescent-shaped blade, measuring 
nearly eight inches from point to point, ornamented with figures of 
birds, animals and flowers, chiselled in low relief, and gilt ; square 
hammer head, similarly decorated ; round steel shaft, over 2 feet long. 

No. 46. Wooden- haf ted Axe, fifteenth century. Broad hatchet blade. 

No. 47. Oriental Battle Axe of steel throughout, curved, pointed, 
knife -like blade, 11 inches long, springing from a round shaft. Total 
length, 38 inches. Scinde. 

No. 48. Oriental Battle Axe. The blade and steel shaft damas- 
cened in gold. Blade measures four inches from point to point of the 
crescent-shaped edge. Flat hammer head, also damascened in gold. 
Total length, 2 feet 1 inch. Udaipur. 

No. 49. Styrian Hunting Axe. The flook is formed like the head 
and neck of a bird with a pronounced beak , the blade is provided with a 
detachable brass guard decorated with repousse work, for preserving 
the edges in a condition of sharpness. A hunting scene is engraved on 
the blade. 

No. 50. Morning Star entirely of iron, sixteenth century. The shaft 
is long, with an oblong ring at the end, and richly decorated, with the 
word ' Libertas ' sunk in gold letters running along it. The round head 
isjspiked over its surface. The weapon was picked up by myself in a 
marine store dealer's shop, from a heap of old iron, when it was so 
thickly rusted that no details could be distinguished. 

No. 51. A Holy Water Sprinkler or Military Flail, sixteenth century. 
This terrible weapon owes its name, doubtless, to a brutal jest. It 
consists of a wooden shaft, fixed in a socket, bound with iron, and 
studded with nails ; attached to this, tlirough a ring, is a chain with a 
wooden ball at the end, freely studded with iron spikes. From the 
Collection of Mr. R. Wharton. 

No. 52. Another example with shorter staff and chain, but similar 
in other respects. Wharton Collection. 

No. 53. Light Cavalry Battle Axe, sixteenth century, German 
leather bound staff, 20 inches long ; narrow blade, 6 inches from point to 
point, and a short flat spike behind. Stamped S. Now with suit No. 7. 
From the von Berthold Collection. 

No. 54. A Halbard, fifteenth century, with narrow blade, running 
into a spear at the extremity, and two spikes about six inches apart, 
springing from the blunt side. A trefoil ornament is cut in the centre of 
the blade with three round holes on either side. The head is attached 
to the original shaft by two long decorative strips of iron fastened by 
rivets with dentated heads. 

No. 55. A Guisarme or Gisarme, fifteenth century. A long, scythe- 
shaped weapon, fixed on a long, heavy staff. The blade is provided with 
a sharp hook and spurs on the sides, and a spear at the top ; it is roughly 
ornamented and bears a stamp. From the Gimbel Collection. A fine 
example. No. 56 is another and similar Gisarme. 

No. 57 and 58. English Bills, seventeenth century. Local weapons, 
which formed part of the town armoury of Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Broad blade, with sharp side hooks, terminating in a spear. Original 
staff, with shoe. 


X". 3D. A Berdiche, Swedish, sixteenth century. The -shaft end of 
the lorg, narr jw, crescent-formed blade is attached to the stall by a long 
strip 01 iron. Part only of the staff is original. 

X>. GO. A Kunka or Ronsard, flfteentn century. Long blade, with 
two lateral spikes springing from its base on either side, and curving 
upwards, fastened on 10 a long start with strips of iron. Gimbel 

.No. til. A Corseke, early sixteenth century. Lorg central spike with 
curved beak-like side wings, roughly ornamented ana fastened on to the 
original shaft by strips ol iron. Gimbel Collection. 
.NO. G2. A -ttalbard, eighteenth century. 

Xo. G3. A Boar bpear, German. Long spear, two laterals with 
knobs at the ends at the base, socketed on a long staff. 

No. 64. A Spetum, early sixteenth century. Broad central blade, 
with side spikes curving downwards, socketed on a long shaft. A 
monogram K., surmounted by an imperial crown, is engraved on both 
sides with the legend : BEST v FOBCADB. 

Xo. Go. A Partisan, German, about 1620. Central blade with 
broad, dentated side wings ; the stall is a restoration. 

Xo. G6 and G7. Lochaber Axes, seventeenth century. This type of 
weapon closely resembles the voulge. Ihe long blade is crescent-formed 
along the edge, and the back is straight ; springing from the socket, at 
the back, is a sharply curved nook, useful for cutting the bridles of 
horses. Original Stan and shoe. Ihete axes formed part of the armoury 
of the town guard of Xewcastle-upon-Tyne, and the maker's name, 
William Hood, is stamped on the weapon. 

Xo. 68. A Catch-iron (Hascher-eisen) sixteenth century. This 
dangerous weapon has springs riveted within the broad fork, which 
stand out towards the outer ends of its branches ; these are pressed 
back in the act of slipping the fork across the neck of a horseman from 
behind. The springs rebound as soon as the fork has enclosed the neck, 
thus effectually making a prifoner, who is at the mercy of the catcher, 
inasmuch as he must either submit to be unhorsed or be choked. The 
fork is secured by iron strips to the original shaft. 

Xo. 69. A Processional Glaive, sixteenth century. Large and long 
scythe-like blade, enriched with trophies and other figures. The lion 
and unicorn, with crown between, is cut in large proportions along the 
long, broad blade, and the device is etched. The head of a horse is cut 
and etched on either side of the base of the blade. The head firmly 
socketed over a heavy staff. 

Xo. 70. A Glaive", sixteenth century. A very long, broad blade, 
curved along the outside edge. In the centre of the back there are two 
flooks, with a serrated figure in the centre, besides serrated projections 
near the base of the blade, and a similar one near the top at the back. 
Two circles of round holes are cut along the blade. The head is fastened 
on to the long staff by strips of iron, which are riveted. 

Xo. 71. A Formation Lance. Fitted for a flag, narrow fluted tip, 
and shod with iron, the numerals 1832 are stamped on the spear head. 

Xo. 72. A Lucerne Hammer, sixteenth century. Halbard-shaped 
blade, freely pierced with holes, a dentated hammer is on the opposite 
side, the remaining sides of the square head being garnished with spikes, 
and a long serrated spear at the extremity fixed on the abaft by four 
strips of iron. 

Xo. 73. A Goedendag, fourteenth century. A long wooden cudgel, 
thickening towards the head, which is garnished all round with iron 


spikes, and surmounted!^ longer one. Stamped with the letters' LZ. 
The above is the low countries name for the weapon, but the Swiss call it 
a Morgenstern (Morning Star). 

No. 74 and 75. Halbards, early seventeenth century. Long spear 
head, with crescent-formed blade and sharp flook behind. 

No. 76. An Officer's Spontoon, eighteenth century. 


The earliest mention of hand firearms occurs in connection with 
Perugia, in 1364 ; and an inventory of Nuremberg refers to 48 of these 
weapons as being in the arsenal of the city. Monstrelet mentions hand- 
guns as boston a pouldre and a feu, and a Florentine writer states 
that such weapons were employed at the siege of Lucca in 1430. Actual 
specimens are rare. The first type was a cannon in miniature, with a 
touch hole attached to a long rough shaft or stick. These handguns 
were worked by two men, as shewn on illuminated MSS. at Vienna. 
One of the men holds the weapon with the long thin stock pressed against 
his breast, while the other stands apart, ramrod in hand, apparently 
after having loaded the piece. Another fourteenth century illumination 
shows one of the men serving the gun, by applying a hot coal for firing 
it. These early pieces, clumsy tubes, stuck on to the end of a stick, and 
indeed, much later weapons also, were not to be compared in efficiency 
with the longbow and crossbow, worked on the principles of tension and 
torsion. Hand firearms of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries would 
appear to have been relied on more for frightening the horses of men-at- 
arms, a very important function, than for any execution they might do 
"through the armour of proof of the riders. Late in the fourteenth 
century,and early in the fifteenth, small culverins,stocks rudely fashioned 
to the shoulder, a touch-hole on the right side, were in use. The weapon 
was fired by applying a match directly to the touch-hole, and the soldier 
had to find his way to it while taking aim. In the first half of the 
fifteenth century horsemen began to use a Sweyne feather (Swedish 
feather), a forked rest, fixed on to the saddle, from which the gun was 
discharged. We hear little of handguns in England before the Wars of 
the Roses. They were employed at the second battle of St. Albans, 
but the corps was Burgundian. The first person of note that we hear of 
as having been killed by a projectile from a handgun was the earl of 
Shrewsbury at Chatillon in 1453. By the end of the fifteenth century 
the priming was held in a pan, protected by a lid, moving on a pivot at 
the side of the barrel. Later, the pan was attached to the plate, and the 
stock more bent. A pair of moveable nippers, called a serpentin from 
its form, was devised for holding the match, this was first manipulated 
by a direct movement of the hand, but later, adjusted on a pivot, 
through the stock, and a lever for the fingers beyond it ; which, when 
pressed, brought the lighted slow-match into contact with the priming 
in the flashpan and touch-hole, and the piece was discharged. The 
bore was about half-an-inch in diameter. As soon as a crank, in 
connection with the trigger had been devised the matchlock was, in a 
sense, complete. The mainspring was a further improvement. Arrows 
were shot from these guns as well as bullets. Early handguns were full 
of drawbacks and imperfections, uncertain in aim and mode of ignition, 
often missing fire, protracted loading, besides cumbersome accessories. 
The further development ojf gunlocks and the handgun generally, will 
be touched upon incidentally in connection with examples here. 

No. 77. A Matchlock Gun, seventeenth century. Double grooved 
stock, serpentin, flashpan with cover, moving on a pivot, sighted 


barrel, sexagonal half its length, followed by two sets of semi-circular 
groovings across it, then plain. Length sixty inches, calibre, |th inches, 
steel mounts. Acquired from Chateau de Heeswijk Collection. The 
great disadvantage attending the matchlock was the trouble and un- 
certainty of retaining fire, and in its being necessary always to have the 
match lighted, or the means of striking a light, a difficult matter in 
those days. This objection was obviated by the invention of the wheel- 
lock, a form much more manageable, more especially for cavalry. 

No. 78. A Wheel-lock Musket, seventeenth century. Nearly 
straight, brass butted, carved stock, decorated with brass mounts in 
repousse work, representing foliations, Mid buildings and human figures. 
Steel lock-place and cock similarly enriched, ornamented brass trigger 
guard, octagonal deeply rifled barrel, 33 inches long, calibre f inches, 
long sight. Total length, nearly 48 inches. Weight, 15f Ibs. Ignition 
was accomplished by sparks generated by the friction of a steel wheel, 
notched long and crosswise, rubbing against a piece of flint, or by the 
striking of the wheel against a cube of pyrites. The lock was wound up 
by a spanner, which hung at the soldier's belt. The winding up cf the 
wheel, accumulated the energy or momentum, which became available 
when the catch connected with the trigger had liberated it for revolution. 
Benvenuto Cellini mentions a wheel-lock arquebus in 1530. This lock 
is believed to have been invented by Johann Kiefuss of Nuremberg in 
1517. The costliness of this lock, which was made in as many as ten 
separate pieces, greatly restricted its use as regarded military handguns, 
but it displaced the matchlock as a cavalry weapon, and was applied 
generally to pistols, besides being used exclusively in guns for the chase. 

No. 79. Curious old Catapult Gun. Two draped figures of Minerva 
in bronze encircle the bore. Octagonal barrel, calibre ^ inch. Johnston 

No. 80. A Flintlock Gun, Indian. Stock bound round with incrusta- 
tions of silver, which extend around and beyond the lock. The octa- 
gonal barrel, 54J inches long, is enriched with silver plating, with 
foliations in repouss6 work, extending nearly 17 inches from the muzzle, 
calibre inch. The construction of the flintlock is too familiar to need 
description. The method of extracting fire by means of a flint and steel 
is an ancient one, being mentioned both by Virgil and Pliny. The credit 
of the invention of this lock in 1614, has been claimed by France, 
but an actual specimen in the tower armoury, dated 1614, effectively 
disposes of this pretension. The musketeer continued to carry his 
match-lock gun up to the end of the seventeenth century, and even 
later, while flint locks continued in use until long after Waterloo. 

No. 81. A Flint-lock Coaching Blunderbuss, eighteenth century. 
The three-edged bayonet, held back along the barrel by a catch ; a strong 
spring shoots it forward into position when released. The barrel of 
brass is 17 inches long, and the diameter of the muzzle 2 inches. Brass 

No. 82. A Wheel-lock. The lock-plate and cock are ornamented 
with deeply-cut figures of Joseph leading an ass bearing the Virgin and 
child. They are going, led by an angel, towards some trees and a 
church. On the flashpan is the maker's mark. The main principle 
of the wheel-lock is to generate the spark which is to ignite the powder 
for firing the shot in a self-acting manner, in contradistinction to the 
principle of the wheel-lock, in which ignition is secured by a match, 
which required to be keft constantly burning. 

No. 83. A Sweyne Feather, sixteenth century. This is a gun rest 
for^cavalry. The shaft screws off at the head, disclosing a long spear or 
bayonet ofsquare section. 



' The etymology of the word is uncertain, some maintaining that the 
name arose from the weapon having been invented in Pistoja by Camillo 
Vitello, others believe that it originated from a coin of the time, the 
pistole, from the fact, if it be one, that the bore of the weapon had the 
same diameter as the coin. Brescia was a great early centre for their 
manufacture. Pistols were often combined with other weapons, both 
for warfare and the chase. 

No. 84. Pair of Wheel-lock Pistols, Commonwealth period. From 
the collection of Sir S. Rush Meyrick. 

No. 85. Flint-lock Pistol, entirely of steel. The name Alex. Allen, 
roughly engraved on the lock-plate. The stock head is in the form of 
a crown. 

No. 86. Brass Mounted Dag. 

No. 88. Small Double-barrelled Percussion Pistol. 

No. 89. A Powder Flask, sixteenth century. Exquisitely inlaid 
with bleached stags' horn. Circular in form, bound round with iron. 
Five inches in diameter. The charge-tube closes with a spring snap 
attached to which is a curved pin for clearing out the touch-hole of a 
handgun. A small centre circlet is sunk and inlaid with a four petalled 
flower, while a raised outer circle cushions round it, the latter inlaid 
with conventional flowers and foliations. The flask is fitted with two 
staples for a strap. 

No. 90. Iron Powder Flask, early seventeenth century. Sugar loaf 
in external form, with a straight back. Charge-tube arranged for a 
measured charge, by means of closing the orifice with a finger, and a 
confining spring at the bottom. The flask is ornamented with flutings 
and an inscribed shield is on the centre. 

No. 91. Powder Flask, second half of seventeenth century (with 
Suit No. 11). Graduated charge- tube. 

No. 92. Pair of antique Spur rowels of 16 points. 

No. 94-97. Trigger and lid of Flashpan Match-lock ; Flint-lock Pistol 
(Johnston Collection) ; Old Lock-plate ; Cartridge and Flint of the Old 
Brown Bess. 

No. 98. An Artillery Projectile, seventeenth century and consisting 
of a number of cast-iron balls If inches in diameter, built round a core 
of wood, and set in some sort of mortar or cement, the idea being that 
they would detach and spread out when discharged. Found by some 
fishermen off the Skaw. The Danish name for the projectile is 


' The simple form of sword with a crossguard, straight or curved, and 
an occasional thumb ring, was the rule until the sixteenth century began, 
after which time other guards were invented, and the hilt continues to 
increase in complexity until the Schiavona, a basket-hilted Venetian 
sword, had been evolved. The straight double-edged blade of the 
fifteenth century, is long, sometimes grooved or ridged and with a longer 
grip than prevailed during the century proceeding. The nomenclature 
employed to express the different guards varies a good deal, which causes 
some confusion in the mind of the student ; indeed, many of the 
expressions are inappropriate and sometimes misleading. 

No. 99. Model of a late fifteenth century hand and a half Sword. 
This weapon shows a heavy polygonally formed pommel, surmounted 
by a button. The grip is covered with leather, and wired ; quillons 


curve counterwise, and there is a ring in front and another in the rear. 
The broad double-edged blade is ridged, and tapers gently to the point. 
Length of blade, 32 inches. The usual form of the sword, up to the 
middle of the sixteenth century, is still cruciform, with or without a pas 
d'ane guard ; quillons straight or curving towards the blade, which 
tends to become narrower and lighter. The sword being now more 
easily wielded, the play became freer, and one guard after another was 
added to the hilt to protect the hand against more rapid and varied 
play ; the main factor towards the change in the countries of chivalry 
lying in the ever increasing importance of the point over the edge ; the 
former becoming by degrees the principal part of the weapon, whilst in 
the east the edge continued to maintain its predominance. There are, 
however, many swords with a greater elaboration of guards even in the 
first half of the sixteenth century, and besides, actual specimens to the 
fore, several illustrations of such hilts occur in the Triumph of Maxi- 
milian, and in other records ; but it was during the second half of the 
century that the rapier hilt became fully developed. 

No. 100. A Sword of near the middle of the sixteenth century. The 
pommel is a solid square, cut away &t the angles. The panels are 
enriched by figures, one }f them armed, and the sides and angles 
ornamented with arabesques and geometrical figures. The grip is 
enclosed in wood and wrapped round with ornamental wire. The 
knucklebow coalesces with the quillon, which curves upward ; while 
counterguards, springing from the knucklebow, meet at the head of 
the ricasso ; two side rings. This sword was intended to be held with 
one or more fingers above the quillons, and a dagger, with a similar hilt, 
in the left hand. The guards and counterguards are enriched by 
figures, trophies and arabesques. The blade is about 37 inches long by 
eleven twelfths of an inch at its broadest part, and is fluted, pierced 
with holes and gilt eleven inches along the blade from the hilt, followed 
by a further length, 2| inches, of trophies and arabesques ; beyond 
which it is plain. The "blade is of diamond section above the flu tings, 
and tapers towards the point. It is sometimes supposed that blade 
perforations such as shown in this case, were intended as a handy 
medium for the ' telling of beads,' but they were probably cut more for 
a decorative purpose and for lightening the weapon. The great two- 
handed sword appears first about the end of the fourteenth century, 
and it became a favourite weapon of the fifteenth. It was introduced 
into England in the second half of the fifteenth century, probably to- 
wards the end ; and king Henry VIII., who was an adept in its use, 
proposed its employment in one of the combats of the Field of the Cloth 
of Gold, but Francis I. would not hear of it. The sword was much used 
by the hardy mountaineers of Switzerland, and for fortress work. It 
was worn usually without scabbard and was drawn through a piece of 
leather over the shoulder. 

No. 101. A Two-handed Sword, sixteenth century. This great un- 
wieldy weapon, not far short of six feet in length, would seem to be too 
heavy and cumbersome for any effective employment against a more 
manageable sword ; but it had its greatest popularity before sword play 
had become rapid and varied. The pommel of this sword is formed like 
an inverted bell, while the grip, a foot long, swells greatly out towards 
the centre. The quillons, decorated with crowns cut in the extremities, 
curve towards the blade, which is hollowed out in the portions that may 
be termedTthe ricasso, above which are two guards. The sword is 2f 
inches broad in'its'widest^part^tapering almost insensibly to the point. 

No. 102. A Flamberge, Two-handed L Sword, with wavy-edged blade, 


sixteenth century. This handsome weapon, acquired from the Meyrick 
Collection, is about five feet long, heavy pommel, grip 14 inches in 
length, straight quillons, with knobs at the extremities, and 2 rings. 
The blade is double-edged and wavy along the edges, and it is stamped 
1566, the year of make. 

No. 104. An Executioner's Sword, German, seventeenth century. 
The pommel is circular, very heavy and flat, engraved with an eagle, 
long grip, quillons, which are unnecessary on such swords and often 
absent, are solid, square and plain, curving slightly towards the blade, 
which is double-edged, and a groove runs up the centre. The blade is 
31^ inches long, by 2J inches broad, on it are etched a death's head, 
cross-bones and a cross. There is a maker's mark, apparently a beehive. 

No. 105. A Schiavona, A Venetian sword of the sixteenth and seven- 
teenth centuries. A flattened elliptical form of basket hilt, affording 
complete protection for the hand, which can move freely. The first 
finger was passed over the quillon, and the superadded guard to protect 
it, gives the hilt an elongated form. The weapon is single-edged and 
grooved. The name is derived from the doge's Dalmatian guard. The 
sword is inscribed with the double-eagle surmounted by a crown, with 
the numerals 1734, which may be the date of the blade. This is a late 
example of what was probably the earliest form of basket hilt. The hilt 
is seven inches long, and the blade 34 inches. 

No. 106. A Scottish basket-hilted Sword. The hilt is an early type, 
and the blade is of about 1700, it is stamped with a figure, apparently 
a dagger, but the mark is much worn. 

No. 107. A hand and a half Sword, dating from towards the end of 
the sixteenth century. This is a weapon of German nationality, 
octagonal pommel, long grip, counter-curved quillons slightly S-shaped, 
knucklebow nearly joins the grip a third of the way up, with two 
branches coalescing with the lowest of the three rings, long ricasso. 
The blade is 39 inches long and on it are two indistinct marks ; it is 
embellished for a third of the distance up the blade with two parallel 
lines and a wavy line between. This hand and a half sword is often 
termed a bastard by contemporary English writers. 

No. 109. A Dalmatian Sword, seventeenth century. Knucklebow 
attached to pommel, quillon curving upwards. Counterguards con- 
solidated in shield reaching to the pommel. Stamped S. 

No. 110. A Sabre, German. Curved, grooved, single-edged blade. 
The hilt, which is late seventeenth century, had originally shells which 
are now missing, and probably a straight blade. The grip is a restora- 

No. 111. A Hunting Sword, with flint-lock Pistol in combination. 
Curved hilt of stag's horn. The pistol and hilt mounts are of brass. 
The pommel bears a grotesque human head on the face, and a lace-like 
bordering below it, whilst a similar bordering decorates the head of the 
hilt. The knucklebow is ornamented with a human head and floriations 
and it passes into the quillon which curves upwards, terminating in a 
wild-boar's head. The head of the blade is further ornamented with 
figures of a deer, and the heads of a bull and a dog. The shell bears the 
figure of a stag. Chasings on the single-edged blade are nearly rubbed 
out. The sword and pistol in combination never formed a satisfactory 

No. 113. A Sword, of the first half of the seventeenth century. Long 
quillons, knucklebow, side rings, thumb ring and superadded guards. 
Broad grooved blade. 

No. 114. A Sword, late seventeenth century, French. Heavy 


conical pommel, knucklebow^with covering branch, quillons curving 
counterwise, open shell with centre bar. Ridged double-edged blade, 
stamped with an indistinct head and two crosses, it is etched with figures 
of the sun, trophies, and fleurs de lis. 

No. 115. A Small Sword. Gilt metal hilt, enriched with medallions 
of flowers, fluted and studded, oval pommel, knucklebow, and double 
shield, one half of which stands up so that the hilt may hang flat against 
the side. Fluted blade of bayonet section, tapering to a point ; damas- 
cened a third of its length and enriched with gilt geometrical figures, 
bold foliations and trophies. 

No. 116. A Foining Estoc. Very like the type of sword now used for 
duelling in France. Oval fluted pommel, straight quillons, pas d' ane, 
surmounted by two rings. Double shield, one half of which has been bent 
up for the hilt to hang flat against the side. Three-edged blade, fluted 
on two sides and deeply grooved on the other, etched with floriations. 

No. 119. A Rapier, Italian type, seventeenth century. Knuckle- 
bow, straight quillons, pas d' ane, solid cup guard, grooved double-edged 
blade, various inscriptions, among theai * Florentia ' and ' Honor.' 

No. 120. A German Rapier, seventeenth century. Showing straight 
quillons and cup only, the latter perforated. 

No. 127. A Carving Knife. This was the sword of Robert Foster 
(Mrs. Clephan's great-grandfather), a lieutenant, in 1779, of H.M.S. 
' Pelican,' carrying 24 guns. He turned quaker and converted his 
sword into a carving knife. 

No. 129. A Sword worn by a ' Landshnecht,' or a ' Reiter,' (with Suit 
No. 7). This weapon, although not of the type known to connoisseurs as 
a Landsknecht's sword was greatly used by that fraternity. The pommel 
is a flattened pear shape and is pierced next the button with two holes. 
The grip is short for the forefinger grasps a side ring. The quillons are 
>unter- curved, one branch forming a knucklebow, unattached to the 
pommel, and a counterguard connects it with the pas d'ane, and there 
are two addditional guards. Broad, fluted double-edged, blade, 32 
inches long, tapering slightly towards the point. Cut along the gr joves 
is the inscription ' Soli Deo Gloria,' with the orb and cross. 

No. 130. A Sword, second half of seventeenth century (with Suit No. 
11.) Fluted oval pommel, straight quillons, knucklebow, joining 
pommel and coalescing with perforated half shell and thumb ring, 
double-edged blade, tapering slightly towards the point. 

No. 132. A Sabre. Talwar. Scinde. Single-edged, sharply curved 
blade, scabbard of black leather. A long leather sash-belt covered 
with richly embroidered cloth on crimson velvet. 

No. 133. A Yataghan. In brass jewelled scabbard, ivory jewelled 
hilt, with double-winged ivory pommel, gently curved, single-edged 
grooved blade, 23 inches long, slightly curved, and swelling out towards 
the point, engraved with Arabic characters and devices, set in brass 
jewelled scabbard, with side pieces, also jewelled. The ornamentation is 
tinsel work. 


The dagger, mainly an auxiliary weapon, is a short sword in great 
variety of form. It is a weapon for thrusting only. 

The form is often that of the sword in miniature, and the guards, as 

in the case of the larger weapon, are an excellent guide as to date. It is 

"imcult, sometimes, to distinguish between the sword and dagger, for 

>me of the former are short, and some of the latter long. Quite a 


number of names of >; daggers occur iii medieval records, but it is im- 
possible to be quite sure of the identity of some of them. The poniard, 
with its numerous family, is shorter than the ordinary dagger, whilst the 
Highland dirk is in great variety of form, and usually without any 
guards. It is not uncommon for daggers to be fitted with a small knife, 
or knives, like some of the Indian weapons. The military dagger was 
placed at the waist belt on the right side, and eventually merged into the 

No. 134. An Italian Stiletto. Oval pommel, straight quillons, with 
oval knobs at the extremeties. The bayonet section blade is 8 inches 

No. 135. A Poniard. Pommel, a round knob, the grip hollowed for 
a tight grasp, straight quillons with knobs, the blade is double-edged 
and sharply ridged. Length, nearly 5 inches. 

No. 136. Small Stiletto. Twisted grip, short quillons, broad ridged 
blade, tapering to a point. Length, 4 inches. 

No. 137. A Dagger. Brass mounts and beautiful agate hilt. 
Quillons curving towards the blade, figures of lions heads in the centre, 
the wings modelled as the heads of dolphins. The chased blade is 
doubled-edged and 14 inches long. 

^ No. 140. A Dagger, taken from a French prisoner of war. It was at 
the Perth depot in 1815.^ Bone grip with chain band, brass counter- 
curved quillons, blade double-edged, diamond section, 14 inches long, 
chased with trophies and foliations. 

No. 141. A Cinquedea, fifteenth century. An Italian dagger or 
sword believed to have had its origin in Verona. This example has lost 
its hilt, leaving the tang bare, quillons rounded over the blade, which is 
14 inches long by 3 inches broad just above the quillons and narrowing 
gradually to an obtuse point. It has three grooves on either side, and 
bears an indistinct stamp. 

No. 142. A Main Gauche. This is a weapon more especially of the 
second half of the sixtenth and early seventeenth centuries, and it was 
used in conjunction with the rapier, the dagger, of course, held in the 
left hand. It was difficult to parry effectively with the long rapier, and 
hence the necessity of a dagger or cloak in the left hand. In this ex- 
ample the shell is attached to the pommel, quillons curva upwards. 
The grooved double-edged blade tapers to a point. 

No. 143. A Ghurkha Kukri in blackened leather sheath. The national 
weapon of Nepaul, which, like so many others all the world over, has its 
origin in an implement of agriculture, or of the chase. This is a kind 
of bill-hook for cutting through jungle. Ivory hilt, incurved grooved 
blade with blood-notch at the head, 12 inches long by 2 inches broad 
in the widest part. In two pockets in the scabbard are two miniature 
kukries with wooden hilts, on ; for eating purposes and the other for 
sharpening the large weapon. A larger pocKet beyond conte ins a small 
sheath, presumably for carrying a charm and perhaps needles also.' 

At the conclusion of the address thanks of members were voted, 
by acclamation, to Mr. and Mrs. Clephan, on the motion of the Rev. 
C. E. Adamson, for their great kindness in receiving and entertaining 
the party, and to Mr. Ulephan for his address. Mombers then 
separate d. 





3 SER., VOL. I. 1904. No. 27. 

. The ordinary monthly meeting of the society was held in the library 
of the castle, iNewcastle, on \\eunesday, the 28th day of September, 
1904, at teven o'clock in the evening, Mr. R. C. Clephan, one of the 
vice-presidents, being in the chair. 

Several accounts, recommended by the Council for payment, were 
ordered to be paid. 

The following ordinary members were proposed and declared duly 
elected : 

i. Joseph Mawson of 10 Ravens worth Terrace, Durham, 
li. Robert Pearson Winter of 18 Eslington Terrace, Newcastle 

The following NEW BOOKS were placed on the table : 
Exchanges : 

From ' La Societe d'Archeologie de Bruxelles.' : Annales, xvm, iii 
and iv, 8vo. 

From the Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology, 
in, i : Archaeological Researches in Yucatan, by Edw. H. Thomp- 
son, large 8vo. Camb., 1904. 

Purchases : Thorpe's London Church Staves, large 8vo. cl. ; Codring- 
ton's Roman Roads in Britain ; Mackinlay's The pre-Reformation 
Church and Scottish Place Names ; Notes and Queries, No. 36-39 ; 
The Antiquary for August and September, 1904 ; and Jahrbuch 
of the Imp. Germ. Archl. Institute, Index to vols. i-x. 


Thanks were voted for the following : 

From Mr. 1. Chalkley Gould of Loughton, Essex: Two small objects of 
bone, in wooden hafts, formerly used in the straw plaiting 
districts for splitting straws for plaiting, one to split a straw into 
rive the other into eight. Mr. Gould in a letter to the secretary 
writes : ' Thejndustry is dead in Essex, but it is still carried on 
in a few places in Herts and Cambs, but the modern workers 
use instruments of iron or brass, and some old women, to whom 
I have talked, said they remembered using the bone engines 
many years ago, but not since. According to the number of 
' cogs ' so the straw is split, I send you two to show the methods 
of hafting, seven engines go to a complete set, viz., 4 to 10 cogs. 
They are hardly worth your acceptance.' 

From the Literary and Philosophical Society, Newcastle (per M r 
C. J. Spence, V.P.) : A large iron key, 9 inches long, the stem 


formed of seven small tubes soldered round a centre one. It is 
said to have come from Egypt. This memorandum was with the 
key when it was given to the Lit. and Phil., 50 or 60 years ago : 
' This key was received by me from Mr. Robson, late wharfinger 
of this town, who had it from the captain of a ship as a token of 
respect ; the captain got it from one of his crew when on a voyage 
from Alexandria. The man bought it for a trifle from a destitute 
Egyptian, who said he found it in the ruins of a tomb from which 
a mummy had been recently taken. The key has been in the 
possession of Mr. Robson and family for about eighty years.' 


By R. Blair (one of the secretaries) : A first brass Roman coin of the 
empress Faustina the younger, in very poor condition. 
It was dug up in St. Stephen's churchyard, South Shields, while 
grave making, on 9 August last. 

By Mr. F. R. N. Haswell of North Shields: A large folio service missal, 
printed at Paris in 1683, by Dionysius Thierry, bought by him 
in North Shields. At the end of the book is the device (colophon) 
of the printer, three ears of barley (?) issuing from a crescent, 
and the motto around PCENITET ^TEBNVM IVJENS NON TER 
PKOVIDA BITE. Below is a ' merchant mark,' the not uncommon 
4, issuing from a heart, with a bar across the stem, just above it. 
The letters R T are within the heart. 
Mr. Haswell read the following note : 

' The missal, which I thought might interest the members of our 
society, was in the hands of a second-hand furniture broker, etc., and 
quite by accident I noticed it. I regret that I can give no account of 
its previous owners. That the book was a service missal is indicated 
by the ribbon tabs attached to those leaves which were most in use 
whether for the musical tones or text and it would appear as though 
it had remained carefully preserved for these 220 years, in hands that 
valued it. The former owner had placed in the corner of the last fly leaf 
his name and how it came into his possession. ' Thomas Gooch j Ex 
Dono | Dnse Rebeccac Lone j Avunculi Relictje.' This writing is pro- 
bably of about 1700. The interest attaching to the book is a MS. not 
of about the date of the publication, i.e. 1683, which reads as follow :- 
' Addendum ultimse Collect* in fine Missae Et famulos tuos summum 
Pontificem Innocentium Regem nostrum Jacobum, Reginam iiostram 
Mariam, et Reginam Catherinam, nos et cunctum populum Christianum 
ab omni adversitate semper, et ubique custodi, pacem, et salutem nostris 
concede temporibus, et ab ^Ecclesia tua cunctam repelle nequitiarn. 
Per Dominum nostrum, etc.' At this time it may not be out of place 
to mention the revival of the Jacobite Legitimist idea, as shewn by the 
institution of ' The Order of the White Rose.' James II., who was de- 
posed in 1688 and died in 1718, married first Anne Hyde the daughter of 
the ea~l of Clarendon, but of their 8 children, 6 died before he married, as 
his second wife, in 1673, Mary Beatrix, 1 daughter of Alphonsus III. duke of 
Modena ; by her he had one son James, who married Clementina Sobieski, 
granddaughter of John III. of Poland ; she had two sons, Charles (called 
by the Jacobites the third of that name) who died in 1788, without issue, 
and cardinal Henry Benedict (whom they call Henry IX), who died in 
1807. Hence it is requisite to go back to James the second's own family 
for a successor ; his sister Mary married the prince of Orange, whose son 

i This is the Mary of the collect, while the Catherine is the widow of Charles II, 
who died in 1685 hence the collect was written before then. 


being a protestant (to which faith by the law of succession, as settled in 
1701, the crown was limited), became king, and married his cousin Mary, 
the elder of the two daughters of James II. by his first wife ; they had no 
family, and the crown passed to queen Mary's younger sister Anne, who 
married George of Denmark. All their 13 children died young. Here 
the Jacobites say the succession should have gone to the great Charles 
Emanuel IV, king of Sardinia, whom they dub Charles IV. He died s. p. 
His brother Victor Emanuel succeeded him. Ho left daughters, 
the eldest of whom Mary Beatrix Victoria (styled Mary III) married 
her own uncle, Francis, duke of Modena, despite this the Jacobites 
include the son Francis, whose niece, born in 1849 is styled Mary IV; 
she married in 1868, Louis Leopold, the eldest son of the prince regent of 
Bavaria, and they arc blessed with 13 children. It should be noted that 
according to English law, the marriage of the so-called Mary IV. is 
illegal, she having married her uncle. Hence they may see that an 
alteration is requisite, in which case Robert Charles Louis Marie de 
Bourbon, titular duke of Parma, would be the next in line of succession, 
probably under the title of Robert I. of England, and IV. of Scotland. 
Fortunately the protestant succession was upheld through the cousin 
of James II, Sophia, electress of Hanover, and we have the happiness 
to live under the rule of his gracious Majesty Edward VII, a? her lineal 


So few members being present owing to the visit of the Channel Fleet, 
it was determined to adjourn to a future meeting the discussion of the 
question mentioned in te last annual report as ' to the best mode of 
advancing the work of the Society by means of popular lectures on 
archaeological subjects during the winter session, or in any other way.' 
Mr. Heslop (one of the secretaries), however, read the following 
letter addressed to him by Mr. Dendy, V.P., on the subject : 

' I have your postcard from the secretaries of the Society of Anti- 
quaries as to enlisting public interest in the pursuits of the society, 
and also the circular for Wednesday suggesting that popular lectures 
should be essayed to that end. I do not think I can attend the 
meeting, and perhaps it is as well that I should not for I am, to say 
the least, doubtful whether either the idea or the plan suggested for 
carrying it out is desirable. In my view the Society would be more 
efficient if it were a smaller society possessing a larger proportion of 
members with special qualifications and tastes, and I think that they 
should be occupied in researches and in investigating and recording 
antiquarian facts not in a popular and superficial but in a dry correct 
and lasting way. It seems to me that we are already deterioriating 
in standing and efficiency by having too many ornamental members 
and too few antiquaries. I think we already run too many shows, 
are reported quite enough in the local papers, and do too little useful 
work. I venture to submit "that not only is it outside our duty as a 
Society of Antiquaries to dish up old facts or fictions for popular con- 
sumption, but that to do so would tend still further to reduce our 
already low standard of work and production.' 

The chairman said as it was proposed to discuss the matter at a future 
meeting, I had intended reserving my remarks until then, but as Mr. 
Dendy's letter had been read, I may as well say that I totally disap- 
proved of any departure from our role as a learned society, which lay in 
the careful collection of materials for history, certainly not in popular 



The following document, which Mr. Nelson, in whose collection it is, 
thinks is in the handwriting of John Buddie, l is endorsed 'Mr. Mowbray' s 
account of the Wharfage, &c., at Blythe, county of Northumberland.' 
Mr. Mowbray was the agent of the bishop of Durham : 

A. A Quay Public^House and three Cottages called Steath House (or 
Steath House Quay) of which Jos. Gatty and Willm. Waller were Lessees 
under the Lord Bishop of Durham. Gatty and Waller about five years 
ago were Bankrupts, when these premises were Purchased by Sir Mattw. 
White Ridley, Bart. 


When Gatty and Waller were in Possession these Premises were of 
considerable Value, being the Quay or Steath for shipping the Coals, 
worked at Bedlington Colliery but when purchased by Sir Matthew 
the Colliery was laid in. It seems now to be used for a Quay where Ran 
Limestones are delivered for the use of the neighbouring Farmers (for 
which the vessells pay one Shilling per arm: for delivering them) the 
Farmers pay 2/6 per ton for the stones," sometimes Timber and Iron are 
delivered there. As I am informed Sr. Mattw. does not at Present 
receive above 12 per annum from these Premises, but if the Colliery 
should again be opened this Wharfage, Anchorage, &c., would be of 
considerable Value. 

Sherburn, 12thNov r 1797 

Arthur Mowbray. 

l See life of him in Welfare's Men of Mark 'turixt Tyne and Tweed, i. 425. 

Proc. Soc. Antiq. Newc. 3 ser. i. 

To face page 261. 








3 SEE., VOL. I. 1904. No. 28. 

The third afternoon meeting of the season was held on the 29th day of 
September, 1904, at 


Members and friends assembled at Bishop Auckland railway station 
at 3 p.m. on the arrival of the train leaving Newcastle at T45 p.m., 
and proceeded, in the conveyance which was awaiting them, to 


Before reaching the church, the interesting seventeenth century 
mansion-house, the ancient seat of the Carrs, was passed ; of this family 
was Cuthbert Carr, 1 one of the defenders of Newcastle, who built the 
older portion of the house. His epitaph is to be found in the church, 
where he was buried in front of the communion table, as follows : 
Cuthbertus Carre de Aukland | Sanctse Hellenae Armig r | obiit 18 die 
Decemb' Anno ^Etatis suse 79 | AfLo Dni 1697.' In the register his 
burial is thus recorded : ' Cuthbert Carr buried on the xxth day of 
December, 1697.' He was one of the governors of Bishop Auckland 
grammar-school, having been elected by the governors, in place of 
Richard Lilburn, on 7 June, 1661 ; he of ten attended the'meetmgs, and 
signed the minute book. At the close of the eighteenth century the 
house was occupied by a sisterhood of Teresian nuns. 

At the church members were met by the Rev. J. V. Kemp, vicar of 
Escombe, who, in the unavoidable absence of the Rev. J. Roscamp, 
described the church. The very interesting registers and the com- 
munion plate were shewn in the parvise over the porch now used as a 
vestry. On previous visits of members, the 'church was described 
by the Rev. J. F. Hodgson, vicar of Witton-le-Wear ; for which 
see these Proceedings (n. 98, and vn. 63). The communion plate 
and bells are described in volume iv, pages 22 and 24, respectively. 
The following curious entry, written by the curate, is in one of the 
registers: ' Edward Wright" the lawyer, was buried the 11 th day of 
May, 1647. * Woe unto lawyers, for ye have taken away the key of 
knowledge : yee entered not in yourselves, and them that were entering 

i For a full and complete account of him, see hia life in Welford's MtnofMark 
twixt Tyne and Tweed, I, 469. 


in yee kindred.' Luke 11, v. 52. ' Ye have, namely, by your arts and 
usurpation, ye have appropriated unto yourselves the power of ex- 
pounding the law of God ; captivating men's consciences to your 
opinions, and spoyling them of all liberty of judgment and knowledge. 
By the Rev. and godly divine Mr. John Diodati, minister of the gospel, 
and now living in Geneva.' Another entry informs us that on the night 
of the 4 February, 1647, ' onr glorious King Charles laid ' at Christopher 
Dobson's 2 house in Bishop Auckland. 

In the graveyard is a small tombstone bearing the pathetic inscription: 
' POOR CHARLES | died March the | 9 th , 1785.' The tradition is that 
it refers to a poor negro, and that a woman in the village erected 
the memorial from pity. 

In 1303 the metes and bounds of common of pasture between the 
subjects of the king and those of Bek, bishop of Durham, were fixed. 
At the vill of St. Helen Auckland, West Auckland and Lotrington, 
they were from the moor of Brusteldon to the ' sikel ' ' of Quere,' to 
Ronedick, and thence to West Auckland and St. Helen Auckland, the 
fish-pond of Wydop to be in common for the cattle of the said vills. 
The vill of St. Helen Auckland granted forty feet on each side of their 
' loning,' to enlarge as towards the north wood, and the three parts of the 
whole field of Walter de Berrrteton, lying nearest to the vill of St. Helen 
Auckland, for commoning throughout the year for all manner of cattle, 
the common of pasture of the fourth part remaining in the hands of 
Walter, after the crop had been carried away. A field towards Witton is 
also mentioned, in a ' loning ' leading towards Witton between two oaks, 
the Crookedoak and the Broadoak. The field of Thomas de Bolton 
and William Dodde, as being the outlet for Escum and from Northeland 
is also referred to. 4 

In the seventeenth century William Gargrave of ' St. Elin Auckland,' 
appears amongst the recusants. 

The following are a few notes, from different sources, relating to the 
church and its ministers : 

On 17 January, 1533-4, John Heron appeared before the Court and 
said that Henry Dickson was not a man of good name as he ' did 
breake the churche of West Awkelande, and toke forthe of the same a 
chalice and certayne bookes and money,' for which he did open penance. 

After the rebellion of 1569, on the second Sunday in Advent, John 
Burnop of St. Helen's Auckland, was examined respecting the saying of 
mass in the church there, by 'on Georg White,preist.' This man went into 
the pulpit, and preaching against the established religion,' he willed them 
to revert to the church of Roome ; and therupon he red absolucion in the 
Pop his nayme to all the people.' Amongst those present was ' Mestres 
Eden,' wife of Sir Robert Eden, who sat in the quire, ' usyng such rever- 
end gestur as was commonly used at masse.' This was confirmed by 
other witnesses. In 1588 Sir Peter Tayler was charged by William 
Whitmore, gen., for defamation, he having said to Mrs. Whitmore that 

2 Christopher Dobson was an important man in his time, being churchwarden, 
trustee of Cosins's charity, &c. The tombstone to the memory of his wife, inscribed 
'To the memory of Anne, wife of Christopher Dobson, Decem. 23, 1641,' now under the 
east window of St. Andrew Auckland church, is the oldest one in the churchyard. 

3 In the cathedral church at Aix-la-Chapelle, is a slab inscribed with the equally 
simple inscription CAROI.O MAGNO. Let us hope that 'Poor Charles' rests as 
quietly in the peaceful and retired graveyard of St. Helen's Auckland, as the Great 
Charles ' (Charlemagne) rests in the magnificent church at Aix. Both epitaphs contrast 
strongly with the long and fulsome inscriptions of more modern times, 
< Reg. Pal. Dun. IT, 33. 


her ' husband is an undewtifull subject to his^Prince, and he loks for 
the day of popery. . . .but you will be deceyved.' This was proved by 
witnesses. 5 

At the chancellor's visitation of 6 February, 1578, William Caise, the 
unlicensed curate of St. Helen's chapel, John Burnet, the parish clerk, 
and William Browne, John Burnehop, and Gerard Vicars, the church- 
wardens, were present. At the chancellor's visitation cf 29 th July of the 
same year, the said curate was excused tha task (the gospel of St. 
Matthew). He was also present at the general chapter held in Auckland 
St. Andrew's church on the 28 January, 1579. On 8 March of the same 
year, the office of the judge against Umfrey Humble and Thomas 
Hogeson who refused to pay I2d. for absence from church, the case was 
dismissed. In August, 1580, office of the judge against Jane Lazenby, 
widow, William Lazonby, Cecily Lazonby, wife of George Lazonby, and 
Dorothy Lazonby, ' All theise did not receyve the hollye Communion 
at Midsommer no we last past, by cause that M r John Welburye and 
George Lazenbye are not at concord.' To appear at Auckland. 6 

By his will of 20 June, 1584, Robert Eden of West Auckland, desired 
to be buried ' within the queare of St. Ellyn's church ' ; he gave ' to 
the poore men's boxe ther 3s. 4d.' He gave the lands which he had in 
reversion in St. Ellen Auckland, being 10Z. a year, to his wife, if she shall 
fortune to survive Mistres Constable.' 15 The Edens are a family of some 
antiquity in the county of Durham, the present head being Sir William 
Eden of Windleston. 7 

On 30 January, 1633, John Vaux of St. Helen's, clerk, who had been 
curate from 1616, appeared on letters missive before the Court of High 
Commission for sundry misdemeanors. The articles against him were 
that he had yearly exposed for sale certain almanacks 8 which lay on 
the communion table, had ' practized the art of casting of figures, thereby 
pretending he could tell what was becomen of stolen goodes, which he 
did sometymes at the communion table, and did make and contrive 
scurulous libells and epigrams. Many witnesses were examined. Joseph 
Cradock, gent., one of them, said when he was at service on a Sunday 
forenoon he saw ' a companie of litle small bookes lyinge upon the 
communion table, etc., he knew Vaux wase indited before his Majestys 
justices itenerrant ' for casting of figures and found guilty, he told him 
that notwithstanding he would still continue and would justify the 
same by scripture to be lawful. ' Did not Samuell tell Saul what was 
becomen of his father's asses.' Another witness said Vaux told him he 
was as much entitled to his fee of 5s. as any lawyer. Vaux shewed him 
a written book in which were verses against Sir George Tonge, knight, 
such as 

' All deep tuned bells calls Tonge that upstart knight, 
But there be few or none that cann sound justice right,' 

Sir Charles Wrenn, knight, of Binchester, and divers other gentlemen, 
He sent the witness a paper and he ' did therein tearme this examinate 
to bacon, and said, he would never doe good till he were hanged.' Other 

5Dep. & Eccl. Proc. (21 Surt, Soc. pnbl.), 49, 181, 330. 
6 Eccl. Proc. of Bishop Barnes, (22 Surt. Soc. publ.), 45, 60, 75, 95, 115, 127. 

7 Wills fc Inv., II (38 Surt. Soc. publ.), 105 & n. 

8 Iu possession of Mr. Ralph Nelson of Bishop Auckland, is one of the little 
almanacks, similar to those sold by the vicar in 1633. This, however, is of a later date 
(1665). A title page in the middle of the little pamphlet reads :' Vaux, 1665. j A 
PROGNOSTICATION | or | an appendix to the precedent Calendar for | this piesent 
Year of Grace, 1C65, &c., &c. | Composed by John Vaux t oJ Bishop Auck- \ land, Well- 
wisher to the Mathematicians. | London : Printed by A. Maxwell for | the Company 
of STATIONERS, 1665.' 


witnesses saidthat they had gone to Vaux and paid him.f ees,one touching 
a horse course, and which horse would win the match, etc., etc. One 
man who had lost a mare said Vaux told him to go to Peddams Oak 
where he would find it, which he^did, but Vaux would take no pay. 
Many other witnesses were examined, their evidence being to like pur- 
port.^ It is all set out in the records of the Court of High Commission 
for Durham. On 7 November the Court decided that the case had been 
proved, and^the^vicar was suspended for three years and ordered to be 
imprisoned in Durham gaol during the pleasure of the commissioners 
and to pay costs. On' 12 December he was released. On 29 April, 1634, 
Mr. Robert Cowper, the curate in charge pro tempore, petitioned the 
court for ' some competent percion of the stipend . . for his serveinge the 
cure.' The commissioners ordered that owing to the poverty of Vaux, 
who had no other t means or livelihood to maintain himself, his wife, and 
children, L he should have 4Z. a year and should ' accept of the house 
and churchyard at 40s. in part thereof,' and that Mr. Cowper have the 
rest of the stipend. On 11 December Vauxjpetitioned for restitution, 
and the commissioners after mature deliberation and of ' the want of 
Vaux which he had endured since his suspension,' decreed to absolve 
him ; and on 19 March, 1635, he was dismissed finally.' 9 
&_ On 12 August, 1633, John Vaux, the curate, who was then 58, gave 
evidence in a case in the same court against Marie Daniell, a spinster, 
for adultery with John Eden, esquire. In the same case Lamp ton 
Downes of Evenwood, who had married a daughter of Eden gave 
evidence of what he saw on Easter Sunday on their return from St. 
Helen's Auckland chapel. Mary Daniel submitted and was ordered to 
confess her offence in four different churches, one of them being St. 
Helen's Auckland church on Sundays ' in lining apparrell, bare head 
& foot,' and pay a fine of 201. 10 

On 26 October, 1673, Officium Domini against Anthony Applebey, 
Margery Bowes, John Winter, and Catherine his wife, Barbara Wain- 
man, Anthony Gargrave, Margaret Dickinson, and Elizabeth Dickinson, 
for absenting themselves from church, being Papists. At Michaelmas, 
1681, Archdeacon Granville held a visitation in the church. 11 

At the time of bishop Chandler's visitation, 'supposed in 173G/ Mr. 
Taylor was curate of 'S. Hellen.' There were 246 families in the 
chapelry, of which one was Anabaptist, and two were Quakers. There 
were no papists. 

The Rev. Richard Taylor, the curate [1722-1768], replied to the 
bishop of Durham's queries of 1 May, 1758, that he resided personally 
and constantly upon his cure, and in the curate's house ; that he had 
no assistant ; that he ' read the Publick Service every Lord's Day, with 
Sermon in the forenoon twixt ten & twelve, and the Evening Service 
immediately after two, every day in Lent and every Holy Day thro out 
the year ' ; that ' Thro out Lent and as oft on Sunday Evenings as any 
children come to be examined, and on Wedensdays and Fridays thro 

9 Court of High Comm. (34 Surt. Soc. publ.), 34-42, 44-48. It is thus recorded in the 
register : 'Mr. John Vaux our Minister was suspended from his Ministrie vpon 
Thursday the seventh day of Nouember, 1633.' Thisisfollowed by ' Mr. John Vaux our 
Minister (who was suspended from his ministrie vpon Thursday the seventh day of 
JNouember 1633) was absoluecl and restored to his'Ministiie again vpon Thursday the 
xith day of december 1634 during which time Mr. Robert Cowper of Durham serued in 
his place & left out diuers Christnings vniecorded & regestred others disorderly'. 

This is signed by John Vaux. 

10 According to an entry in the register there was 'giuen by Mr. John Eden, 
esquire, for a commutation of his offence with Mary Daniel, v'i.' 

HZ>an Granville's Letters, <fcc., u (47 Surt. Soc. publ.), 83, 214. 


Lent ; ' that there were ' above 200 Familes in the Parish, and on Good 
Friday 80, on Easter Day about the same number of Communicants ' ; 
and that there was ' a Register Book of parchment for Christenings, 
Burials, and Marriages regularly kept according to Cannon and Law in 
that case provided.' L * 

On 24 September, 1780, the Rev. William Ironside, the curate 
[1780-1785] gave ' W m Mallum, Yeoman, West Auckland, and James 
Handby, Blacksmith, Evenwood,' as the papists in the chapelry. 12 

In a petition to the bishop, the Rev. James Todd, the sub-curate, 
asks the bishop for ' a small augmentation of his salary .... Thirty 
Pounds per year being the utmost extent of his Income without the 
benefit of one Mite from Weddings, Churchings, or Burials, the salary 
being so small and having a Sickly Wife and small children,' that he 
' cannot live on it though in the most parsimonious manner without a 
derogation to the Cloth.' He concludes by trusting to the bishop's 
' pious care and Heaven long continue your Lordship an ornament to 
the Church and Crown your Lordship with the reward of a glorious 
Immortality.' The truth of the petition was vouched for by a number 
of the parishioners including ' James James,' who, in sending the peti- 
tion to the bishop, wrote a special letter on the subject, which is dated 
17 June, 1785. About this time the curate, Mr. Ironside, was ' in so 
precarious a State of Health that his Dissolution is very soon expected,' 
and so the churchwardens, and a large number of the parishioners, 
petitioned the bishop to appoint Mr. Todd, 'who had been sub-curate 
for more than ten years,' to the living on the death of Mr. Ironsides. 
It is stated in the petition that ' the Emoluments of the Living are 
estimated at or about . . sixty pounds, out of which the said sub-curate 
receives the low salary of thirty pounds, not only for his own Mainten- 
ance, but also for that of a Wife and three small Children.' A veritable 
case of ' passing rich on thirty pounds a year.' The petition appears 
to have had effect, as on the death of Mr. Ironsides shortly after, Mr. 
Todd was appointed to the curacy. His troubles do not appear to 
have been ended by his appointment, for on 14 September, 1808, he 
wrote to the bishop asking him to pardon any blunders as his ' head 
was much confused for want of sleep, and on account of the long delay 
in a suit against the tithe improprititors and others, ' in so much my 
Right being so long with held, makes me feel Food and Raiment of very 
difficult acquisition, and a clergyman in Debt does not meet with that 
Respect due to his holy Function.' He then thanks the bishop for his 
generous help, and continues ' I have often had thought of making 
application to Lord Crewe's Trustees (as their fund is strong)' for an 
allowance of 40Z. or 501. towards the ' expenses of repairing my old 
House which in fact is become so ruinous, that it is with some difficulty 
I can prevail with a Mason to go upon it to put me on a Tile, the roof is 
so very much decay' d. . . .that when a strong west wind comes upon it, 
the crackling noise it makes is truly frightful, in so much that we 
cannot rest for fear of its falling in.' The action respecting the tithes 
was against William Taylor, George Taylor, 13 Luke Seymour and 
William Robinson. They wrote to William Emm, the bishop's resident 
agent, on 23 September, 1808, denying that anything was due, as the 
claim had been made when the lands were not under crops, and that the 
claim resolved itself into one of agistment only. *~ 

Even as late as 1834 when the Rev. Matthew Chester was the curate, 

12 From the MSS. in the collection of Air. Ralph Nelson of Bishop Auckland, 
is George Taylor was the father of the well-known Sir Henry Taylor, and biographer 
of Surtees. 


the clear yearly value of the living was only 134Z., but by deed dated 13 
September of that year, a copy of which was deposited in the bishop's 
registry, the bishop of Durham (Van Mildert) annexed unto the perpetual 
curacy for the purpose of augmenting the stipend, several plots of land 
in the township of North Bondgate in Bishop Auckland, of which the 
clear annual value was 802. The mines and minerals were excepted 
from the grant. 12 These lands became valuable. The workhouse 
stands on a part of them. 

Members again took their places in the carriage, and the journey was 
resumed to 


where^the extremely interesting early Saxon church, built of ' diamond- 
broached, tooled and other stones from the Roman camp at Binchester, 
was examined under the guidance of Mr. Kempe, the vicar, who read 
a few notes on the structure, including some letters from professor 
Baldwin-Brown, who is of the opinion that the chancel arch was removed 
bodily from the Roman camp and re-erected in pre-conquest times in the 
church ; he also pointed out the peculiarity in the lintel of the north door, 
'as a Roman survival,' and compares a Romar. doorway at Cilurnum with 
it ; 'in Saxon work it occurs in the northern archway of the two Saxon 
ones in Britford church near Salisbury.' In a second letter professor 
Brown notes that ' the stones forming the imposts of the chancel arch 
are not of the same thickness, that on the south being the thicker of the 
two. That is to say a portion of the upright jamb is cut out jf the 
impost stone under the chamfer on the south, while en the north side 
the chamfer comes down to the bottom of the stone. . . .The point is of 
some interest as the arrangement occurs in Roman work.' The building 
has been more than once described in the transactions of the society, and 
members are referred to Arch. Aeliana, vin, 281, and x, 90, and to these 
Proc. m, 42, and vn, 53. See als--; the Reliquary for April, 1904, (vol 
vin, No. 2) for a description <A the building by Mr. C. C. Hodges which 
professor Ba'dwin-Brown thinks ' quite the best written account of the 
church ' 

Members did not see the old registers, as they were away for the purpose 
of being copied with a view to publication, but the communion plate 
was examined. A description of this may be seen in these Proceedings 
(iv, 16.). 

The following are a few notes, from different sources, relating to 
Esccmb : 

John de Escomb received the first tonsure from the hands of Richard, 
bishop of Bisaccia, acting for the bishop of Durham, at Auckland, on 
21 December, 1342. 

In queen Elizabeth's time the college of Akelande was dissolved and 
in the queen's hands, but was of the patronage and gift of the bishop of 
Durham ; in it were the prebends of West Auckland, which was worth, 
according to the Clams Ecclesiastica, vij7. iiijs. [30Z.], and of Escombe, xZ. 
' St. Helynes Akelande [a chappel to South Church],' and Escombe also 
a chapel to South Church, being without incumbents were served by 
stipendiary priests. 

At the chancellor's visitation of 6 February, 1578, Thomas (blank), 
curate of ' Eskeham,' was excused ; Richard Burrell and James Addison, 
the churchwardens, attended. At the chancellor's visitation of 29th 
July, 1578, the task being the Gospel of St. Matthew, Thomas Man, the 

Proc. Soc. Antiq. Newc. 3 ser. I. 

To face page 266. 

From a photograph by Mr. A. L. Steavunson of Holywell Hall, Durham. 


curate of Escomb, was excused. He was present at the general chapter 
of 28 June, 1579. On 8 March, 1578-9, the office of judge against John 
Thompson and Ralph Downes, churchwardens, ' They lacke the Postils.' 
They also lacked ' my Lord's Monicions.' In April, 1579, the office of the 
judge against Cuthbert Harrisone and Anthony Maddisone, ' They were 
at varyaunce aboute a stall in the churche to the moste unquietnes of 
the people beinge ther present the 15 daye of Marche, being Sunday, 
1578.' It was proved to be true and therefore they were suspended. 1 

By his will of 25 November 1584, ' Henry Dowenes,' of the parish of 
Escombe, desired to be buried in the parish church of St. Andrew 
Auckland. The different articles of clothing, etc., given to various 
people are set out ; for instance, to his brother Robert Baynes, his 'raper 
with hingers,' to his brother Raphe Dowens, his best ' morray britches ' 
and 'a paire of blewe boote hoose,' his girdle and dagger, to Edward 
Lynne, his long sword. Ralph Downes, his brother, to whom he left 10s. 
by his v/ill of 6 June, 1588, desired to be buried in the church of Escomb, 
to the poor of which place he gave 12s. These were members of a 
respectable family of yeomen settled at Escombe and Evenwood. 2 

Thomas Trotter, B.A., was ordained deacon in 1661 at York, and 
appointed to the curacy of Escomb. On 18 May, 1673, Offlcium 
Domini against Thomas Trotter, churchwarden, for not conferring 
about presentments. In 1688 the declaration of the accession of William 
of Orange was read in ' Escam ' Church. 4 

At the time of bishop Chandler's visitation in 1736, Mr. Smith was 
curate of Escomb. There were 35 families in the chapelry, of which 
four were Anabaptists. There were no papists. 

Thomas Capstick, who was at the time curate of Escomb, replied to 
the queries of the bishop -A Durham of 16 May, 1801. He stated that 
he resided constantly at Bishop Auckland, a mile distant from his cure, 
and he had a curate named George Mounsey in priest's orders, who 
served his cure at Escomb, for which and for his assistance at St. 
Andrew Auckland, he allowed him 30Z. a year, ' the duty performed in 
the church of Escomb is Three Sundays in the month, between the 
hours of Two and Four o'clock in the aftermon ' : thgt there was no 
house belonging t-. the curate of Escomb ; that the parish register, 
according to the form the bishop recommended at his visitation in 1797, 
was ' duly kept & a fair & accurate copy of it annually transmitted to 
the Registrar according to the Injunction of the 70th canon,' that there 
were no papists or popish priests resident in the parish ; that there 
were ' no Methodists nor Dissenters of any Rank in the Parish .... nor 
any Persons (to my knowledge) who profess to disregard Religion or 
who totally absent themselves from public worship ' ; and that there 
was only one small unendowed school in the village consisting of about 
20 young children of both sexes, ' The Master jf which has a good moral 
Character & instructs them in the Principles of the Christian Religion 
according to the Doctrines of the Church of England.' 5 

Escc-mb was held with St. Andrew Auckland until 1827 when Robert 
Thompson, master of the Auckland Grammar School, was appointed to 
the chapelry. He held it until 1847, when he was succeeded by the 
honble. Lewis William Denman, a son of lord Denman, being succeeded 
in his turn in 1848 by Henry Atkinson. The Rev. T. E. Lord followed in 

1 Ecel. Proc. of Sithop Barnet, 2, 3, 60, 95, 115, 118, 9. 

2 Wills <k Inv. II (38fSurt. Soc. publ.), 106, 7 & 9. 

s Bithop Cosiris Corresp. II (55 Surt. Soc. publ.), 35. 

4 Dean Oranville's Letters, etc., II (47 Surt. Soc. publ.), 147, 224. 

From the MS. in the collection of Mr. R. Nelson. 


1867 and was incumbent for 30 years. Many members will remember 
him as the repairer of the Saxon church in which he took such intense 
interest. At his death in 1897, the present vicar, the Rev. J. V. Kemp, 
was appointed to the living. 

Mr. H. W, Thorburn of Bishop Auckland,|has in his^possession a 
quarter noble of Edward III, found near Escomb in 1888. 6 

After thanking Mr. Kemp for his kindness in acting as guide to the 
party, both at his own church and at that of St. Helen's Auckland, 
Escombe was left, and most of the visitors were driven to Bishop 
Auckland, which they left by trains for their respective destinations. 

Amongst those present were Dr. and Mrs. Laws, and Mr. R. S. Nisbet, 
of Newcastle ; Mr. and Mrs. H. T. Rutherford, and Mr. T. and the 
Misses (2) Williamson, of North Shields; Mrs. C. Hopper of Croft; Mr. 
Sainty of Hartlepool ; Mr. and Mrs. Edleston, Miss Edleston, Mr. W. H. 
Wardell, Mr. S. M. Wardell and Miss K. Wardell, from Gainford ; Mr. 
H. W. Thorburn and Mr. John Thompson, of Bishop Auckland ; and 
Mr. R. Blair and Miss Gladys Blair, of Harton. 

6 Transactions of the Weardale Naturalists' Club, i, 183. 


The Scottish Historical Review for October, 1904 (p. Ill), contains, 
amongst other able articles, one on the Scottish peerage, and also a 
review (p. Ill) of an article in the American Historical Review for 
July, 1904, which Dr. Lapsley, the well-known writer of the able work 
on the Durham palatinate, has recently contributed to that review on 
' cornage ' and * drengage.' He discusses the Durham evidence, and 
explains cornage as a mere incident of unfree tenure, or a seigniorial 
due not incumbent on the whole of the bishopric, but occurring only 
in vills which had pasture. In other words, it was a payment for the 
agistment of cattle on the lord's land, such payment having been first 
rendered in kind and afterwards by a composition in money. In the 
twelfth century it became a burdon on the soil. In the time of Henry I 
the men of Northumberland regarded cornage simply and solely as a 
burden or service inherent on their tenure. 

The October part of The Reliquary has recently been issued. Under 
the able editorship of Mr. Romilly Allen it keeps up its reputation. 
Amongst many articles, all well illustrated, is one on pre-Norman 
remains in the Dovedale district, including the standing crosses in 
Ham churchyard ; another article deals with the ' Medallic portraits 
of Christ.' But the most interesting is the paper by Mr. W. G. Collihg- 
wood, with illustrations from photographs by members of the party, 
being an account of 'the very successful trip][to the Hebrides of the 
Cumberland society, in Whitsun week of this year, when not only lona 
but the ''more distant and out of the way islands, on which are early 
remains, were visited. 


Page 226, line 1 of note, for ' feet ' read '.inches.' 






3 SEB., VOL. I. 1904. No. 29. 

The ordinary monthly meeting of the society was held in the library 
of the Castle, Newcastle, on Wednesday, the 26th day of October, 1904, 
at seven o'clock in the evening, Mr. Richard Welford, M.A., one of the 
vice-presidents, being in the chair. 

Several accounts, recommended by the Council for payment, were 
ordered to be paid. 

The following ORDINARY MEMBER was proposed and declared duly 
elected : 

George Lovaine Kerr Pringle, M.D., Whitley, Northumberland. 

The following NEW BOOKS, &c., were placed on the table : 

Presents, for which thanks were voted : 

From Mr. Thomas Chandler of Newcastle : The Registers of Morden, 
Surrey, (Par. Reg. Soc.) 8vo. 

From Mr. Matthew Mackay : Proceedings of the Berwickshire 
Naturalists Club for 1853, 8vo. 

From the Royal Numismatfc Society : The Numismatic Chronicle, 
two parts (to complete this society's set). 

From Mr. W. Crake, Holmeside, Sunderland : A framed portrait of 
the Rev. Jas. Everett, an early member of the society, who pre- 
sented to it most of the fine carved oak furniture in the castle. 

From Mr. Edgar A. Lee : Four large photographs, three of them 
being views, from different points, of the Plummer tower, and 
one of the Blackgate shewing the portions recently uncovered 
next the Side. 

Exchanges : 

From the Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society : 

Transactions for 1903, xxvi, ii, 8vo. 
From the Royal Numasmatic Society : The Numismatic Chronicle, 

4 ser., no. 15, 8vo. 
From the Thuringian Historical Society : Zeitschrift, N.S. xiv, ii, 

and xv, i., 8vo. 
Purchases: The Parish Registers of Tynemouth, pp, 121-260; 

The Jahrbuch of the Imp. Germ. Arch. Institute ; The Reliquary 

and The Antiquary for October, 1904 ; Notes and Queries, Nos. 

40-43 ; and The Scottish Historical Review, parts i-v, large 8vo. 


^.TOn the][recommendation of the council it was decided to purchase 
The House of Percy, by Gerald Brenan, for 10s. ; and The House of 
Douglas, by Sir Herbert Maxwell, bart., for the same sum ; and Bede, 
by Canon Rawnsley, published in cloth at 2s. 6d. 


Thanks were voted for the following^gifts : 

From Dr. T. M. Allison : A specimen of an old Northumbrian flail 

from Whitfield. 

_ Dr. Allison thus described it : The Northumbrian flail which 1 have 
much pleasure in presenting to the society, was obtained for me by Mr. 
Hall at Whitfield, fourteen miles west of Hexham. It answers to the 
description given in Mr. Heslop's Northumberland Words, which is as 
follows : ' The Northumberland flail consists of a ' handstaff ' 3ft. 9in. 
to 4ft. long, having a smooth eye in the end. Through this eye, and 
through a loop of cow-hide lashed to the end of a moveable arm, passes 
a leather ' couplin.' The moveable arm is 3ft. long, and is called the 
4 swingle ' or ' soople.' The loop of cow-hide is called the ' heudin,' 
and its lashing is held by being passed through two holes in the end. 
The ' handstatf ' is of ash, peeled smooth. The ' soople ' is made of any 
tough wood having the bark left on.' The only slight additions one 
can add to the above description, are to draw attention to the way the 
' couplin ' is secured by passing one end through a slit in the other 
extremity, and forcing through a hole in the threaded end, a wooden 
peg, constricted in its middle. This wooden peg securing the single 
strap of leather as described, is typical of Cumberland and Northum- 
berland, while the perforated handstaff is characteristic of Northum- 
berland, Cumberland, and Scotland generally. In the museum of 
the society are two Northumbrian flails which differ from this example 
in having iron swivels, instead of the perforation or eye at the end of 
the handstaff, and they are probably of more recent date. I therefore 
thought the society might like what one may term a typical example of 
the old-fashioned threshing implement formerly common in the county. 

From Mr. Philip Truttman : (i) A 'large dagger or Machete ; and 
(ii) A short knife or Cuchilla, in sheath ; in use in the Argentine 
republic, South America. They are interesting from the cir- 
cumstance that their prototypes were introduced into the new 
world by the Spanisu conquerors in the fifteenth century. 
' They have played a deadly part in South American life for 
the past four centuries, and are still much used by the semi- 
barbarous inhabitants of the Buenos Ayres pampas, locally called 

From prof. Adolf de Ceuleneer of Ghent, hon. member : (i) Nine 
billon coins of the Spanish period in the Netherlands, part of a 
large hoard discovered in Bouilbn, prov. Luxembourg. They 
are * paons,' ' escalins,' ' three sol pieces', &c., of Philip 11 and iv, 
and of Albert and Isabella, and were struck at Antwerp, Bruges, 
and Brussels ; and (ii) A core and chip of obsidian from Guate- 

R. Blair (secretary) : A large amphora handle, and the frag- 
ment of^ a potter's name in a circle on Samian ware, the letters 
D. . . .vs only remaining; both from St. Stephen's churchyard, 
South Shields, which is at a very short distance from the west 
rampart of the Roman camp. . 



By Dr. C. C. Burman of Alnwick, a rare small quarto tract of 1641 X 
entitled ' The Articles | or, | charge exhibited in | Parliament 
against D. Cozens | of Durham, Anno 1641.' Below is a fac- 
simile of the title page slightly reduced, and on p. 272, the first 
page of the tract. The prceedings are fully set out in the action, 
for preaching a seditious sermon, against that 'turbulent pre- 
bendary,' Peter Smart, in the Court of High Commission at 
Durham, 1 where the whole twenty-one articles are printed in full. 

1 34 Surt. Soc. publ., pp. 197-250. 




Parliament agaiaft D.CozEWs 

ttf + i 

London , Pouted. 16 &t* 





COZENS, conlifting of thefe 

feverall ARTICLE s. 


Hat he was the firft man that cauied the 
Communion Table in the Chuieh of 
Durban , to be removed andfet Altar- 
wife 3 in the ereftiflg and beautifying wher- 
of, fee. (bcingthcn Trcaforer) expended two hundred 


Tim he ufed to officiate at the Weft fide thereof 
turning his back to the people* 


That he uied extraordinary bowing to it. 


That he compelled others to doe it, ufing violence 
to the pei fans of them that refufed fo to doc ; for in^ 
ftance , once fame omitting it > he comes out of "his 
Seat, domi to the Seat where they fate, being Gen- 
tlewomen, called them Whores and Jades, and Pa- 
gans, and the like unfcemly words, and reotfomcof 
their Clothes. 

A 2 That 

By Mr. C. T. Trechmann, a large collection of flint implements 
discovered by him in the counties of Durham and Northumber- 
land. ' They have all been found, except a few from the fell 
top at Allendale, in well-defined areas on the coast, principally 
in the limestone gorge district to the north of Hartlepool, the 
best locality being a piece of bared ground near Horden station. 
Five or six very fine arrow heads and some scrapers were found 
here. Several flakes and scrapers have been found between 
Newbiggen and^Cresswell, 


By Mr. George Irving :- A small sandstone mortar, 5in. high and 8in. 
in diameter, found~recently at the Red Barns, Newcastle. It is 
octagonal in shape. On three of its sides are the initials in script 
J.G. and M.W. and Anno 176 .' The illustration shews it. 

By Messrs. Balfour and Sons, of Newcastle : A small iron axe head 
5ins. long by 3ins. wide at the cutting edge. Its age is uncertain, 
but it was found in a mud deposit, eleven feet below the present 
ground level, at Bawtry in Yorkshire. (See illustration.) 

By : A damascened steel helmet, apparently Chinese, made 

in the form of a mask with horns and pendent chain mail. 
Similar examples are given in Elworthy's Horns of Honour. 

By R. Blau\> (one of the secretaries) : An impression of a Roman 
denarius in very fine condition, of the Calpurnian family [about 


89 B.C.] found on the beach at South Shields in what is locally 
known as the 'wave trap' just r within the 'Fish 'pier.' Ob v. 
laureated head of Apollo to right, before it a moneyer's mark"; 
rev. a horseman galloping to the right holding a palm branch : 
in exergue, L piso FRVG | cxxxxv. 

By Mr. Maberly Phillips, F.S.A. : Two straw splitters used in Hert- 
fordshire. The bone straw splitters recently presented to the 
society by Mr. Gould (p. 257) were also placed on the table, and 
Mr. Phillips, with some unsplit straws, illustrated the way in 
which they would be used. 

Mr. Phillips said * the first splitter that he exhibited was of wood, 
shaped something like a lady's watch-stand, in the face were several 
perforations in which were fixed small knives or cutters, the number 
of such cutters varying in each perforation, three being the lowest 
and eight the highest number with which the straw could be split. 
The other splitters were of metal, about the thickness of a penholder 
and some three inches long. The head was bent over and small 
cutters fixed, each splitter having a different number of cutters, three 
being the lowest and seven the highest. Mr. Phillips stated that 
fifty years ago, when he first visited Hertfordshire, every woman he 
saw was plaiting straws, but now it is a very rare sfght, the ' plait ' 
being imported at a price that makes home work unremunerative. 
When finished the plait was passed through small wooden rollers, con- 
structed on the principle of the wringing machines of the present day. 
By Mr. E. Hunter* (per Mr. C. H Blair) : A deed of 25 May, 1499, 
being a grant of a tenement in * le flescherraw,' Newcastle, by 
John Underwood to John Penrith. 

The following transcript and translation by the chairman, were read 
by him : 

'Sciant p'sentes et futuri q'd ego Johannes Underwood executor 
testame'ti et ultimo voluntat' Roberti Cleugh nup' de villa Noui Castri 
sup' tinam m'catoris defunct' dedi co'cessi et hac p'senti carta mea 
confirmaui Johanni Penreth de eadem villa m'catori totu' illam ten't 
cum suis p'tin' et implement' viz. duo brewledds unu'armariol' 2 et duo 
lect' voc' standyng bedds sicut jac' in diet' villa in vico vocat le flescher 
raw inter ten't Roberti Watson pictoris ex p'te boriali et ten't p'tin' 
ministro et confr' de le Walknoll nup' in tenur' Joh'ne ley 11 carnif 
ex p'te austral' et extend' se a via regia ante ex p'te occidental! usque 
gardin' p'tin' cantarie S'ti Eligy in eccl'ia Omn' S'torum diet' villa 
Noui Castri in tenur' Joh'e Coytan allutar' 3 retro ex p'te oriental' 
Quod quid'm ten't cu' suis p'tin' nup' habui ex dono et legac'e diet' 
Rob'ti Cleugh. Et quodfdict' Robertus nup' p'quisunt de Will'mo 
Bell, nup' burg' diet' villa" Noui Castri. Et quod diet' Will'mo nup' 
hab' ex dimissione Ricardi Wartir mag'r domus sive hospital' voc' 
Walknoll infra diet' if villa Noui Castri prout in quibus indent uris 
quar' dat est pen'lt die Maii Ao. Regni Regis Henrici Septem s'c'do 
p. p'fat mag'r et confrat' diet* hospitali diet' Will'mo inde confect' 
plenius apparet. H'end' et tenend' tot u'fp' diet' ten' turn cu' suis 
p'tin' r et implementis^ p'dict" J p'fat' Johanni Penreth ihered' et 
assignat' suis de festo Pentecost ultimo'p'dict' usque ad fine sexa- 
ginta et octo anno' extunc prox' sequi' plenie^complend' de capit' 
dom'ne feod' illius per s'uicia inde debit' et]de iure consuet' 
Ulterius sciatis me p'fat Johanne Underwood remississe relaxasse 
et om'ino p. me et heredibus meis quiet' clamasse p'fat' Johanni|Pen- 
reth totu' jus meum et clamen', que uniqui hab'm habeo seu quouis- 

* Almery, Almariqluni, a press or cupboard. a Allutarius, a leather dresser. 


modo in futur' habere pot'' de et in toto illo ten'to cu'^suis p'tin' et 
implementis p'diet.'^ Ita q'd nee ego p'fat' Johannes Underwood nee 
heredes mei nee aliquis alius nom'meo aliquod ius titul' clamen' int'esse 
et demand' in p'diet' ten't cu' suis p'tin' nee in aliqua p'cella eorund' 
de cetero exigue clamare seu vendicare poterimus in futur'. Sed ab 
omni aec'one juris clamei tituli interesse et demand' inde impost' 
p'tendends totalit' sumis exclusi et quilibet nostrum sit exclusus p. 
p'sentes. Et ego vero p'fat' Johannes Underwood et heredes mei 
totu' p'diet' ten't'm cum omn'bus suis p'tin' et implementis p'diet' 
p'fat' Johanni Penreth heredibus et assign' suis contra omni gentes 
vvarrantizabimus et defend' durant' t'mino predict' In cuius rei testim' 
huic p'senti carte mee sigill' meum opposuit. Dat' vicesimo quinto die 
Mali Anno Regni Regis Henrici Septem post conq'm Anglie quarto 
decimo.' , 

The following is the translation : 

' Know all men present and future, that I,;John Underwood, executor 
of the testament and last will of Robert Cleugh, late of the town of 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne, merchant, deceased, have given and granted, 
and by this my present writing have confirmed, to John Penreth of 
the same town of Newcastle, merchant, all that tenement with its 
appurtenances and implements, namely two brewleads, one almery 
and two beds called standing beds, as they lie in the said town, in a 
street called the Flesher raw, between the tenement of Robert Watson, 
painter, on the north, and the tenement belonging to the master 
and brethren of the Wall Knoll, late in the tenure of John Leyll 
[Lisle] butcher, on the south, and extending from the king's high- 
way in front, on the west, unto the garden belonging to the chantry of 
St. Elgy, in the church of All Saints in the said town of Newcastle, in 
the tenure of John Coy tan, leather dresser, behind, on the east, which 
tenement with its appurtenances I had lately by the gift and bequest 
of the said Robert Cleugh, and which the said Robert lately bought of 
William Bell, late burgess of the said town of Newcastle, which the 
naid William lately had by demise of Richard Wartir, master of the 
house or hospital called Wall Knoll, within the said town of New- 
castle, as in a certain indenture, dated the penultimate day of May, in 
the second year of the reign of king Henry VII., made by the afore- 
said master and brethren, more fully appears, To have and to 
hold all the aforesaid tenement, with its appurtenances and imple- 
ments aforesaid, to the said John Penreth, his heirs and assigns, from 
the feast of Pentecost last unto the end of 68 years then next 
following fully completed, of the chief lord of the fee by service due 
and of right accustomed. [Usual covenants follow]. In witness 
whereof to this present writing I have set my seal. Dated the 25th 
of May, in the 14th year of the reign of king Henry after the con- 
quest of England the seventh. (Seal missing. )' 

Mr. Welford also read the following notes : 

'The site of the house and fixtures leased by this deed to John 
Penreth is easily identified. Flesher Raw, as already explained 
(Arch. Ael. xxm, p. 253), was the east part of the Side, extending 
from the Cale cross at the foot of Allhallows Bank, now Akenside 
Hill, to the Painter Heugh. The house had apparently formed 
part of the property with which the fraternity at the Wall Knoll were 
endowed, in 1363, by William Acton their founder. For, in the 
foundation deed of the hospital (Bourne, Hist. Newcastle Appendix), 
Acton gives them, inter alia, an annual rent of 57s._4d., issuing out of a 
tenement occupied by Robert Elward in the street called ' Fleshewer 


Rawe,* lying between land of Thomas Kelson on the one side, and land 
of John Abel on the other side ; also an annual rent of 10s. issuing out 
of the tenement of Thomas Kelson ' opposite the Gale Cross.' It may 
be assumed, therefore, that the house, with its brewleads, cupboard, 
and standing beds, was in the lower part^of the street, near the Cale 
Cross, designated, in other documents of^the period, ' Nether Flesher 
Raw.'* Robert Cleugh, who bequeathed' his interest in the property 
to John Underwood, does not appear in local history. We know from 
the Feet of Fines relating to Newcastle in the sixteenth century, procured 
for the County History Committee by our colleague Mr. Dendy, that a 
representative of the family was living here and owning property a 
hundred years later. ^Thus, in Michaelmas term, 1582, a fine was made 
between Alexander^Cleughe, plaintiff, and John Rokbye, merchant, 
and Jane his wife, of a messuage, a toft, a garden, an acre of land and an 
acre of pasture in the parish of St. Andrew, Newcastle. In like manner 
during the same term, a fine was made between John Hudson, merchant, 
(whose will is one of the curiosities of the Rev. VV. Greenwell's collection, 
38 Surt. Soc. publ. p. 101) plaintiff, and Alexander Cleughe, Alice his 
wife and Jane Smythe, deforciants, of a messuage, a toft and a garden 
in Newcastle, in a street called the Syde. Again, in 1599, Alexander 
Cleughe is plaintiff, and Richard Tankarde and Jane his wife deforciants, 
of six acres of meadow in Biker. Concerning the Penreths, or Penriths, 
more information is available. According to Mr. C. J. Bates in our 
Proceedings (vol ix, p. 230), John de Penrith was constable of Harbottle 
castle in 1322. But the name does not occur in Newcastle annals till 
1343, when Robert de Penreth was appointed one of the four bailiffs 
of the town. Brand, in his list of bailiffs enters him as Robert Musgrave 
de Penreth, but there is evidence in our Archaeologia (vol. xv, p. 204), 
that he, or his printer, mixed up Penreth' s name with that of Robert 
Musgrave, a previous and subsequent bailiff. During the municipal 
year 1346-47, he was bailiff again, and then the burgesses honoured him 
by sending him, as their representative, to the twenty- first parliament of 
Edward III. His last balival term was the year 1349-50, and after that 
we hear of him no more. Nor is the name of Penreth found in the rolls 
of municipal office again for the better part of a century. But, in 1354, 
Thomas de Penreth was instituted to the free chapel of Jesmond, and in 
1375 John Penereth is found (Arch. Ael. vol. i, p. 65) dealing with 
property at Corbridge. Then, in or about 1414, as recorded in Mr. 
Crawford Hodgson's 'Proofs of Age' (Arch. Ael. vol. xxu, p. 116), 
Robert Penreth, 36 years old, went to All Saints' church to hear a 
' solemn sermon,' and having, from choice or necessity, to stand all the 
time, was able to remember that sermon two and twenty years after- 
wards, and to testify accordingly. In the meantime Newcastle had 
been made a county, the four bailiffs had been superseded by a sheriff, 
and municipal government had been established upon better founda- 
tions. Under these altered conditions Thomas Penreth, draper, 
tenant of a house in the Cloth Market belonging to the opulent Roger 
Thornton, having, in 1430, sat as one of the jurors at the inq. p.m. of 
that fifteenth century millionaire, was elected sheriff for the year 1434-35. 
No more is heard of Mm beyond the description of his coat of arms in 
Tonge's Visitation. But, in 1453, John Penreth became sheriff, and he 
achieved honour equal to that of Robert, his presumed ancestor. For, 
two years later, when the War of the Roses began, and Hotspur's son was 

* At the dissolution of religious houses in 1539, the Wall Knoll brethren had five 
burgages in Flesher Raw, held by different tenants, at the following rents : Edward 
Pearson, 6*. 8d. ; Kichard Kirkhouse, 8*. ; Margaret Taylor 10*. ; William Milner, 8. 
Kobert Wyneyerd, 8*. 


slain, he was elected M.P. for Newcastle. The mayoralty followed in 
1458, and at the end of it he wsa sent to Parliament again. Tae ii3xt 
time we hear of him is in 1471, when, according to Brand, he and Peter 
Bledy obtained a grant from the mayor and town of Newcastle of a 
Close, called the Whyn Close in the north part of the castle fields. He 
may have been the John Penreth who, in the sunset of life, in 1480, 
settled down as clerk to the Newcastle Company of Merchant 
Adventurers. But that is pure conjecture. Another John Penreth 
obtained the shrievalty in 1487 and only eleven years later a third John 
was appointed to that office. Which of them was the grantee of the 
property in Flesher Raw cannot be determined. A run of consecutive 
Johns in a family makes genealogy a nightmare. Later Penreths in 
Newcastle are traceable, but never again did they participate in muni- 
cipal honours. The quarto series of our Archaeoloqia (vol. in. p. 81) 
under date 1522 shows that Edward Penreth held of Ralph Eure, 
knight, a tenement in the Melemarket near Pudding Chare. The Feet 
of Fines, previously quoted, proves that they continued to be property 
owners in the town and suburbs to the close of the 16th century. For 
example, in Michaelmas term, 1564, a fine is made between Thomas 
Hoppen and Nicholas Hedley, plaintiffs, and John Pendreth, gent., 
deforciant, of one messuage and two shops in Newcastle ; in Hilary 
term, 1569, there is a fine between Robert Green well, merchant, and 
William Penreth, gent., of one messuage and two cellars in Newcastle, 
and agtin in Michaelmas te^m, 1574, between Thomas Lyddell, mer- 
chant, plaintiff, and William Penrythe, gent., deforciant, of one water 
mill called Bares [Ban-as 1 MyJne. and ten acres ol pasture in Newcastle.' 
Among the Chancery Proceedings (series n, 155-1759; bundle 144, 
no. 23), is a record of a suit in which it appears that W m Penderethe, in 
February 1565-6, filed a complaint stating that having borrowed 40Z. of 
Henry Brandlyne, merchant, he demised to said Brandlyne, by indenture 
dated 26 September, 156 1, three water mills and three closes, whereof one 
lot was within the suburbs of Newcastle, and the other 'without the 
barres and lyberties ' of the said town, conditioned upon his repaying th6 
same on St. Luke's day, 1563, for due performance of which he gave bond 
in 200Z. ; that being unable to pay on the day specified he obtained an 
extension of time to St. Andrew's day next ensuing ; that he then ten- 
dered the money, but Brandlyne would not accept it, but commenced 
a suit for recovery of 200Z., &c. The end of the suit is not recorded.' 

Thanks were voted to the different exhibitors, and also to the chair- 
man for his valuable notes on Newcastle. 


Mr. C. H. Blair read the following note on this interesting shield o! 
of 1340-1405 : 

* In the north-east corner of the basement of the castle stands a square 
tone panel enclosing, within decorative carving, an angel supporting a 
shield upon which are carved the Royal Arms of England as they were 
borne from 1340 to 1405, viz., Quarterly 1 and 4, Azure powdered with 
golden lilies, for France ; 2 and 3, gules three leopards gold, for England ; 
around the inner edge of the panel are carved heraldic roses alternately 
with another ornament like a lozenge within a square, but which, unfor- 
tunately, is too weather-worn to be clearly decipherable. The shield 
is in a good state of preservation, and is a good example of the 
heraldic art of the age, the lilies of France being very beautiful in 
form, whilst the leopards of England, though somewhat weathered, 
have that appearance of lithe strength and ferocity typical of the 


heraldry of that time. I have not been able to discover how or when 
this shield came into the possession of the society, probably it would be 
at the time of the destruction of the Newgate in 1823, the only reference 
relating to its possession, that I have found, is in vol. vn, page 99 of our 
Proceedings, where there is a note by Mr. Gibson (the custodian of the 
castle) stating that it was originally over the north side < f the Newgate. 
It is drav n by T. M. Richardson in his etching entitled * Newgate 
North Front as seen in May, 1823,' and is there placed between two 
smaller shields, and immediately below the statue said to be that of 
James I. Mr. Sheriton Holmes says (Arch. Ael. vol. xvm, page 15). 
' Move the archway of ihe later erection (i.e., the barbican in front of 
the old Berwick gate) there were three ancient shields of Arms, St. 
George's Cross, The Arms of England with the fieur de lis remee, and 
those of Newcastle-upon-Tyne.' he further states that this barbican was 
constructed previous to 1390, and that a part of the northern facade 
appears to have been rebuilt in Jacobean times. The charges upon the 
shield are those of England as borne by king Edward the third after 
1340, and by king Richard the second m the earlier years of his reign ; 
later he impaled with these arms those attributed to king Edward the 
Confessor, viz., Azure, a cross paty between five martlets gold. In 
1405 Henry the fourth reduced the lilies to three, following the ex- 
ample of the king of France, the change having been made in that 
kingdom by king Charles the fifth about the year 1 365. Mr. Welford in 
his Ncucastle and Gatcsheod, i, 85, under 1344, says: ' During the king's 
visit to Newcastle at Whitsuntide he repaired the walls of the town at his 
own expense.' The Newgate was built shortly after this date (perhaps 
as part of king Edward's plan of repairs),and the shield in our possession, 
with its two companions (now unfortunately lost), in accordance with the 
fashion of that time, decorated its northern front, they were either not 
interfered with at the Jacobean restoration or else were then replaced 
in their original position. Hartshorne, in his architectural description 
of Alnwick castle (Proceedings of the Archaeological Tnstitute,Newcastle, 
1852, vol. n, page 172) speaking of the shields on the octagon towers 
there says : ' this custom of ornamenting the upper parts of towers 
with escutcheons was very prevalent during the reign of Edward III., 
when it took its orgin;' in addition to Alnwick he mentions Hilton, 
Lumley, and Bothal castles, which are thus decorated,and so also was the 
Newgate of Newcastle-upon-Tyne. The royal shield on the octagon 
towers at Alnwick, built about the year 1350 by Henry de Percy, 
second lord of Alnwick (Hartshorne, page 172) has the same charges on 
as the one we possess, whilst that at Bothal (built in 1343) has the 
leopards of England in the first and fourth quarters, thus giving them 
precedence over the lilies of France, much to the indignation of the 
king of France (Arch. Ael. xiv, 289), lastly the royal arms placed 
above the gateway at Lumley castle, as described by Surtees (u. 153) 
and quoted in our Proceedings (in, 302), has France and England 
quarterly (Richard II). Lumley having been re-built by Ralph, lord 
Lumley, under licence from bishop Skirlaw in 1389, and later, therefore, 
than our Newgate. These are the only instances in the north of 
England known to me where the royal shield of the later half of the 
fourteenth century appears. The royal banner carved on the west 
front of Hilton castle is later in date and has France modern (after 
1405) in the first and fourth quarters. I think our society is fortunate 
in possessing such a beautiful example of heraldic carving when that 
art was at its best, representing, as it does, the noblest and most fame us 
shield ever actually borne by any of our English kings.' 
Thanks were voted to Mr. C. H. Blair. 

Proc. Soc. Antiq. Neivc. 
3 ser. i. 

To face page 278 

This block lent by Canon Savage and the Churchwardens. 


From a photograph by Mr. Parker Brewis. 



The following extracts, from the Calendar of Patent Rolls, are con- 
tinued from p. 211 : 

1484, Oct. 25, Westminster. Writ to the sheriff of Northumberland, 
directing him to issue a proclamation (English) that, as upon appointing 
of a diet to be holden in the city of London on 20 January next between 
the commissaries of the king and the orators of Philip, duke of Burgundy, 
earl of Flanders, it is agreed between certain ambassadors of the king 
lately sent into those parts and divers notable persons as well of the 
council of the said duke as of the three members of Flanders, that 
proclamation shall be made on either side that the free intercourse of 
merchandise taken in years past shall be observed, and also it is agreed 
between the king's said ambassadors and certain commissioners of 
Maximilian, duke of Austria and Brabant, that there shall be another 
diet holden within some convenient place of the duke's obeisance such as 
the king will name, and at such time as it shall please him, and in the 
meantime the free intercourse of merchandise taken in years past shall 
be observed, all subjects of the king shall observe the premises with all 
the chapters and articles of the intercourse as in times past, and if any 
ships or goods pertaining to the subjects of either duke be taken by 
rovers or men-of-war haunting the sea such ships or goods shall be put 
in sure keeping to the intent that restitution be made. 2 Rich. Ill, 
pt. 2, memb. 22d. [p. 518] 

1485, Feb. 14, Westminster. Mandate to the justices of assize, the 
justices of the peace and the sheriff in the county of Southampton to 
issue a proclamation (English) that no person shall carry beyond the sea 
any woollen yarn or cloth not fulled, but that the woollen yarn shall be 
woven and the cloth thereof made shall be fulled, shorn and fully 
wrought within the realm upon pain contained in the statute of 
7 Edward IV, except ' rayes,' ' vesses ' and other cloths named in the last 
parliament at Westminster, that no person shall buy or bargain any 
wool before the feast of St. Bartholomew except such as shall make from 
the said wool yarn or cloth within the realm according to the statute of 
4 Edward IV, and that all makers of cloth shall pay to their carders and 
spinners and other labourers ready lawful money for their wages, and 
shall deliver their wools to be wrought upon a due weight upon pain of 
forfeiture to the said labourer the treble of his wages so not paid and 6d. 
for every pound of excessive weight, according to the statute of 4 
Edward IV. By K. The like to the sheriff in Northumberland, omitt- 
ing the clause concerning the buying of wool before Michaelmas (sic). 
Ibid. [p. 518] 

1485, Feb. 11. Grant for life to the king's servant George Percy, 
esquire, of an annuity of 40 marks from the issues of the county of 
Northumberland. By p.s. Ibid., memb. 11. [p. 508] 

1485, March 2, Westminster. Precept to the sheriff of Northumber- 
land to issue a proclamation (English) that the truce which was con- 
cluded between the king and his cousin Francis, duke of Brittany, to 
continue unto 24 April next is intended to Michaelmas, 1492. Ibid.> 
pt. 3, memb. 18d. [p. 544] 


1 Westminster, 14 May, 1483. Edward V. m. Sd. 

2 26 June, 1483. 1 Richard III., part I. m. 2'2d. 

3 5 December, 1483 \ld. 
Richard, duke of Gloucester, 1. I Ralph Graystok of Graystok, 
Henry, duke of Buckingham, 1,2. | knight, 1, 2, 3. 


John Cartyngton, 1, 2, 3. 
John Agirston, 1, 2, 3. 
John Swynburne, 1, 2, 3. 
W. bishop of Durham, 2. 
John, duke of Norfolk, 2, 3. 
Henry, earl of Northumberland, 

, 6. 

ThomasLumley, of Lumley, knight, 
1, 2, 3. 

Robert Ogle of Ogle, knight, 1, 2, 3 

Robert Maners, knight, 1, 2, 3. 

Richard Neell, knight, 1, 2, 3. 

Roger Tounesend, 1, 2, 3. 

John Lilbourne, Lilburn, the 
elder, 1, 2, 3. 

[p. 568]. 

The following endorsed ' Ans r to Oley Douglass ' is apparently the 

original draft of a letter addressed by George Delaval, some time in 1715, 

to Oley Douglas. : 

* By great good ffortune I met your favour of the 2* past at y e House 

of Commons, Mr. Barrington having seen and told me of it : My Letters 

seldom come that way. 

You are pleased to begin by saying you have small Title to my 

Friendship : You know that best ; however, it is certain you have had 

it on many occasions. To mention some of which I went several times 

on your errand to L d Carlisle, and, at your req\iest, expresed your 

earnest desire to be in Parliam* either for County or Town. I went to 

his LordsPP again from you w th Propositions for withdrawing your 

Peticon for Morpeth. 

I once gave my Mony, in your presence, to serve you, and had found 

6,000 U for that end, if Learned Council had thought me safe in taking 

from your Father the Mortgage on Ridsdale. So on y e whole, how 

small soever your pretence may be to my Freindship, I seem to have 

some to yours. 

If you think it good Logick to commend my Industry for S r J no my 

Cosen, & disapprove of it for my Nephew, I conceive you ought by 

your own Logick, as a consequence, think it reasonable I should sollicit 

on behalf of my Nephew, since you already approved of my doing it on 

behalf of S r J no . 

I come next to your advice, which by y e by, we are never to take of our 

Enemies, tho' I will not think you so on any acct but that of Elections. 
And if, my Brother, who, you say, will inform m e that his Son's Case is 

hopeless with relation to his Election, really does think it so, I hope 

hee'l advise him, as I do in that Case, to desist ; And then my wishes 
must devolve, of course, upon you. But, without answering your 
questions directly, I confess I am not yet brought to think so, either by 

any appearance of superiority in Interest, or by the start you have. 
Your Security as to y r success, may be as great, as his Grace's Interest 
can seem to you of little weight against it. For my part I place my 
cheif hopes in it, & should think my Nephew might despair without it, 
and he is, in my Opinion, very much honoured & served by it. 

I wish I understood a little better than I do, what you mean by thar 
Expression of Playing at Empty Pockets ; if you mean your Superiot 
Riches, you may deceive yourself as much in that, as you do in thinking 
the County unanimous for you. Besides, I beleive you versed enough 
in the Law, &c., know that way of proceeding is not conformable to Act 
of Parliament. But if all those Little Freeholders are to determin their 
Choice by a Security that it will now be the Reverse of the last, either you 
must think yourself y e only person that has a Right to it, or give me 
leave to think our Pretension that way to be as good as yours, and so, 
to make you an amicable return, I must own frankly to you, I have as 
much reason as ever to be that Industrious Person I was represented to 
you ; a Character you find so difficult to beleive of me, that I hope the 
success will convince you of. I am ' 






3 SER., VOL. I. 1904. No. 30 

The ordinary monthly meeting of the society was held in the library 
of the Castle, Newcastle, on Wednesday, the 30th day of November, 
1904, at seven o'clock in the evening, Mr. J. Crawford Hodgson, F.S.A., 
a vice-president, being in the chair. 

Several accounts, recommended by the council for payment, were 
ordered to be paid. 

The following NEW BOOKS, &c., were placed on the table : 

Presents, for which thanks were voted : 

From the Society of Antiquaries of London : Their Proceedings, 

2 ser. ix, 8vo (to complete this society's set). ' 
From Mr. D. D. Dixon of Rothbury : A folio volume, bound full 

calf, and lettered on back : ' Collect, of Tryals.' It formerly 

belonged to Joseph Crawhall, and was given by him to Mr. 

The following are in the volume : 

1. 'The answer of the Eight Honourable the Earl of Danby, to a late Pamphlet 
entituled An Examination of the Impartial State of the Case of the Earl of 
Danby. London, printed byE.R., to be sold by Randal Taylor near Stationer's 
Hall, 1680.' 

2. ' A Discourse concerning High Treason or the Statute of the 25th Edward the 
Third tie Proditionibus considered and explained, as also a Short Treatise of 
Misprizion of Treason, Designed for the Instruction of the Ignorant, that they 
prove not offensive to the Supreme Power. London, Printed by T.B. for Richard 

3. 'A Brief History of the Succession of the Crown of England, &c., collected out of 
the Recprds & the most Authentick Historians, written for the Satisfaction of 
the Nation (interpolated by Lord Somers). London, Printed, & are to sold 
by Richard Janeway, in Queen's-Head-Court in Pater-Noster-Row, 1688/9.' 

4. ' An enquiry into the Power of Dispensing with Penal Statutes, together with 
some Animadversions upon A Book writ by Sir Edw. Herbert, Lord Chief Justice 
of the Court of Common Pleas Entituled, A Short Account of the Authorities 
in Law, upon which judgment was given in Sir Edward Bale's case. By Sir 
Robert Atkyns, Knight of the Honourable Order of the Bath & late one of the 
Judges of the Common Picas. London, Printed for Timothy Goodwin, at the 
Maiden-head, against S. Dunstan's-Church in Fleet-Street, 1689.' 

5. 'The Power, Jurisdiction, & Priviledge of Parliament & the Antiquity of the 
House of Commons asserted, occasioned by an information in the King's Bench, 
by the Attorney General against the Speaker of the House of Commons. As also 
a discourse concerning the Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction in the Realm of England, 
occasioned by the late Commission in Ecclesiastical Causes. By Sir Robert 
Atkins, &c., &c. London, Printed for Timothy Goodwiu, at the Maiden-head, 
against S. Dunstan's Church in Fleet Street, 1689.' 

6. 'An Account [in manuscript] of the Proceedings of the Lords Commissioners for 
Ecclesiastical Affairs, against the Bishop of London, Dr. Henry Compton, At 
the Counsell Chamber at Whitehall, 4 August, 1686.' 

7. ' The Proceedings & Tryal in the Case of the Most Reverend Father in God 
William, Lord Archbishop of Canterbury, & the Right Reverend Fathers in God, 
William, Lord Bishop of St. Asaph, Francis, Lord Bishop of Ely, John, Lord 


Bishop of Chichester, Thomas', Lord Bishop of Bath & Wells, Thomas, Lord 
Bishop of Peterborough, & Jonathan, Lord Bishop of Bristol, In the Court of 
Kings-Bench at Westminster, in Trinity Term in the Fourth year of the Reign 
of King James the Second, Annoque J)om. 1688. London, Printed for Thomas 
Basset, at the George in Fleet Street, & Thomas Fox, at the Angel in Westminster- 
Hall. 1689.' 

8. 'The Arraignment Tryal & Condemnation of Sir William Parkins, knt,. for the 
most Horrid & Barbarous Conspiracy tp assassinate His Most Sacred Majesty 
King William, & for Raising of Forces in order to a Rebellion & encouraging a 
French invasion into this kingdom, who was found guilty of High Treason 
March 24, 1695/6, At the Sessions-House in the Old Bailey, together with a true 
Copy of the Papers delivered by Sir William Parkins & Sir John Friend tp the 
Sheriffs of London & Middlesex at- the time of their execution, London, Printed 
for Samuel Heyrick at Grays-Inn Gate in Holbourn, & Isaac Cleve, at Serjeants- 
Inn Gate in Chancery Lane. 1696.' 

9. The Arraignment Tryal <.V < Condemnation of Sir John Friend, knight, for High 

Treason at the Sessions-house in the Old-Bayly on Monday, March 23, 1695/6, 

London, 1696.' 

10. 'An account of the Arraignments & Tryals of Col. Richard Kirkly, Capt. John 
Constable, Capt. Cooper Wade, Capt. Samuel Vincent, & Capt. Christopher 

Fogg for Neglect of Duty, Breach of Orders* Other Crimes in a fight at 

sea 19th August, 1702, off St Martha, Between the Honourable John Benbow 

Esq. & Admiral Du Casse with 4 French Ships of War London, 1703.' 

11. 'The Tryals & Condemnation of Robert Charnock, Edward King, & Thomas 
Keyes for the Horrid and Execrable Conspiracy to assassinate his Sacred Majesty 
King William London, MDCXCII.' 

12. ' The Tryal, Attainder & Condemnation of Sir .John Fenwick, Baronet, before 

the Parliament Truly & Faithfully Collected from the Journals of the House. 

As also a True Copy of the Paper delivered by Hir John Fenwick to the Sherritfs 
of London & Middlesex on Tower Hill at the Time of his execution, being 
Jan. 28. 1696/7,' Printed at the Hague, 1697.' 

Exchanges : 

From the Society of Antiquaries of London : Proceedings, 2 ser, xx, i, 
[ included in it are some ' Notes on recent discoveries in the Castle 
of Durham,' by Dr. Gee ; and by the Rev. J. T. Fowler, on the 
' Grave of Richard of Bury, bishop of Durham ' in the ' Nine 
Altars' at Durham, and on fireplaces in the vestries of Wark- 
worth and Morpeth churches], 8\o. 
From the Cambrian Archaeological Association : Archaeologia Cam- 

brensis, for October, 1904 (6 ser. iv, iv); 8vo. 

From the Cambridge Antiquarian Society : ' The Annals of Gonville 
and Caius College, by John Caius, M.D., edited by John Venn, 8vo., 

Purchases : The Ancestor for October, 1904 (no. XT); Brenan's House of 
Percy, 2 vols. ; Max\\ ell's House of Douglas, 2 vols. ; Mittheilungen 
of the Imp. German Archaeological Institute, xvni, ii, and xix ; 
The Antiquary for November, 1904 ; Borough S'.als of the Gothic 
Period, by Gale Pedrick. with photographic reproductions of the 
seals [ included in the volume are descriptions, with illustra- 
tions, of the medieval seals of Alnwick, Berwick, and Hartlepool] ; 
and Notes and Qveries, Nos. 44 to 48 ; and twelve original 
drawings (making 142 in all) by the Revd. E. A. Downman, of 
Ancient British camps in Derbyshire, &c. [the plans are of 
Bolsover, Eyam Moor, Harthill Castle, Markland Gripps, Derby- 
shire ; Breedon Hill, Burrow Hill, Bury Camp, Hallaton Castle, 
Old Ingersly, Leicestershire ; Brandon Castle, Brinklow Hills, 
Warwickshire ; and Combs Farm, Nottinghamshire.] 
[ Mr. Downman, in a letter which accompanied these plans, writes : 
' I have now examined some 270 earthworks, but there are a great many 
others I am anxious to visit, but multiplying by hand ts rather slow 
work. At present the Bodleian, Oxford, have the best collection (170), 
and the London Guildhall and the British Museum 164 between them, 
I hope in a year or two to get a complete set of all I have examined, in 


London between the Guildhall and the British. I believe your Society 
and the Bodleian have a complete set between you and overlap, and in 
case of my death my own set ought to make up two or perhaps three 
complete sets. T am also doing one local set for some counties (so far 
Wilts, Norfolk, and Surrey), for a public library or archaeological 

The recommendation of the council to purchase the following books 
was agreed to : A History of English Furniture, by Percy Macquoid, 
to be issued in 20 parts at Is. 6d. each ; Professor Baldwin-Brown's 
Early Arts in Britain, 3 vols. ; and T. Wright's Roll of Carlaverock, with 
shields of arms in colours. 


By Dr. Allison : (i) A double iron lamp from Orkney, known as 
a 'crusie.' The illustration below is of a similar lamp in the 
society's museum at the Blackgate, from a drawing by Mr. Henry 
Clarke of North Shields. 

[Dr. Allison said 
"The 'crusie' or <kol- 
lie' consists of an upper 
and under iron shell 
(both shells shaped like 
sauce boats). The up- 
per shell acted as the 
oil reservoir, and the 
under one served the 
purpose of catching 
any drippings or over- 
flow from it. The un- 
der shell and the up- 
right back were usually 
in one piece. The up- 
per shell (a separate 
and slightly smaller 
vessel) was suspended 
on, and could be de- 
tached from, a notched 
bar, which projected 
forward from the back 
at right angles, or had 
an upright incline, as in 
this example. When 
detached any overflow 
of oil could be repoured 
from the lower into the 
upper vessel. At its 
top the back was bent 
forward at right angles, 
so as to adjust itself to 
the centre of gravity, 
and was perforated for 
a stud. This stud end- 
ed above in a ring, 
which interlinked with 
the ring of a twisted 
stem (forming a joint) 


the stem ending in a spike and hook at its free extremity. The spike 


was used for insertion into the unplastered walls of _the cottages, the 
hook being employed for suspension. The kollie was manufactured in 
Orkney and Shetland by the local blacksmiths. It is mentioned in the 
ancient ' Sagas,' and was in use up to the middle of the ^nineteenth 
century, when it was supplanted by a tin lamp, which was followed by 
the ordinary paraffin lamp. Oil from fish livers was commonly used, 
the wick being usually of cotton, or native worsted yarn, and as it 
gradually burnt down the wick was trimmed and pushed to the front 
of the nozzle or spout, by a slight wooden pin, which, for the purpose, 
lay in reserve in the upper shell. When not carried in the hd,nd, the 
' kollie ' was hung upon a nail, or suspended on a cord. I am indebted 
to Goudie's Antiquities of Shetland, kindly lent m0 by Mr. Williamson, 
for much of the above." 

(ii) Four flails from different countries : ( 1) From the Island of Achill ; 
(2) from Stromness, Orkney ; (3) from Kirkoen (Kirkisland) of 
the Hvaloerne group, Norway; and (4) from Saxony. 

Dr. Allison read the following notes on these flails : " This flail (no. 1) 
kindly sent to me by Mr. Parker Brewis when visiting Achill, is typical of 
Ireland. There is no wood on the island, and sticks are imported trom 
the mainland. It consists of two sticks joined by a thong. It is the 
simplest form of flail, and gives both the revolving and striking actions. 
The handstaff and souple are grooved near the attached ends, for the 
thong. The latter is a circle constructed in the middle into a figure of 
eight by lapping, the smaller circles fitting round the two grooves. 
The thong is of twisted eel skin, which, being oily, affords natural 
lubrication. No. 2 has the distinctive feature of two wooden pegs, 
which pass respectively through the tops of the handstaff and souple, 
and prevent the thong from flying off. There is a constricted part or 
neck immediately below the pegs, and a shoulder to prevent the thong 
from slipping down. This arrangement takes the place of the Irish and 
Norwegian grooves. The thong is of neatly plaited white leather, 
forming a circle, constricted in the centre into the shape of a dumb-bell. 
This flail is distinct from that usual on the mainland of Scotland, which 
has a perforated handle, whilst the local names ' handstaff,' * souple ' and 
* thong ' are English, rather than Scottish. No. 3 is almost identical with 
that from Achill (Western Ireland). It consists of two sticks, grooved 
at the attached ends, and united by a thong of oily eel skin. The only 
difference is that the sticks are a little longer. The local names are 
Priler (flail) ; Handvagel (handstaff) ; Slagvagel (souple) ; and Korre 
(thong). The following description, showing that like ourselves 
different districts in Norway have different flails, is taken from a 
Norwegian dictionary, in the possession of Mr. Riple of Gosforth. The 
description will be noticed to differ widely from the foregoing example. 
It is as follows : ' The ' Plegl ' (fleegle) is an implement worked by hand 
for threshing operations, before the introduction of machines. It con- 
sists of three parts, viz. : i. The " slagl ' (souple), a stick slightly edged 
and curved, made of a tough and hard wood, especially ash, 3 to 3] feet 
long, 1 inch thick at the top, and 2 inches thick below, n. The ' hand- 
stok ' (handstaff), or ' pleglskaft,' a round and somewhat longer stick of 
tough wood, such as beech, in. The ' hilden,' the connexion between 
the ' slagl ' and ' handstok,' usually made of thick leather 5 inches long, 
sewn together with straps [of straps sewn together ?]. The rotation of 
the ' slagl ' during work is most frequently effected by applying through 
a hole in the ' hilden,' a round stem at the top of the ' handstok,' 
supplied with an iron ring. For the rest the turning had to be done 
exclusively by the hands during the rotation of the ' slagl ' over the head 
of the performer.' I take this description to be that of the imaginary 


flail (no. 5), and while it shows the difficulty of translation, it is clear 
that the Norwegians possessed the two main varieties of flails, viz., 
those in which the handle is revolved in the hands, and those 
in which the handstaff is firmly grasped as in the example shown. 
No. 4, a huge, club-like example (modern) of the flail or Dreschflegel 
(Drashflagal) is from Herwigsdorf, near Fittau, in Saxony. The souple 
is termed the Flegel, there being no special name for the handle. It 
consists of (i) the handstaff, having a wooden eye in the end, formed of 
the end of the handstaff proper, and covered by a bent strip, or capping, 
of wood 14 in. long, which is attached to the sides of the handle by 
nails ; it is the only example of a strip of wood used in this way that 
I have seen ; the handstaff is 4 ft. 5 in. long, by 1 1 in. in diameter ; 
it is turned smooth and round: (ii) the souple is a very heavy round 
piece cf smooth wood, 2 ft. 3 in. long, and 2 in. in diameter ; tlte 
attached end is wedge-shaped, two sides being flattened, and the 
other two having grooves | in. deep and 4 in. from the top ; a 
broad capping of white leather fits the flattened sides, slipping being 
thus prevented; the lacing perforates the capping and passes round 
the grooves; and (iii) the thong, a doubled slip of white leather, passes 
through the wooden eye, and the leather capping ; one slit end passes 
through a slit in the other end, and a. lace goes through the first slit 
and is tied." 


From Dr. Drummond of Westoe : A curious object of iron found in a 
peat moss near Birtley in North Tyndale. It consists of a circle 
from which four curved rods project downwards, at their junction 
there is a socket in which there is still some tow. Above the ring 
a handle arches over from side to side for suspension. 

From R. Blair (one of secretaries) : (i) A two wheeled watchman's 
rattle ; and (ii) four bobbins from Roade, near Northampton, used 
in pillow-lace making, locally known as 'legs.' 

Thanks were voted for these gifts. 


The recommendation of the Council that no meeting of the society 
be held in December on account of the Christmas holidays was agreed to. 


Mr. R. Oliver Heslop, M.A., F.S.A. (one of the secretaries), read the 
following note on a centurial stone found on the line of the Roman Wall 
at West Denton : 

" By the courtesy of the directors of the Newcastle and^Gateshead 
Water Company the stone before you, discovered by Mr. Alfred L. 
Forster, the company's engineer, is now presented to our society. It 
was unearthed at the end of last month on the military road at West 
Denton, a few yards west of the lane leading south-west to Newburn, 
during the onstruction of a new pipe line, on the site of the Roman Wall. 
It is a centurial stone of more than ordinary elaboration, its carving and 
lettering showing careful execution. Its face measurement is 16 inches 
long by 12 inches high, and its depth from front to back is 9 to 10 inches. 
The lettering, on a panel 8 inches long by 3 inches wide, is enclosed in a 
moulded border, ansated, and reads : 

o . AVI 

C(enturia) Avidi(i) Ru/i. The centuria of Avidius Rufus. 


The same name occurs on a stone found at Carrawburgh (Procolitia} 
and now in the museum at Chesters (Lapid. Sept. no. 167, and C. I. L. vn, 

no. 629). In the Procolitia 
stone the prenomen Avidius is 
ligatured (see illustration and 
Bruce. Roman Wall, 3ed. , 1 7 3 ). 
Its reading, however, is iden- 
tical with the stone now 
before you, recording the 
centuria of Avidius Rufus; 
but it differs from the West 
Denton stone in size, measur- 
ing on its face 1 5^ inches long 
by 6^ inches high ; being thus 
almost of the same length, 
but only about half the height of the West Denton stone. As the 
Carrawburgh stone represents the height of the course of ashlar of 
which it was a member, the stone now before us may have occupied 
the height of two courses, or it may represent structural work on a 
scale of greater proportions. In either case it would occupy a more con- 
spicuous position, accounting for the superior character of its lettering 
and sculpture. Two other centuria] stones in the museum at Chesters 
bear the inscription 
C(enturia) A ridi(i), the 
name occurring with- 
out the cognomen. 
One of these was found 
in Prccclitia, and the 
other between that 
camp and Borcovicus 
(Lapid. Sept., no.s. 165 
and 166; and C.l.L. 
vn, no. 628). They 

are each of them bedding stones, 
of ruder finish than the one before 
us, the former having the letters 
o AVIDI roughly incised on the face 
of the stone, the second having tho 
jSaiT.e lettering enclosed in a coarsely 
'executed panel, with the conven- 
tional dove-tails on either side. 
If we ma;y identify Avidius and 
Avidius Rufus we have now the 
record of four separate works ex- 
ecuted by the centuria bearing his 
name, an evidence ofunusual activity. But if the cognomen Rufus 
distinguishes one Avidius from another centurion of the same name, we 
have still the fact that Avidius Rufus was engaged in the Wall con- 
struction at or near Procolitia, and again upon some building, as far 
distant as the east of Vindobala, as witnessed 'by our stone. 

Upon the whole question of centurial stones our members may be 
referred to the paper by Mr. John Clayton, in Archaeolorjia Aeliana 
(vol. TX), where the character and purpose of Roman centurial stones is 
discussed with all the erudition and experience of our late venerable 
vice-president. The inverted letter 3 or the rectilinear symbol \> , pre- 
ceding the name, are said to represent a twig of vine, the official badge 


of a Roman centurion. When, as in the case of the stone before us, 
the centurion's name is in the genitive case ' the centurial mark,' says 
Mr. Clayton. ' must be read centurial It may be added to this, by way 
of reminder, that there are two words, viz., centurio, an officer in the 
Roman army commanding a hundred men, and centuria, the company 
of men itself. These stones were inserted in the face of a course of 
masonry at the time of its construction. In doing so ' the object of 
the centurion,' says Mr. Clayton, ' was to record his own name, as that 
of an individual who had taken a part in the great work, hence the 
particular cohort to which the centurion belonged, or the extent of the 
work done, is rarely recorded on the stone * (Arch. Ael. ix, p. 24). 
' These inscriptions,' says Horsley, ' were doubtless inserted in the face 
of the wall, when it was building, and were, in all probability, erected by 
those centuries or cohorts who built that part of the wall, where they 
are found, or by their commanders,' (Britannia Romana, p. 127). Thus 
far Mr. Clayton is in accord with the earlier writer, of whom he says : 
' We are indebted to that sagacious and laborious Northumbrian, John 
Horsley, for the brightest light which has been thrown upon the subject 
of centurial stones on the Roman Wall. In his Britannia Romana, 
published in 1732,' continues Mr. Clayton, ' after adverting to stones of 
a similar character on the Antonine Wall between the Firth of Forth 
and the Firth of Clyde, on which are inscribed the name of the emperor, 
and the extent of the work executed by the troops employed in it, 
Horsley proceeds to state that, in his opinion, the inscriptions found on 
the Roman Wall, which he has called centurial, had been erected upon 
the same occasion and to the same purpose, though they were not so 
full and pompous ' (Arch. Ael. ix, 30). It will be seen on comparison 
that this is not a quotation but a synopsis of Horsley' s remarks, and it 
should be noted that, notwithstanding the eulogy pronounced by Mr. 
Clayton, he (as he is careful to explain) differed entirely from Horsley 
as to the date of the Wall of stone. Hence Mr. Clayton omits allusion 
to the argument based by Horsley on the prevalence of centuiiai stones 
in the Wall between Tyne and Sol way, and the very different character 
of the inscribed stones ' erected upon the same occasion ' (that is under 
the same circumstances) ' and for the same purpose ' along the course 
of the Wall of turf from Forth to Clyde. The omission was a natural 
one in the circumstances seeing that Mr. Clayton had assured himself 
that Horsley' s theory of the builder of the stone Wall was no longer 
tenable. These are Mr. Clayton's words : ' In early times a portion of 
these works, that is to say, the stone wall, with its ditch to the north, 
was ascribed to the Emperor Severus, whilst the earthen rampart and 
its ditches were treated as a previous erection by the Emperor Hadrian, 
But Antiquaries are now,' that is in the year 1880, ' agreed, with 
consideraole unanimity, that both the works are to be ascribed ^o the 
Emperor Hadrian, and that they were executed simultaneously.' 
(Arch. Ael., ix, 22n). The two views thus so explicitly expressed were 
the views held respectively by John Horsley and John Clayton. 

In recalling this to your attention the object is not to revive an old 
controversy, but rather, by pursuing the argument advanced in Britannia 
Romana and expanding "the statement of the case (with your kind 
permission and forbearance), to sho\* the value attached by John 
Horsley to the presence of these centurial stones, and in this to indicate 
incidentally the penetration and the power of observation displayed by 
that distinguished antiquary. Horsley, as we have seen, was of opinion 
that the stone wall between Tyne and Solway was built by the emperor 
Severus, also that the work of Hadrian on this line (antedating that of 
Severus by three quarters of a century) was an earthen fortification. In 


contrasting a characteristic of theJWall of stone with a characteristic 
of the Wall of turf, known as the Antonm* Wall from Forth to Clyde, 
the important point of a date had been establisheo for the erection of 
the latter structure That date was either A.D. 1 39, or in the following 
year ; for whilst dedications indicate Antoninus Pius as the reigning 
emperor, inscriptions also discover the name of Quintus Lollius Urbicua, 
the imperial legate under whom the work had been erected. The 
name ot this distinguished propraetor is familiar to us in the stone from 
Bremenium commemorating his presence there wioh the first cohort of 
the Lingones and their accompanying cavalry, doubtless on the way to 
or from the lines of the northern barrier. Urbicus had been a contem- 
porary of Hadrian, under whose reign he had filled official posts of high 
importance as tribune, ouaestor and legate. He was one of the legates 
of the emperor Hadrian in Judea, where "fte won the hasta pura (a 
Victoria Cross of the period), and yet later was legate or governor of 
the emperor for the province of Lower Germany (For the list of offices 
held by Urbicus, see his monumental inscription, Corp. Insc. Lai. 
vni, pt. 1, No. 6706). He seems, in fact, to have been the tried and 
trusted administrator of that reign. Hadrian died in A.D. 138, and in 
that same year Urbicus had received the appointment to be governor 
of Britain. His office in this country was thus concurrent with the early 
years of the reign of Antoninus Pius, and in these were begun the 
defensive works from Forth to Clyde. But Quintus Lollius Urbicus 
had already spent a long and varied official life in the service of the state 
when he received his appointment to Britain, and it is proper to suppose 
that methods in vogue and details of administration current under 
Hadrian would continue to be observed under Antoninus Pius in the 
early years of his succession to the empire. Urbicus, at least, had 
gained his experience in the service of Hadrian ; and it is natural to 
suppose that he would retain the traditions of the service in his adminis- 
tration of the affairs of Britain under Antoninus. It is this considera- 
tion which causes the Antonine Wall to be regarded as typical of a 
defensive line of the period of Hadrian. This is, at all events, a dated 
example, and it is a turfen, or cespititious, structure. Horsley, however, 
in the argument before us is concerned with details rather than with 
this larger question. In the stone Wall from the Tyne to Solway the 
various sections were marked as they were built by those engaged in the 
work ; all along the line these records are of the character of the stone 
before you, or very similar to it. In the Antonine Wall the work of each 
company, as it completed its section, was also marked by the erection of 
an inscribed stone. But in place of the centuria with its centurial 
stone, as here, Horsley's observation is : ' All the inscriptions in 
Scotland of this sort are erected by legions or vex illations of legions, 
that work having been shared out to such bodies,' (Britannia Romano, 
p. 127) so striking is the difference that Horsley reiterates it in a note, 
thus : ' I think it curious and worthy of a remark that the allotment of 
the several shares in building the wall in Scotland seems not, as here ' 
(on the Tyne) ' to have been according to the centuries, but by the 
whole legions and their vexillations ' (Brit. Rom. 127 n.b.) Horsley's 
inference is, that where you find inscriptions ' erected upon the same 
occasion ' and ' to the same purpose ' (that is under like circumstances 
and for the same objects as in the turf Wall and in the stone Wall where 
each working party had commemorated its length of work) these, if 
contemporary, would naturally be expected to be similar in their 
character. But just as natural would it be to find the usage of the time 
of Hadrian superseded, after the lapse of half a century or more, when 
changes of organization and of classification had been introduced, or 


greater sub-division of labour had become customary ; ' and,' adda 
Horsley, ' perhaps it was not customary, till Severus's time, to allot 
such works to centuries and cohorts (Brit. Rom. p. 127). Thus has 
Horsley shown that the centurial stones of our stone Wall do not conflict 
with his attribution of the structure to the time of Severus. The 
importance of the point, in his case, lies in the fact that the usage of 
Hadrian's time, was reflected in the Antonine Wall. Had the Wall of 
stone been built under that reign we should expect to find the several 
shares indicated by inscriptions erected by legions or vexillations of 
legions. Seeing that we do not find this, but on the lengths as com- 
pleted the record of the centuriae, we discover a changed condition of 
organization such as would be quite compatible with changes evolved 
during the interval of time between the reign of Hadrian and that of 
Severus. So at least do we understand the argument. Turning to the 
relic before us to-night, it will be seen that in further investigation of a 
difficult and obscure question the evidence afforded by these centurial 
stones must be taken into account." 

Special thanks were, by acclamation, voted to Mr. Heslop, for his 
note, to the Water Company for the gift, and to Mr. Forster especially, 
for so quickly announcing the discovery of the inscription. 


Dr. T. M. Allison read his notes on this subject, supplementary to 
his paper read at the June meeting of the society (p. 153). They will be 
printed with that paper in Arch^eohjia Aeliana. 

Mr. W. S. Corder remarked that six or seven years ago he saw the 
flail in use at Hodge Hill farm, Cartmel fell. 

Thanks were voted by acclamation to Dr. Allison, on the motion of 
the Chairman, seconded by Mr. Heslop. 


The chairman said ' through the kindness of Mr. T. A. Thorp, of 
Alnwick, I have recently had an opportunity of examining the original 
grant of arms to Hugh Moises of Newcastle, clerk in holy orders, one 
of tha two men of his family who occupied the influential and respected 
position of master of the grammar school of Newcastle.' 

He then read the following grant af arms : 

' To all and singular to whom these presents shall come, Stephen Martin Leake, 
esquire, Garter Principal King of Arras, and Thomas Brown, esquire, Norroy King of 
Arms of the north parts of England, from the river Trent northwards, send greeting. 
Whereas Hugh Moises, clerk, A. M. , lecturer of All Saints, in Ne wcastle-upon-Tyne, former- 
ly Fellow of St. Peter's College, Cambridge, second son of Edward Moises, clerk, A.M., 
rector of Keyworth, in the county of Nottingham, by Elizabeth his wife, the daughter 
of Sir James Butler, knight, in the county of Middlesex, and grand son of Edward 
Moyses of Oswestry,in the county of Salop, hath represented unto the right honourable 
Richard, earl of Scarborough, Deputy, with the Royal Approbation, to the most noble 
Edward, duke of Norfolk, Earl Marshal and hereditary marshal of England, that his 
ancestors were originally Welsh, and the family name Moysen, which, upon their 
removal into Shropshire they altered to Moyses, and lastly, by Edward his father, to 
Moises, and that not finding the arms he has borne, registered in the Herald's Office, 
and unwilling to use any ensigns armorial without lawful authority, did therefore 
request his lordship's warrant for our granting and assigning to him and his'descendants 
and to the descendants of his father such arms and crest as he and they may lawfully 
bear, and use, and that the same with his family pedigree may be registered with the 
gentry of this kingdom in the Heralds Office. And forasmuch as his lordship duly 
considering the premises did by warrant under his hand and seal, bearing date the 
twenty second day of January last order and direct us to grant and assign unto the said 
Hugh Moises and to the descendants aforesaid such arms and crest accordingly. Know 
ye. therefore, that we, the said Garter and Norroy in pursuance of the consent of the 
said earl of Scarbrough, and by virtue of the Letters Patent of our several offices to 
each of us respectively granted under the Great Seal of Great Britain have assigned and 

la. daughter of Job] 
jBedling-ton, mar. i 
fsh., 17o8 (a), bur. al 
lay, 17i>3 (a) (d) ; s< 







Mary. bp. 1 
March, 1 76 
(6*), named i 
the will of h< 
aunt Elizj 
beth Ellisoi 
25 June, 17 < 
(/7), bur. ] 
Sept., 1780 (, 

iu., and ultimately 
Robt. Lisle of A< 
a ; succeeded to t'. 
he death of her bro 
ar. at Portobello, 5 1 
s.p. 24. March, 1882 

look, vni, p. 130 
h Moises, Newcastle, 


do by these presents grant unto the said Hugh Moises the arms following, viz. , Gules a fess 
erminois between three bulls heads couped argent armed or, and for the crest On a wreath, 
of the colour* growing on a mossy mount bull-rushes proper with this motto Nisi Virtus 
vilior Algd, as the same are in the margin hereof more plainly depicted ; to be borne and 
used for ever hereafter by him, the said Hugh Moises and his descendants, and by the 
descendants of his father Edward Moises aforesaid, with their due and proper differences 
according to the antient practice and custom of arms, without the let or interruption 
of any person or persons whatsoever. In witness whereof we the said Garter and 
Norroy Kings of Arms, have to these presents subscribed our names, and affixed the seals 
of our several offices this twenty-second day of February, in the sixth year of the reign 
of our sovereign lord George the third, by the Grace of God, king of Great Britain, 
France, and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, &c., and in the year of our Lord, 1766. 

S. Martin Leake, Garter Principal King of Arms. 

Thomas Brown, Norroy King of Arms. 

To elucidate the pedigree of the family, so far as it is known, the 
annexed table has been prepared. 
Thanks were voted to Mr. Hodgson. 


The chairman stated that one of the meanings assigned to the word 
* forest' in Dr. Murray's New English Dictionary, was 'a wild unculti- 
vated waste, a wilderness.' He continued that the Northumbrian 
instances of this use of the word known to him were the forest of 
Cheviot* ; the forest of Allendale (i.e. the High and Low Forest Grieve- 
ships); Rothbury forest: Earsdon forest; the forest of Aydon, now 
called Alnwick moor ; Felton forest, an alternative name for Felton 
common ; and the forest of Tynedale.' 

Mr. R. O. Heslop said that to this enumeration might be added the 
forest of Lowes. 

* This name survives in Grey's Forest and Selby's Forest, two townships in the 
parcel of Kirknewton, apparently out of the waste of Cheviot. 

In the Builder of 6th August there is a notice of the church of Chipping 
Ongar in Essex. On the south wall of the chancel there is a tablet to a 
member of the Mitford family Mrs. Sarah Mitford. In connexion 
with this the writer tells a curious story of one of his visits to the church. 
His ' attention was particularly directed to this monument by a wealthy 
tradesman, who said that many persons came to the church expressly to 
see it. The arms above the tablet were described by him as bearing the 
four-fold cognizance of 'a flea, a fly, a louse, and a comb,' with a singular 
legend as to their origin ! As the arms are now uncoloured and high up, 
they are somewhat difficult to decipher ; but they proved to be a fesse 
between three moles (Mitford), impaling a chevron between three 
combs (Botell).' 



The following letter appeared in the Newcastle Daily Journal of the 
17th December, 1904: 

" Sir, Last year, when on a visit to Upper Coquetdale, I was informed 
that two or three hewn stones had been got from the foundation of an 
old kirk near Linbriggs for some building operations. Not having pre- 
viously heard of any old kirk in that locality, I mentioned the matter 
to my friend, Mr. D. D. Dixon, whose History of Upper Goquetdale was 
then passing through the press, but he had no knowledge of one there, 
nor could I find any reference to it in any History of Northumberland. 

In July last I called on Adam Dagg, the shepherd at Linbriggs, who 


has lived there all his life, and he pointed out to me some foundations 
of old buildings all the stones being porphyritic as far as I icould 
eee on the right bank of the Coquet, opposite the west end of Passpeth. 
These old foundations, he said, were called Ay don Sheles, or Aydon- 
sheles Kirk, and the stones mentioned above were got from them. He 
also informed me that many years since, when some men were getting 
stones from this place, they found an inscribed stone which they could 
not decipher, and the late Mr. Thomas Ord of Shilmoor, would not 
allow it to be removed, but had it covered up again. 

I have no doubt that this is the site of the ancient manor of Aldensheles 
held by Richard de Horsley in 1 3 17, mentioned by Hodgson. The fir ding 
of an inscribed stone probably a grave cover seemed to me to indicate 
that a church once stood here. After a long s earch I have found a short 
but luminous entry relating to it in the Calendar of Patent Rolls of 
Edward II. Here it is: '1317, Sep. 25, Licence for the alienation in 
mortmain by Richard de Horsleye cf a messuage, 100 acres of land, 6 acres 
-f meadow, and 20s. of rent in Lynsheles and Alwenton, to a chaplain to 
celebrate divine service daily in the chapel of St. Nicholas, in his manor of 
Aldensheles, for his soul and the souls of his ancestois and all Christians.' 

In the following year the lands of Richard de Horseleye were 'laid 
waste as well by the Scots as other enemies of the King in Northumber- 
land,' and he was granted 20 a year in aid of his sustenance out of the 
customs on wool in the port of Newcastle. This chapel of St. Nicholas 
may have been demolished at the same time. I am, etc.. 


3, King's Avenue, Muswell Hill, N., 
5th December, 1904. 

Mr. Ral^h Nelson cf Bishop Auckland, thus writes : 
" To the north-west of Willington, on the very edge of the hill, as it ap- 
peais from Auckland, stards a solitary farm house, marked in the map 
Naxavan ; a little to the south-west is Stone Chesters. On the door 
lintel of this house is the following : 

H. MILLS 1757. 

Can you ascertain the meaning of Nackshivan ? It is thought to be 
Gaelic- The Mills family lived at Willington, and owned land all 
around 100 years ago. Colonel Mills was agent for William Russell of 

Mr. A. L. Steavenson"of Holywell near Durham, in a letter dated 2nd 
Nov. 1904, writes: 


I have, for many years, thought that there were remains of such r a 
structure in the field in front of this house ; the position is a most 
likely one, overlooking the river, and about 40 feet above it. It extends 
round two sides of a square, the other two apparently obliterated, but 
the whole area is most irregular, as if never properly levelled when laid 
away to grass. Yesterday I made two cuts Into it, with sanction of 
Mr. Peirson, and found the embankment undoubtedly artificial, but no 
stones or bricks. I went down to original surface. About ten years 
ago, when making a drain, Lord Boyne's men found an ancient jar; 
they broke it, but I have the pieces. I showed them to Dr. Greenwell, 
but he did not think them very old." 


Abbot, archbishop, letter to. 84 
Abel, John, of Newcastle, 276 
Abercorn, Sir Wm. More, lord of, 118 ; 

duke of, George Frederick Price, 

chaplain to, 144 
Achill, Ireland, a flail from the isle of, 

284, 285 
Acton, William, founder of Walknoll 

hospital, Newcostle, 275 ; foundation 

deed of, 275 

Adam, William, jun., & another, land 
: of Ford chantry granted to, 198 
Adams, David, elected, 173 
Adainson, Horatio A., on a Civil War 

letter relating to Newcastle, 119 ; 

on the Villiers family and Tynemouth 

castle, 70 ; on ' Waterville,' North 
' Shields, 38 ; John, bought carving 

of Crucifixion, 41 ; Lawrence W., 
\ presented collection of newspaper 
> cuttings, &c., relating to th? Tyne 

bridge, 145 ; Thomas, 9 
Addison, James, churchwarden of Es- 
; combe, 266 

Admittance to Tynemouth manor, 118 
Ad murum, Newcastle, site of, 160 
Aelian Marines, a cohort of, 51 
Aelius Vibius, a centurio of the twenti- 
eth legion, 143 

Aesica, a gold-plated fibula discovered 
; like that from, 117 ; Roman cent- 

urial stones from near, 175 
' Age, proofs of, of heirs to estates in 

Northumberland,' 200w 
Agerston, John and others, commission 

to assess subsidies from aliens, 212 

(See also Haggerston) 
Agincourt, French cross-bowmenat,246 
Aglionby, Thomas, rector of Bewcastle, 

Aix-la-Chapelle, grave of Charlemagne 

at, 262 

Akers, Lance, 7 
Aketon, brother John de, attorney for 

abbot of Newminster in an action, 59 
Alabaster carvings at Naworth castle, 


Alan, brother, of Chibburn, 87 
Albemarle, Baldwin de Betun, earl of, 

155 ; funeral of George, late duke of, 

Albert and Isabella, coins of, presented, 


Alchfrith, king, 221 

Alcuin, an Angle, at Charlemagne's 
court, 224 

Aldensheles, manor of, 292 ; held by 
the Horsleys, 292; chapel of St. 
Nicholas in , 292 

Aldfrid the learned, 223 

' Aldhelm,' the Lambeth, 222 and n 

Aldworth, granted to Newminster, 56 ; 
confirmed by Roger Bertram in., 56 

Alexander, Severus, a denarius of, found 
in Newcastle, 26 

Alexander, king of Scots, a charter of, 52 

Alexandrian coin of Augustus found, 90 

Allalee on the Roman Wall, centurial 
stones from, 175 

Allectus, coin of, found at Piercebridge, 
108. 125 

Allendale, flint arrowheads, &c., found 
in, 27 1 ; tithe barn in, 64 ; ' forest ' 
of, 291 

Allerton and Allertonshire, bishop of 
Durham's revenue from, 13 

Allhallows bank, Newcastle, 275 

Allison [Alleson], Anthony, 8 ; Thomas 
the younger, and lands at Sandhoe, 
179 ; Dr. T. M., presented Northum- 
brian flail, 270 ; his description of, 
270 ; on flails, 153, 284, 290 ; on a 
' crusie ' from Orkney, 283 

Almain, merchants of, 212 

Alnham, grant of messuages, &c., at, 

Almanacks, sale of, in St. Helens Auck- 
land church by vicar, 263 ; a copy 
of one, 263n, 

Alnwick, James I. proclaimed king at, 
85n, ; James Carr, minister of, 195 ; 
a Carr killed a't, 192 ; borough seal of, 
282 ; moor, 291 

Alnwick abbey, George, abbot of, 169 ; 
Walter de Mitford, a canon of, or- 
dained, 57 ; castle, shield of arms on, 
278; church, visitations at, 198 

Alphabet of Arms, an, by William 
Stephens, 104 

Altars, Roman, &c., from Ben well, 142, 
143 ; from Bewcastle, 220 ; found at 
Piercebridge, 125 ; at Rokeby, 215 ; 
from Tyne, 112 

Alverton, in Sherwood, co. Notts, grant 
of manor of, 155 

Ambersbury banks, Essex, plan of, 171 

' Amen,' on bronze mortar, 4 

Amphora, Roman, from Aquileia, 189 

[Newc. Proc., 3 Ser. I.] 



Anabaptists, 264, 267 

Ancient British stone axe-hamm0r 
found at Barras bridge, Newcastle, 
presented, 146 ; barrow on Kilham 
hill opened, 50; cist in, 50; camps, 29, 
282 ; original plans of, 29, 62, 106, 
136, 174; at Hamsterley, 64, 108; 
at Stanwick, 66, 89, 123, 129 ; flint | 
implements exhibited, 64 ; and stone ; 
implements exhibited, 148 ; graves 
at Bamburgh, 167, 204 ; urn found, 
167; professor McKenny Hughes on, 
167 ; discovered on Brandon Hill, co. 
Durham, 139 

Ancient Deeds, Catalogue of, local ex- 
tracts from, 116 

Ancroft, visit to, 185 ; Mark's descrip- 
tion of, 185; manor of, 186; families 
in, 185 ; a little fortress at, in 1541 
and 1561, 187 ; servants of bishop of 
Durham seized corn, &c., in vill of, 
185; 'sessed' for it, 186; Edward 
Reveley of, 186 ; armed horsemen 
from, at muster. 186 ; footmen at, 
186 ; amount due for tithes of, 186 ; 
mill of, 186; presbyterians and pa- 
pists in, in 1736, 189 ; impropriators, 
&c., 188 ; map of land at, 104 ; chapel- 
ry, belonged to Holy Island, 185; 
said to have been founded by Papedi, 
188; confirmed to Durham by pope 
Urban, 187 ; chapel in bad condition, 
188 ; served by a stipendiary priest, 
188; church, 185, 186; planof, 187; 
little fortress against, in 1561, 187; 
burial place of Sibbit family, 186 ; 
old font given to Chillingham, 187 ; 
parsons of, 188; curates, 185; Law- 
rence Donkyn, 188 ; Mr. Methuen, 
188 ; John Foreside ejected from for 
nonconformity, 188 ; John Reveley, 
parish clerk, 188 

Anderson place, Newcastle, and Charles 
L, 157 

Anderson, Francis, clerk of court of 
Tynemouth manor, 119; Sir Francis 
48 ; Ralph, of Ovingham, lease of 
Sunderland farm. 14 

Andover, co. Hants, grant of fee farm 
of, 155 

Andrew tower, Newcastle walls, site of, 

Andre wes, Thomas, alderman of Lon- 
don, 134 ; creditor of John Blakes- 
ton, 134 

Angelo, Henry the fencer, married Mary 
Bowman Swindon of West Auckland, 
104 ; Michael, 242 

Anglesey, earl of, letter of, 153 

Anglian period, corn grinding in, 108 ; 
runes of, on Bewcastle cross, 221 

Annandale, marquis of, letter to. con- 
cerning the 1715 rising, 86 

Anne, queen, 259 ; her husband and 
children, 259 

Annesley, lord, 150 

Annual reports, 24, 109 

Antenociticus, Roman altars from Ben- 
well dedicated to, 142, 143 ; Robert 
Mowat on, 176 

Antonine Wall, the, 288 

Antonines, coins of the, found at Fierce- 
bridge, 124 

Antoninus Pius, inscribed tablet dis- 
covered in Tyne, temp., 72 ; coins of, 
from Tyne at Newcastle, 94 ; from 
Trow Rocks, 102 

Appleby [Applebey] Anthony, and 
others, action against, for absence 
from church, 264 ; John de, rector of 
Whitburn, 143 

Aquileia, a Roman amphora from, 189 

Arbelows, Derbyshire, planof, 174 

Archaeologia Aeliana, new series of, 61 ; 
F. W. Dendy on, 61 ; tender for 
printing of, accepted, 102 

Archaeological lectures, 259 ; F.W. Den- 
dy on, 259 

Archbrtt, John, of Ford, attended mus- 
ter, 194; William, of Ford, attended 
muster, 194 

Argyle, duke of, his house at Chirton, 41 

Armorer, Francis of Newcastle, 181 

Armour, R. C. Clephan on his collection 
of, at Tynemouth, 237 

' Arms, An Alphabet of,' 104 ; grants 
and certificates of, 156 ; ' A Book of,' 
exhibited, 72 

Arms, canting, on gravestones, 214 ; 
royal, from the Newgate, Newcastle, 
277 ; shields of, on castles of Alnwick 
Bothal, Hilton, and Lumley, 278 ; of 
Bowser family, 108 ; Campbell, 208 ; 
of lord Crewe on a sculptured panel, 
147 ; formerly on Tyne bridge, 147 ; 
of Thomas Heron on seal, 181 ; of 
Howard, 235 ; impaling Dacre, 235 ; 
of Lawson of Usworth, &c., 156 ; of 
general Leslie, 156 and n ; of Lome, 
208 ; of Sir Wm. Lorraine on sea 
183 ; of Thomas Meggison on sea 
182 ; of Newcastle, 147 ; of John Or 
on seal, 183 ; of Papedy family, 188n 
of Thomas Penrith, 276 ; of Rede, 31 
of Timothy Robson on seal, 180 ; o 
Sir John Scott on seal, 183 ; o 
Stewart, 208 ; of Tayk r quartering 
Weather ley of Newcastle, 106 ; o 



Matthew White, 180 ; of Widdring- 
ton, 81, 83, 87 ; of Mitford, 291 

Armstrongs, 232 ; of the Calfhills, the, 

Armstrong [Armestronge], (and an- 

I other), pledges at York, 232; surname 
and friends of, 232 ; lord, purchase of 
Bamburgh castle and estate by, 167 ; 
widow, 7; Gecrge, cf Sandhoe, grant 
by, of land at Sand